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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND : Cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still reaches excessively high mortality rates. This analysis is aimed to develop a new easily applicable biomarker-based risk score. METHODS AND RESULTS : A biomarker-based risk score for 30-day mortality was developed from 458 patients with CS complicating AMI included in the randomized CULPRIT-SHOCK trial. The selection of relevant predictors and the coefficient estimation for the prognostic model were performed by a penalized multivariate logistic regression analysis. Validation was performed internally, internally externally as well as externally in 163 patients with CS included in the randomized IABP-SHOCK II trial. Blood samples were obtained at randomization. The two trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01927549 and NCT00491036), are closed to new participants, and follow-up is completed. Out of 58 candidate variables, the four strongest predictors for 30-day mortality were included in the CLIP score (cystatin C, lactate, interleukin-6, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). The score was well calibrated and yielded high c-statistics of 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.86] in internal validation, 0.82 (95% CI 0.75-0.89) in internal-external (temporal) validation, and 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.81) in external validation. Notably, it outperformed the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and IABP-SHOCK II risk score in prognostication (0.83 vs 0.62; P < 0.001 and 0.83 vs. 0.76; P = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS : A biomarker-only score for 30-day mortality risk stratification in infarct-related CS was developed, extensively validated and calibrated in a prospective cohort of contemporary patients with CS after AMI. The CLIP score outperformed other clinical scores and may be useful as an early decision tool in CS.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787083

RESUMO

AIMS: Murine models implicate phosphodiesterase 9A (PDE9A) as a nitric oxide-independent regulator of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and promising novel therapeutic target in heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study describes PDE9A expression in endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from patients with different HF phenotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Endomyocardial biopsies and PBMNCs were obtained from patients with HFpEF (n = 24), HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 22), and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (n = 24) and patients without HF (n = 7). PDE9A expression was increased in EMBs and PBMNCs from patients with HFpEF as compared with other HF phenotypes or subjects without HF. Endomyocardial PDE9A expression in HFpEF correlated with the inflammatory cell count in EMBs, but not with cardiac fibrosis or left ventricular diastolic wall stress. PDE9A expression in PBMNCs was increased in HFpEF patients with higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and in response to pro-inflammatory stimulation. As a validation cohort, 719 patients with HFpEF and 1106 subjects without HF were identified from the LIFE-Heart study. PDE9A expression in PBMNCs was obtained from array data and displayed an age-dependent distribution. PDE9A levels were elevated and conferred increased risk for HFpEF in middle-aged subjects, but not in elderly HFpEF patients. Following age adjustment, lower PDE9A expression in PBMNCs was associated with worse survival in patients with HFpEF (log-rank test P-value <0.001). CONCLUSION: Expression profiling indicates an up-regulation of endomyocardial PDE9A in different HF phenotypes with the most robust increase in EMBs and PBMNCs from patients with HFpEF. An exclusive risk effect of PDE9A expression on HFpEF in middle-aged patients and an unexpected association with survival calls for further studies to better characterize the role of PDE9A as a treatment target.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 42(9): 919-933, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532862

RESUMO

AIMS: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1ß (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.

4.
Heart ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet is favourable for cardiometabolic risk. OBJECTIVE: To examine the residual effect of a green Mediterranean diet, further enriched with green plant-based foods and lower meat intake, on cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: For the DIRECT-PLUS parallel, randomised clinical trial we assigned individuals with abdominal obesity/dyslipidaemia 1:1:1 into three diet groups: healthy dietary guidance (HDG), Mediterranean and green Mediterranean diet, all combined with physical activity. The Mediterranean diets were equally energy restricted and included 28 g/day walnuts. The green Mediterranean diet further included green tea (3-4 cups/day) and a Wolffia globosa (Mankai strain; 100 g/day frozen cubes) plant-based protein shake, which partially substituted animal protein. We examined the effect of the 6-month dietary induction weight loss phase on cardiometabolic state. RESULTS: Participants (n=294; age 51 years; body mass index 31.3 kg/m2; waist circumference 109.7 cm; 88% men; 10 year Framingham risk score 4.7%) had a 6-month retention rate of 98.3%. Both Mediterranean diets achieved similar weight loss ((green Mediterranean -6.2 kg; Mediterranean -5.4 kg) vs the HDG group -1.5 kg; p<0.001), but the green Mediterranean group had a greater reduction in waist circumference (-8.6 cm) than the Mediterranean (-6.8 cm; p=0.033) and HDG (-4.3 cm; p<0.001) groups. Stratification by gender showed that these differences were significant only among men. Within 6 months the green Mediterranean group achieved greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; green Mediterranean -6.1 mg/dL (-3.7%), -2.3 (-0.8%), HDG -0.2 mg/dL (+1.8%); p=0.012 between extreme groups), diastolic blood pressure (green Mediterranean -7.2 mm Hg, Mediterranean -5.2 mm Hg, HDG -3.4 mm Hg; p=0.005 between extreme groups), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (green Mediterranean -0.77, Mediterranean -0.46, HDG -0.27; p=0.020 between extreme groups). The LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio decline was greater in the green Mediterranean group (-0.38) than in the Mediterranean (-0.21; p=0.021) and HDG (-0.14; p<0.001) groups. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein reduction was greater in the green Mediterranean group (-0.52 mg/L) than in the Mediterranean (-0.24 mg/L; p=0.023) and HDG (-0.15 mg/L; p=0.044) groups. The green Mediterranean group achieved a better improvement (-3.7% absolute risk reduction) in the 10-year Framingham Risk Score (Mediterranean-2.3%; p=0.073, HDG-1.4%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The green MED diet, supplemented with walnuts, green tea and Mankai and lower in meat/poultry, may amplify the beneficial cardiometabolic effects of Mediterranean diet. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study is registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no NCT03020186.

5.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(12): 1616-1623, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Experimental studies demonstrated that atrial ischemia induced by right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis promote AF triggers and development of electro-anatomical substrate for AF. AIM: To analyze the association between AF prevalence and coronary arteries status in the LIFE-Heart Study. METHODS: This analysis included patients with available coronary catheterization data recruited between 2006 and 2014. Patients with acute myocardial infarction were excluded. CAD was defined as stenosis ≥75%, while coronary artery sclerosis (CAS) was defined as non-critical plaque(s) <75%. RESULTS: In total, 3.458 patients (median age 63 years, 34% women) were included into analysis. AF was diagnosed in 238 (6.7%) patients. There were 681 (19.7%) patients with CAS and 1.411 (40.8%) with CAD (27.5% with single, 32.4% with double, and 40.1% with triple vessel CAD). In multivariable analysis, there was a significant association between prevalent AF and coronary artery status (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.78, Ptrend < .001). Similarly, AF risk was lower in patients with higher CAD extent (OR 0.54, 95%CI 0.35-0.83, Ptrend = .005). Compared to single vessel CAD, the risk of AF was lower in double (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.19-0.95, P = .037) and triple CAD (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.13-0.71, P = .006). Finally, no association was found between AF prevalence and CAD origin among patients with single vessel CAD. CONCLUSION: In the LIFE-Heart Study, CAS but not CAD was associated with increased risk of AF.

6.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(9): 23, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879779

RESUMO

Purpose: The onset and progression of optic neuropathies like glaucoma often occurs asymmetrically between the two eyes of a patient. Interocular circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) differences could detect disease earlier. To apply such differences diagnostically, detailed location specific norms are necessary. Methods: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography cpRNFLT circle scans from the population-based Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases-Adult study were selected. At each of the 768 radial scanning locations, normative interocular cpRNFLT difference distributions were calculated based on age and interocular radius difference. Results: A total of 8966 cpRNFLT scans of healthy eyes (4483 patients; 55% female; age range, 20-79 years) were selected. Global cpRNFLT average was 1.53 µm thicker in right eyes (P < 2.2 × 10-16). On 96% of the 768 locations, left minus right eye differences were significant (P < 0.05), varying between +11.6 µm (superonasal location) and -11.8 µm (nasal location). Increased age and difference in interocular scanning radii were associated with an increased mean and variance of interocular cpRNFLT difference at most retinal locations, apart from the area temporal to the inferior RNF bundle where cpRNFLT becomes more similar between eyes with age. Conclusions: We provide pointwise normative distributions of interocular cpRNFLT differences at an unprecedentedly high spatial resolution of 768 A-scans and reveal considerable location specific asymmetries as well as their associations with age and scanning radius differences between eyes. Translational Relevance: To facilitate clinical application, we implement these age- and radius-specific norms across all 768 locations in an open-source software to generate patient-specific normative color plots.

8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1662-1672, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current epidemiologic data suggest beneficial cardiovascular effects of fermented dairy products (FDP). However, the relationship between FDP consumption and angiographic coronary status has not been previously studied. Furthermore, the role of novel metabolomic biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in this context is unclear. We hypothesize that short-chain acylcarnitines (SCA) reflect the link between FDP intake and angiographic extent of stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 1185 patients admitted for suspected CAD [median age 62 years (interquartile range: 54-69); 714 men (60.3%)]. Prior to coronary angiography, each patient completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. In addition, venous blood was collected from each patient for whole blood metabolomic analysis, using targeted mass-spectrometry. CAD was defined by the presence of ≥1 coronary stenosis ≥50%. Patients with CAD (n = 441) reported lower median FDP intake [86.8 g/day (IQR: 53.4-127.6)] than patients without CAD [n = 744; 103.9 g/day (IQR: 62.9-152.7); p < 0.001]. Upon adjustment for relevant confounders, increased circulating SCA, particularly level of acetylcarnitine (C2) associated with both higher CAD probability [SCA:ß(SE) = 0.584 (0.235), p = 0.013; C2:ß(SE) = 0.575 (0.242), p = 0.017] and decreased FDP consumption [SCA:ß/100 g FDP-increment/day (SE) = -0.785 (0.242), p = 0.001; C2:ß(SE) = -0.560 (0.230), p = 0.015]. By mediation analysis, neither SCA nor C2 showed relevant mediator effect linking FDP consumption to the risk of CAD. CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of fermented milk was associated with lower prevalence of CAD and correlated inversely with circulating SCA, in particular with acetylcarnitine. No substantial mediator effect of SCA linking fermented milk intake with risk of CAD was found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: NCT00497887.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Produtos Fermentados do Leite , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carnitina/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Estenose Coronária/sangue , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Estenose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 15: 1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082403

RESUMO

Background: Psychosocial stressors in the workplace can be detrimental to mental health. Conflicts at work, e.g. aggression, hostility or threats from coworkers, supervisors or customers, can be considered a psychosocial stressor, possibly increasing risk for depressive symptoms. Existing studies, however, differ in the assessment of social conflicts, i.e. as individual- or job-level characteristics. Here, we investigated the association between conflicts at work assessed as objective job characteristics, and depressive symptomatology, using data from a large population-based sample. Additionally, we investigated gender differences and the impact of personality traits and social resources. Methods: We used data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study from Leipzig, Germany. Information on conflicts at work, assessed as job characteristics, were drawn from the Occupational Information Network, depressive symptoms were assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Multilevel linear regression models with individuals and occupations as levels of analysis were applied to investigate the association between conflicts at work and depressive symptoms. Results: Our sample included 2164 employed adults (age: 18-65 years, mean: 49.3, SD: 7.9) in 65 occupations. No association between conflicts s at work and depressive symptomatology was found (men: b = - 0.14; p = 0.74, women: b = 0.17, p = 0.72). Risk for depression was mostly explained by individual-level factors like e.g. neuroticism or level of social resources. The model showed slightly higher explanatory power in the female subsample. Conclusion: Conflicts at work, assessed as objective job characteristics, were not associated with depressive symptoms. Possible links between interpersonal conflict and impaired mental health might rather be explained by subjective perceptions of social stressors and individual coping styles.

11.
Circ Res ; 126(6): 750-764, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969053

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Heart failure (HF) following heart damage leads to a decreased blood flow due to a reduced pump efficiency of the heart muscle. A consequence can be insufficient oxygen supply to the organism including the brain. While HF clearly shows neurological symptoms, such as fatigue, nausea, and dizziness, the implications for brain structure are not well understood. Few studies show regional gray matter decrease related to HF; however, the underlying mechanisms leading to the observed brain changes remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between impaired heart function, hampered blood circulation, and structural brain change in a case-control study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within a group of 80 patients of the Leipzig Heart Center, we investigated a potential correlation between HF biomarkers and the brain's gray matter density (GMD) obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. We observed a significant positive correlation between cardiac ejection fraction and GMD across the whole frontal and parietal medial cortex reflecting the consequence of HF onto the brain's gray matter. Moreover, we also obtained a relationship between GMD and the NT-proBNP (N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide)-a biomarker that is used for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis of HF. Here, we found a significant negative correlation between NT-proBNP and GMD in the medial and posterior cingulate cortex but also in precuneus and hippocampus, which are key regions implicated in structural brain changes in dementia. CONCLUSIONS: We obtained significant correlations between brain structure and markers of heart failure including ejection fraction and NT-proBNP. A diminished GMD was found with decreased ejection fraction and increased NT-proBNP in wide brain regions including the whole frontomedian cortex as well as hippocampus and precuneus. Our observations might reflect structural brain damage in areas that are related to cognition; however, whether these structural changes facilitate the development of cognitive alterations has to be proven by further longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
Dano Encefálico Crônico/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dano Encefálico Crônico/etiologia , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974565

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Common genetic susceptibility may underlie the frequently observed co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in families. Given the role of HLA class II genes in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes, the aim of the present study was to test the association of high density imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: Three cohorts (Ntotal = 10 413) from Leipzig, Germany were included in this study: LIFE-Adult (N = 4649), LIFE-Heart (N = 4815) and the Sorbs (N = 949) cohort. Detailed metabolic phenotyping and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were available for all subjects. Using 1000 Genome imputation data, HLA genotypes were imputed on 4-digit level and association tests for type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic traits were conducted. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis including all 3 cohorts, the absence of HLA-DRB5 was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001). In contrast, HLA-DQB*06:02 and HLA-DQA*01:02 had a protective effect on type 2 diabetes (P = 0.005 and 0.003, respectively). Both alleles are part of the well-established type 1 diabetes protective haplotype DRB1*15:01~DQA1*01:02~DQB1*06:02, which was also associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.84; P = 0.005). On the contrary, the DRB1*07:01~DQA1*02:01~DQB1*03:03 was identified as a risk haplotype in non-insulin-treated diabetes (OR 1.37; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the HLA class II locus exerts risk and protective effects on non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that the genetic architecture of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes might share common components on the HLA class II locus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Genes MHC da Classe II , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(3): 338-344, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765281

RESUMO

Background: Patients with cardiac complaints but without confirmed diagnosis of coronary heart disease by angiography frequently develop cardiac events in the following years. This follow-up study investigated the frequency of cardiac symptoms and cardiovascular events (CVE) 5 years after initial angiography of patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NobCAD, LIFE Heart study), with the aim to identify gender-specific indicators for CVE. Methods: In 2014/2015, 1462 women and men with NobCAD, defined as no or non-relevant obstructive coronary artery disease were identified among 2660 subjects participating in the observational angiographic LIFE Heart study. Questionnaires of 820 responding patients were analyzed. Results: The median observation time was 55 months. Cardiac symptoms were found in 53.6% of all patients, significantly more often in women than in men (59.4% vs. 48.8%; p = 0.002). CVE occurred in 46.1% of all participants (n = 378/820). Patients with cardiac symptoms had a 2.94 time higher risk for CVE than those without cardiac symptoms (p < 0.001). Men with no cardiac symptoms had significantly more CVE (p = 0.042) than women. Common risk factors for CVE comprised cardiac symptoms, atrial fibrillation, and age. Sex-specific risk factors comprised body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 for women and anxiety for men. Conclusions: Patients with cardiac symptoms have about three times higher risk for CVE within 5 years than patients without cardiac symptoms. Sex differences exist in patients without symptoms where men were at higher risk for CVE. Atrial fibrillation was the strongest indicator for CVE, whereas anxiety was an indicator only in men and BMI ≥25 kg/m2 only in women, suggesting sex- and gender-specific phenotypic profiles.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Ophthalmology ; 127(3): 357-368, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the role of sex on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at 768 circumpapillary locations based on OCT findings. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We investigated 5646 eyes of 5646 healthy participants from the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE)-Adult Study of a predominantly white population. METHODS: All participants underwent standardized systemic assessments and ocular imaging. Circumpapillary RNFL (cRNFL) thickness was measured at 768 points equidistant from the optic nerve head using spectral-domain OCT (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). To control ocular magnification effects, the true scanning radius was estimated by scanning focus. Student t test was used to evaluate sex differences in cRNFL thickness globally and at each of the 768 locations. Multivariable linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate individual contributions of various factors to cRNFL thickness variance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in cRNFL thickness between males and females. RESULTS: Our population consisted of 54.8% females. The global cRNFL thickness was 1 µm thicker in females (P < 0.001). However, detailed analysis at each of the 768 locations revealed substantial location specificity of the sex effects, with RNFL thickness difference ranging from -9.98 to +8.00 µm. Females showed significantly thicker RNFLs in the temporal, superotemporal, nasal, inferonasal, and inferotemporal regions (43.6% of 768 locations), whereas males showed significantly thicker RNFLs in the superior region (13.2%). The results were similar after adjusting for age, body height, and scanning radius. The superotemporal and inferotemporal RNFL peaks shifted temporally in females by 2.4° and 1.9°, respectively. On regions with significant sex effects, sex explained more RNFL thickness variance than age, whereas the major peak locations and interpeak angle explained most of the RNFL thickness variance unexplained by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial sex effects on cRNFL thickness were found at 56.8% of all 768 circumpapillary locations, with specific patterns for different sectors. Over large regions, sex was at least as important in explaining the cRNFL thickness variance as was age, which is well established to have a substantial impact on cRNFL thickness. Including sex in the cRNFL thickness norm could therefore improve glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas , Retina/anatomia & histologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(7): 1064-1070, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129995

RESUMO

Objectives: Mental demands at the workplace can be preventive against cognitive decline. However, personality shapes the way information is processed and we therefore assume that Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, would moderate the beneficial effects of workplace stimulation on cognitive outcomes.Methods: We analyzed data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study (n = 6529). Cognitive outcomes were assessed via the Trail-Making Test (TMTA, TMTB) and the Verbal Fluency Test. Personality was assessed via the Personality Adjective List (16 AM). Mental demands were classified with the indices Verbal and Executive based on the O*NET database.Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed only two significant moderation effects of personality, i.e. in individuals with low scores on Conscientiousness/Openness, index Verbal was connected to better TMTB performance, while this effect disappeared for individuals with high values on the personality trait. However, the additional explained variance remained marginal.Conclusion: The findings suggest that personality does not modify associations between high mental demands at work and better cognitive functioning in old age; however, there is a tendency that high levels of Openness and Conscientiousness may offset effects of mental demands.

16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624084

RESUMO

AIMS: Physical activity (PA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular prevention. This study aimed to identify metabolic mediators of PA that protect against the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 2160 participants in the LIFE heart study were analysed with data on PA and vascular phenotyping. In a targeted metabolomic approach, 61 metabolites (amino acids and acylcarnitines) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We investigated the interactions between PA, metabolites and markers of atherosclerosis in order to uncover possible mediation effects. Intended sports activity, but no daily PA, was associated with a lower degree of atherosclerosis, odds ratio (OR) for total atherosclerotic burden of 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.94), carotid artery plaque OR 0.79 (0.66-0.96), and peripheral artery disease OR 0.74 (0.56-0.98). Twelve amino acids, free carnitine, five acylcarnitines were associated with sports activity. Of these, eight metabolites were also associated with the degree of atherosclerosis. In the mediation analyses, a cluster of amino acids (arginine, glutamine, pipecolic acid, taurine) were considered as possible mediators of atheroprotection. In contrast, a group of members of the carnitine metabolism (free carnitine, acetyl carnitine, octadecenoyl carnitine) were associated with inactivity and higher atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Our metabolomic approach, which is integrated into a mediation model, provides transformative insights into the complex metabolic processes involved in atheroprotection. Metabolites with antioxidant and endothelial active properties are believed to be possible mediators of atheroprotection. The metabolomic mediation approach can support the understanding of complex diseases in order to identify targets for prevention and therapy.

17.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 92(4): 237-244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851970

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been found to be related to various common childhood diseases, like otitis media, conjunctivitis, respiratory viral infections, and asthma. However, the confounding effects of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), pubertal stage (Tanner stages), socioeconomic status (SES) as well as of some hair maintenance procedures on HCC are still not well examined. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 434 children aged between 5 and 18 years was examined for HCC between January 2012 and February 2015 in the context of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Child study. Thereby, anthropometric data, gender, BMI, SES and pubertal status were assessed. HCC was measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In the total cohort, HCC levels ranged between 0.95 and 29.86 pg/mg. In prepuberty, boys showed significantly higher HCC than girls (6.54 vs. 3.73 pg/mg, p < 0.05). During puberty HCC values in both genders converged. Higher BMI was significantly associated with higher HCC in both genders. In girls, HCC did not differ depending on Tanner stages. In boys, HCC was significantly higher in Tanner stage 1 than in stages 2-5. CONCLUSION: Measuring cortisol concentration in hair gives information about long-term release of cortisol. We have found that puberty, gender, and BMI had a profound effect on HCC. As a result, further research should take into account the potentially confounding role of puberty, gender and BMI and may use the results of our study as a reference at determining values of HCC in healthy children.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cabelo/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 294, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712668

RESUMO

Sleep impairments are a hallmark of acute bipolar disorder (BD) episodes and are present even in the euthymic state. Studying healthy subjects who are vulnerable to BD can improve our understanding of whether sleep impairment is a predisposing factor. Therefore, we investigated whether vulnerability to BD, dimensionally assessed by the hypomanic personality scale (HPS), is associated with sleep disturbances in healthy subjects. We analyzed participants from a population-based cohort who had completed the HPS and had either a 7-day actigraphy recording or a Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) assessment. In addition, subjects had to be free of confounding diseases or medications. This resulted in 771 subjects for actigraphy and 1766 for PSQI analyses. We found strong evidence that higher HPS scores are associated with greater intraindividual sleep variability, more disturbed sleep and more daytime sleepiness. In addition, factor analyses revealed that core hypomanic features were especially associated with self-reported sleep impairments. Results support the assumption of disturbed sleep as a possibly predisposing factor for BD and suggest sleep improvement as a potential early prevention target.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Sono , Sonolência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(6): 1531-1539, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to establish reference intervals for serum lipids and apolipoproteins in pregnant women depending on trimester and parity, and to investigate the influence of various factors on lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 748 pregnant women (n = 683 in the second trimester, n = 676 in the third trimester) were included in the study and reference intervals for total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, triglycerides (TG), apoA1 and apoB were determined as empirical quantiles. The measurement of serum lipids was performed using a validated specific homozygous enzymatic color test. Hierarchical models were used to investigate hypothesized relations. RESULTS: Except for apoA1, all serum lipids levels showed a significant change from the second to the third trimester. This increase was most pronounced for TGs. Especially in the third trimester, the concentrations of serum lipids exceeded the currently accepted reference values for non-pregnant women by a factor of 2.5. Reference intervals of serum lipids at the second and third trimesters in healthy pregnant women were as following: TC 4.45-8.99 and 4.83-9.71 mmol/l, HDL 1.33-3.06 and 1.16-3.13 mmol/l, LDL 2.14-6.11 and 2.35-6.98 mmol/l, TG 0.92-3.0 and 1.37-4.76 mmol/l as well as apoB 0.69-1.93 and 0.85-2.21 g/l. Parity and nutrient intake were not significantly associated with changes in lipid concentration. Prematurity was associated with a significant decrease in TC and TG levels. CONCLUSION: Detailed reference values for serum lipids and apolipoproteins in pregnancy are now available for a Caucasian cohort. Further, long-term studies are still needed to assess the effect of the extensive concentration changes of serum lipids in pregnancy and their atherogenic risk definitively.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Criança , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Paridade , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Mol Metab ; 29: 76-85, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human blood metabolites are influenced by a number of lifestyle and environmental factors. Identification of these factors and the proper quantification of their relevance provides insights into human biological and metabolic disease processes, is key for standardized translation of metabolite biomarkers into clinical applications, and is a prerequisite for comparability of data between studies. However, so far only limited data exist from large and well-phenotyped human cohorts and current methods for analysis do not fully account for the characteristics of these data. The primary aim of this study was to identify, quantify and compare the impact of a comprehensive set of clinical and lifestyle related factors on metabolite levels in three large human cohorts. To achieve this goal, we improve current methodology by developing a principled analysis approach, which could be translated to other cohorts and metabolite panels. METHODS: 63 Metabolites (amino acids, acylcarnitines) were quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in three cohorts (total N = 16,222). Supported by a simulation study evaluating various analytical approaches, we developed an analysis pipeline including preprocessing, identification, and quantification of factors affecting metabolite levels. We comprehensively identified uni- and multivariable metabolite associations considering 29 environmental and clinical factors and performed metabolic pathway enrichment and network analyses. RESULTS: Inverse normal transformation of batch corrected and outlier removed metabolite levels accompanied by linear regression analysis proved to be the best suited method to deal with the metabolite data. Association analyses revealed numerous uni- and multivariable significant associations. 15 of the analyzed 29 factors explained >1% of variance for at least one of the metabolites. Strongest factors are application of steroid hormones, reticulocytes, waist-to-hip ratio, sex, haematocrit, and age. Effect sizes of factors are comparable across studies. CONCLUSIONS: We introduced a principled approach for the analysis of MS data allowing identification, and quantification of effects of clinical and lifestyle factors with metabolite levels. We detected a number of known and novel associations broadening our understanding of the regulation of the human metabolome. The large heterogeneity observed between cohorts could almost completely be explained by differences in the distribution of influencing factors emphasizing the necessity of a proper confounder analysis when interpreting metabolite associations.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Carnitina/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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