Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 272
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1236, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623038

RESUMO

Genetic models for cancer have been evaluated using almost exclusively European data, which could exacerbate health disparities. A polygenic hazard score (PHS1) is associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis and improves screening accuracy in Europeans. Here, we evaluate performance of PHS2 (PHS1, adapted for OncoArray) in a multi-ethnic dataset of 80,491 men (49,916 cases, 30,575 controls). PHS2 is associated with age at diagnosis of any and aggressive (Gleason score ≥ 7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥ 10 ng/mL, or nodal/distant metastasis) cancer and prostate-cancer-specific death. Associations with cancer are significant within European (n = 71,856), Asian (n = 2,382), and African (n = 6,253) genetic ancestries (p < 10-180). Comparing the 80th/20th PHS2 percentiles, hazard ratios for prostate cancer, aggressive cancer, and prostate-cancer-specific death are 5.32, 5.88, and 5.68, respectively. Within European, Asian, and African ancestries, hazard ratios for prostate cancer are: 5.54, 4.49, and 2.54, respectively. PHS2 risk-stratifies men for any, aggressive, and fatal prostate cancer in a multi-ethnic dataset.

2.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline ATM mutations are suggested to contribute to predisposition to prostate cancer (PrCa). Previous studies have had inadequate power to estimate variant effect sizes. OBJECTIVE: To precisely estimate the contribution of germline ATM mutations to PrCa risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed next-generation sequencing data from 13 PRACTICAL study groups comprising 5560 cases and 3353 controls of European ancestry. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Variant Call Format files were harmonised, annotated for rare ATM variants, and classified as tier 1 (likely pathogenic) or tier 2 (potentially deleterious). Associations with overall PrCa risk and clinical subtypes were estimated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PrCa risk was higher in carriers of a tier 1 germline ATM variant, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-9.5). There was also evidence that PrCa cases with younger age at diagnosis (<65 yr) had elevated tier 1 variant frequencies (pdifference = 0.04). Tier 2 variants were also associated with PrCa risk, with an OR of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of pathogenic ATM variants have an elevated risk of developing PrCa and are at an increased risk for earlier-onset disease presentation. These results provide information for counselling of men and their families. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we estimated that men who inherit a likely pathogenic mutation in the ATM gene had an approximately a fourfold risk of developing prostate cancer. In addition, they are likely to develop the disease earlier.

3.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa042, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923935

RESUMO

Background: Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As CRC is a heterogeneous disease, we evaluated whether the association of HT and CRC differs across etiologically relevant, molecularly defined tumor subtypes and tumor location. Methods: We pooled data on tumor subtypes (microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, pathway: adenoma-carcinoma, alternate, serrated), tumor location (proximal colon, distal colon, rectum), and HT use among 8220 postmenopausal women (3898 CRC cases and 4322 controls) from 8 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of ever vs never HT use with each tumor subtype compared with controls. Models were adjusted for study, age, body mass index, smoking status, and CRC family history. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: Among postmenopausal women, ever HT use was associated with a 38% reduction in overall CRC risk (OR =0.62, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.69). This association was similar according to microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF or KRAS status. However, the association was attenuated for tumors arising through the serrated pathway (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.01) compared with the adenoma-carcinoma pathway (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.73; P het =.04) and alternate pathway (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.72). Additionally, proximal colon tumors had a weaker association (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.80) compared with rectal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.63) and distal colon (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.66; P het =.01) tumors. Conclusions: We observed a strong inverse association between HT use and overall CRC risk, which may predominantly reflect a benefit of HT use for tumors arising through the adenoma-carcinoma and alternate pathways as well as distal colon and rectal tumors.

4.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of prostate cancer (PCa) is a well-known risk factor, and both common and rare genetic variants are associated with the disease. OBJECTIVE: To detect new genetic variants associated with PCa, capitalizing on the role of family history and more aggressive PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A two-stage design was used. In stage one, whole-exome sequencing was used to identify potential risk alleles among affected men with a strong family history of disease or with more aggressive disease (491 cases and 429 controls). Aggressive disease was based on a sum of scores for Gleason score, node status, metastasis, tumor stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, systemic recurrence, and time to PCa death. Genes identified in stage one were screened in stage two using a custom-capture design in an independent set of 2917 cases and 1899 controls. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Frequencies of genetic variants (singly or jointly in a gene) were compared between cases and controls. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Eleven genes previously reported to be associated with PCa were detected (ATM, BRCA2, HOXB13, FAM111A, EMSY, HNF1B, KLK3, MSMB, PCAT1, PRSS3, and TERT), as well as an additional 10 novel genes (PABPC1, QK1, FAM114A1, MUC6, MYCBP2, RAPGEF4, RNASEH2B, ULK4, XPO7, and THAP3). Of these 10 novel genes, all but PABPC1 and ULK4 were primarily associated with the risk of aggressive PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the advantage of gene sequencing in the search for genetic variants associated with PCa and the benefits of sampling patients with a strong family history of disease or an aggressive form of disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: Multiple genes are associated with prostate cancer (PCa) among men with a strong family history of this disease or among men with an aggressive form of PCa.

5.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4578-4590, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816852

RESUMO

Protective associations of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk have been shown in many, but not all epidemiologic studies. One possible reason for study heterogeneity is that dietary factors may have distinct effects by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes. Here, we investigate the association of fruit, vegetables, and fiber intake with four well-established colorectal cancer molecular subtypes separately and in combination. Nine observational studies including 9,592 cases with molecular subtypes for microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS genes, and 7,869 controls were analyzed. Both case-only logistic regression analyses and polytomous logistic regression analyses (with one control set and multiple case groups) were used. Higher fruit intake was associated with a trend toward decreased risk of BRAF-mutated tumors [OR 4th vs. 1st quartile = 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.04)] but not BRAF-wildtype tumors [1.09 (0.97-1.22); P difference as shown in case-only analysis = 0.02]. This difference was observed in case-control studies and not in cohort studies. Compared with controls, higher fiber intake showed negative association with colorectal cancer risk for cases with microsatellite stable/MSI-low, CIMP-negative, BRAF-wildtype, and KRAS-wildtype tumors (P trend range from 0.03 to 3.4e-03), which is consistent with the traditional adenoma-colorectal cancer pathway. These negative associations were stronger compared with MSI-high, CIMP-positive, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated tumors, but the differences were not statistically significant. These inverse associations for fruit and fiber intake may explain, in part, inconsistent findings between fruit or fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported. SIGNIFICANCE: These analyses by colorectal cancer molecular subtypes potentially explain the inconsistent findings between dietary fruit or fiber intake and overall colorectal cancer risk that have previously been reported.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(10): 1467-1475, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514134

RESUMO

We determined the effect of sample size on performance of polygenic hazard score (PHS) models in prostate cancer. Age and genotypes were obtained for 40,861 men from the PRACTICAL consortium. The dataset included 201,590 SNPs per subject, and was split into training and testing sets. Established-SNP models considered 65 SNPs that had been previously associated with prostate cancer. Discovery-SNP models used stepwise selection to identify new SNPs. The performance of each PHS model was calculated for random sizes of the training set. The performance of a representative Established-SNP model was estimated for random sizes of the testing set. Mean HR98/50 (hazard ratio of top 2% to average in test set) of the Established-SNP model increased from 1.73 [95% CI: 1.69-1.77] to 2.41 [2.40-2.43] when the number of training samples was increased from 1 thousand to 30 thousand. Corresponding HR98/50 of the Discovery-SNP model increased from 1.05 [0.93-1.18] to 2.19 [2.16-2.23]. HR98/50 of a representative Established-SNP model using testing set sample sizes of 0.6 thousand and 6 thousand observations were 1.78 [1.70-1.85] and 1.73 [1.71-1.76], respectively. We estimate that a study population of 20 thousand men is required to develop Discovery-SNP PHS models while 10 thousand men should be sufficient for Established-SNP models.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1731-1738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. METHODS: United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-equivalent age, when someone with a given PHS percentile has prostate cancer risk equivalent to an average 50-year-old man (50-year-standard risk), was derived from PHS and incidence data. Positive predictive value (PPV) of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer was calculated using PHS-adjusted age groups. RESULTS: The expected age at diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer differs by 19 years between the 1st and 99th PHS percentiles: men with PHS in the 1st and 99th percentiles reach the 50-year-standard risk level at ages 60 and 41, respectively. PPV of PSA was higher for men with higher PHS-adjusted age. CONCLUSIONS: PHS provides individualized estimates of risk-equivalent age for clinically significant prostate cancer. Screening initiation could be adjusted by a man's PHS. IMPACT: Personalized genetic risk assessments could inform prostate cancer screening decisions.

8.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1552-1559, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This report describes the return of sequencing results to low-income Latino participants recruited through a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC). We describe challenges in returning research results secondary to social determinants of health and present lessons learned to guide future genomic medicine implementation studies in low-resource settings. METHODS: Five hundred Latino adults (76% women) consented to research sequencing for a predetermined panel of actionable genes. Providers and staff from the FQHC were engaged to align processes with the practice and a community advisory board grounded the project in the local community. RESULTS: A pathogenic/likely pathogenic variant was present in 10 participants (2%). Challenges in return of results included the time lag (582 ± 53 days) between enrollment and returning actionable results, difficulty reaching participants, missed appointments, low health literacy, lack of health insurance, and reconciling results with limited information on family history. Return of one actionable result was deferred due to acute emotional distress secondary to recent traumatic life events. CONCLUSION: The social determinants of health influence the implementation of genomic medicine in low-income populations in low-resource settings. Considering nonbiological factors that contribute to disparities will be necessary to better appreciate how genomic medicine may fit within the context of health equity.

9.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3013-3020, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating screening at an earlier age based on cancer family history is one of the primary recommended strategies for the prevention and detection of early-onset colorectal cancer (EOCRC), but data supporting the effectiveness of this approach are limited. The authors assessed the performance of family history-based guidelines for identifying individuals with EOCRC. METHODS: The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of individuals aged 40 to 49 years with (2473 individuals) and without (772 individuals) incident CRC in the Colon Cancer Family Registry from 1998 through 2007. They estimated the sensitivity and specificity of family history-based criteria jointly recommended by the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on CRC, and the American College of Radiology in 2008 for early screening, and the age at which each participant could have been recommended screening initiation if these criteria had been applied. RESULTS: Family history-based early screening criteria were met by approximately 25% of cases (614 of 2473 cases) and 10% of controls (74 of 772 controls), with a sensitivity of 25% and a specificity of 90% for identifying EOCRC cases aged 40 to 49 years. Among 614 individuals meeting early screening criteria, 98.4% could have been recommended screening initiation at an age younger than the observed age of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Of CRC cases aged 40 to 49 years, 1 in 4 met family history-based early screening criteria, and nearly all cases who met these criteria could have had CRC diagnosed earlier (or possibly even prevented) if earlier screening had been implemented as per family history-based guidelines. Additional strategies are needed to improve the detection and prevention of EOCRC for individuals not meeting family history criteria for early screening.

10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117849

RESUMO

Objective: To better understand the characteristics associated with a participant's willingness to consent to the Mayo Clinic Biobank (MCB) and examine factors associated with willingness to participate in follow-up studies embedded within MCB that require re-contact and participant approval. Participants and Methods: Consent rates were compared across patient demographics to the MCB. Rates of participation to follow-up studies were also compared across demographics and request types. Results: Among 272,102 Mayo Clinic patients invited to the MCB, 48,314 (19%) consented across the three recruitment sites within 90 days of initial invitation. A significant age by gender interaction was identified, showing young males consent at a lower rate than young females and older males consent at a higher rate than older females. Over the recruitment time frame of 2009-2015, there was a significant decrease in consent rates (decline of 2.5%/year). Of the 57,041 consented MCB participants, 33,487 participants (59%) have been invited to participate in follow-up studies via re-contact. Follow-up studies of the MCB may require participants to provide additional samples, complete questionnaires, and/or release their identity to a research team. MCB participants have been invited to enroll in a median of two studies (IQR: 1-3). Seventy-one percent of participants consented to at least one follow-up study, with individual follow-up study consent rates ranging from 14 to 87% depending on study type, with a median consent rate of 61% (IQR: 47-70%). Studies requesting return of a questionnaire had the highest participation rates. White participants, older participants, and participants with some college or a degree were significantly more likely to participate to follow-up studies, while there was no association with gender. Conclusion: Consent rates among younger and non-white patients were lower than in older, white patients. However, we also found that participation rates among those already enrolled in the biobank were much higher than those seen in new recruitment efforts, external to an existing biobank. We thus demonstrate an important way that biobanks can advance precision medicine goals: through provision of populations from which studies can draw participants for future studies.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032707, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Mayo Clinic Biobank was established to provide a large group of patients from which comparison groups (ie, controls) could be selected for case-control studies, to create a prospective cohort with sufficient power for common outcomes and to support electronic health record (EHR) studies. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 56 862 participants enrolled (21% response rate) into the Mayo Clinic Biobank from Rochester, Minnesota (77%, n=43 836), Jacksonville, Florida (18%, n=10 368) and La Crosse, Wisconsin (5%, n=2658). Participants were all Mayo Clinic patients, 18 years of age or older and US residents. FINDINGS TO DATE: Overall, 43% of participants were 65 years of age or older and female participants were more frequent (59%) than males at all sites. Most participants resided in the Upper Midwest regions of the USA (Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois or Wisconsin), Florida or Georgia. Self-reported race among Biobank participants was 90% white. Here we provide examples of the types of studies that have successfully utilised the resource, including (1) investigations of the population itself, (2) provision of controls for case-control studies, (3) genotype-driven research, (4) EHR-based research and (5) prospective recruitment to other studies. Over 270 projects have been approved to date to access Biobank data and/or samples; over 200 000 sample aliquots have been approved for distribution. FUTURE PLANS: The data and samples in the Mayo Clinic Biobank can be used for various types of epidemiological and clinical studies, especially in the setting of case-control studies for which the Biobank samples serve as control samples. We are planning cohort studies with additional follow-up and acquisition of genetic information on a large scale.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323811

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 risk loci that increase prostate cancer risk. However, few causal variants and their regulatory mechanisms have been characterized. In this study, we utilized our previously developed single-nucleotide polymorphisms sequencing (SNPs-seq) technology to test allele-dependent protein binding at 903 SNP sites covering 28 genomic regions. All selected SNPs have shown significant cis-association with at least one nearby gene. After preparing nuclear extract using LNCaP cell line, we first mixed the extract with dsDNA oligo pool for protein-DNA binding incubation. We then performed sequencing analysis on protein-bound oligos. SNPs-seq analysis showed protein-binding differences (>1.5-fold) between reference and variant alleles in 380 (42%) of 903 SNPs with androgen treatment and 403 (45%) of 903 SNPs without treatment. From these significant SNPs, we performed a database search and further narrowed down to 74 promising SNPs. To validate this initial finding, we performed electrophoretic mobility shift assay in two SNPs (rs12246440 and rs7077275) at CTBP2 locus and one SNP (rs113082846) at NCOA4 locus. This analysis showed that all three SNPs demonstrated allele-dependent protein-binding differences that were consistent with the SNPs-seq. Finally, clinical association analysis of the two candidate genes showed that CTBP2 was upregulated, while NCOA4 was downregulated in prostate cancer (p < 0.02). Lower expression of CTBP2 was associated with poor recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer. Utilizing our experimental data along with bioinformatic tools provides a strategy for identifying candidate functional elements at prostate cancer susceptibility loci to help guide subsequent laboratory studies.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Ligação Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214588, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958860

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PrCa) is highly heritable; 284 variants have been identified to date that are associated with increased prostate cancer risk, yet few genes contributing to its development are known. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies link variants with affected genes, helping to determine how these variants might regulate gene expression and may influence prostate cancer risk. In the current study, we performed eQTL analysis on 471 normal prostate epithelium samples and 249 PrCa-risk variants in 196 risk loci, utilizing RNA sequencing transcriptome data based on ENSEMBL gene definition and genome-wide variant data. We identified a total of 213 genes associated with known PrCa-risk variants, including 141 protein-coding genes, 16 lncRNAs, and 56 other non-coding RNA species with differential expression. Compared to our previous analysis, where RefSeq was used for gene annotation, we identified an additional 130 expressed genes associated with known PrCa-risk variants. We detected an eQTL signal for more than half (n = 102, 52%) of the 196 loci tested; 52 (51%) of which were a Group 1 signal, indicating high linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the peak eQTL variant and the PrCa-risk variant (r2>0.5) and may help explain how risk variants influence the development of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
16.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(4): 440-448, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740785

RESUMO

The familial recurrence risk is the probability a person will have disease, given a reported family history. When family histories are obtained as simple counts of disease among family members, as often obtained in cancer registries or surveys, we propose methods to estimate recurrence risks based on truncated binomial distributions. By this approach, we are able to obtain unbiased estimates of risk for a person with at least k-affected relatives, where k can be specified to determine how risk varies with k. We also derive robust variances of the recurrence risk estimate, to account for correlations within families, such as those induced by shared genes or shared environment, without explicitly modeling the factors that cause familial correlations. Furthermore, we illustrate how mixture models can be used to account for a sample composed of low- and high-risk families. Using simulations, we illustrate the properties of the proposed methods. Application of our methods to a family history survey of prostate cancer shows that the recurrence risk for prostate cancer increased from 16%, when there was at least one affected relative, to 52%, when there was at least five affected relatives.


Assuntos
Família , Anamnese , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Distribuição Binomial , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Public Health Genomics ; 21(1-2): 77-84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522109

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a process for returning medically actionable genomic variants to Latino patients receiving care in a Federally Qualified Health Center. METHODS: Prior to recruitment, researchers met with primary care providers to (1) orient clinicians to the project, (2) establish a process for returning actionable and nonactionable results to participants and providers through the electronic health record, and (3) develop a process for offering clinical decision support for follow-up education and care. A Community Advisory Board was engaged to provide input on recruitment strategies and materials for conveying results to participants. Participants in the Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health) Biobank with hyperlipidemia or colon polyps represented the pool of potentially eligible participants. RESULTS: A total of 1,621 individuals were invited to participate and 710 agreed to an in- person consenting visit (194 no-showed and 16 declined). Over 12-months, 500 participants were enrolled. Participants were primarily Spanish-speaking (81.6%), female (74.2%), and enrolled because of hyperlipidemia (95.4%). All but 2 participants opted to receive primary (i.e., related to enrollment phenotypes) as well as secondary actionable results. CONCLUSION: Efforts to bring precision medicine to community-based health centers serving minority patients may require multilevel engagement activities to include individuals, providers, health systems, and the community.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Genômica/organização & administração , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Arizona , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Pesquisa em Genética , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Seleção de Pacientes , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
18.
Appl Clin Genet ; 11: 121-127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498369

RESUMO

Purpose: In aging adults, mitochondrial dysfunction may be an important contributor. We evaluated the association between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which is a biomarker for mitochondrial function, and self-rated health status. Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients enrolled within the Mayo Clinic Biobank. We utilized the questionnaire and sequence data from 944 patients. We examined the association between mtDNA copy number and self-rated health status with 3 collapsed categories for the latter variable (excellent/very good, good, and fair/poor). For analysis, we used proportional odds models after log-transforming mtDNA copy number, and we adjusted for age and sex. Results: We found the median age at enrollment was 61 years (25th-75th percentile: 51-71), and 64% reported excellent or very good health, 31% reported good health, and 6% reported fair/poor health. Overall, the median mtDNA copy number was 88.9 (25th-75th percentile: 77.6-101.1). Higher mtDNA copy number was found for subjects reporting better self-rated health status after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidity burden (OR =2.3 [95% CI: 1.2-4.5] for having better self-rated health for a one-unit increase in log-transformed mtDNA copy number). Conclusion: We found that a higher mtDNA copy number is associated with better self-rated health status after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidity burden. The current study implies that mtDNA copy number may serve as a biomarker for self-reported health. Further studies, potentially including cohort studies, may be required.

19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(11): 1600-1610, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify clinically actionable genetic variants from targeted sequencing of 68 disease-related genes, estimate their penetrance, and assess the impact of disclosing results to participants and providers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Return of Actionable Variants Empirical (RAVE) Study investigates outcomes following the return of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in 68 disease-related genes. The study was initiated in December 2016 and is ongoing. Targeted sequencing was performed in 2533 individuals with hyperlipidemia or colon polyps. The electronic health records (EHRs) of participants carrying P/LP variants in 36 cardiovascular disease (CVD) genes were manually reviewed to ascertain the presence of relevant traits. Clinical outcomes, health care utilization, family communication, and ethical and psychosocial implications of disclosure of genomic results are being assessed by surveys, telephone interviews, and EHR review. RESULTS: Of 29,208 variants in the 68 genes, 1915 were rare (frequency <1%) and putatively functional, and 102 of these (60 in 36 CVD genes) were labeled P/LP based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics framework. Manual review of the EHRs of participants (n=73 with P/LP variants in CVD genes) revealed that 33 had the expected trait(s); however, only 6 of 45 participants with non-familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) P/LP variants had the expected traits. CONCLUSION: Expected traits were present in 13% of participants with P/LP variants in non-FH CVD genes, suggesting low penetrance; this estimate may change with additional testing performed as part of the clinical evaluation. Ongoing analyses of the RAVE Study will inform best practices for genomic medicine.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Colo , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pólipos/epidemiologia , Pólipos/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 78, 2018 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Links between colorectal cancer (CRC) and the gut microbiome have been established, but the specific microbial species and their role in carcinogenesis remain an active area of inquiry. Our understanding would be enhanced by better accounting for tumor subtype, microbial community interactions, metabolism, and ecology. METHODS: We collected paired colon tumor and normal-adjacent tissue and mucosa samples from 83 individuals who underwent partial or total colectomies for CRC. Mismatch repair (MMR) status was determined in each tumor sample and classified as either deficient MMR (dMMR) or proficient MMR (pMMR) tumor subtypes. Samples underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and a subset of samples from 50 individuals were submitted for targeted metabolomic analysis to quantify amino acids and short-chain fatty acids. A PERMANOVA was used to identify the biological variables that explained variance within the microbial communities. dMMR and pMMR microbial communities were then analyzed separately using a generalized linear mixed effects model that accounted for MMR status, sample location, intra-subject variability, and read depth. Genome-scale metabolic models were then used to generate microbial interaction networks for dMMR and pMMR microbial communities. We assessed global network properties as well as the metabolic influence of each microbe within the dMMR and pMMR networks. RESULTS: We demonstrate distinct roles for microbes in dMMR and pMMR CRC. Bacteroides fragilis and sulfidogenic Fusobacterium nucleatum were significantly enriched in dMMR CRC, but not pMMR CRC. These findings were further supported by metabolic modeling and metabolomics indicating suppression of B. fragilis in pMMR CRC and increased production of amino acid proxies for hydrogen sulfide in dMMR CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating tumor biology and microbial ecology highlighted distinct microbial, metabolic, and ecological properties unique to dMMR and pMMR CRC. This approach could critically improve our ability to define, predict, prevent, and treat colorectal cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Metaboloma , Microbiota , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteroides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroides/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA