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1.
Genet Med ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in SETD1B have been associated with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder including intellectual disability, language delay, and seizures. To date, clinical features have been described for 11 patients with (likely) pathogenic SETD1B sequence variants. This study aims to further delineate the spectrum of the SETD1B-related syndrome based on characterizing an expanded patient cohort. METHODS: We perform an in-depth clinical characterization of a cohort of 36 unpublished individuals with SETD1B sequence variants, describing their molecular and phenotypic spectrum. Selected variants were functionally tested using in vitro and genome-wide methylation assays. RESULTS: Our data present evidence for a loss-of-function mechanism of SETD1B variants, resulting in a core clinical phenotype of global developmental delay, language delay including regression, intellectual disability, autism and other behavioral issues, and variable epilepsy phenotypes. Developmental delay appeared to precede seizure onset, suggesting SETD1B dysfunction impacts physiological neurodevelopment even in the absence of epileptic activity. Males are significantly overrepresented and more severely affected, and we speculate that sex-linked traits could affect susceptibility to penetrance and the clinical spectrum of SETD1B variants. CONCLUSION: Insights from this extensive cohort will facilitate the counseling regarding the molecular and phenotypic landscape of newly diagnosed patients with the SETD1B-related syndrome.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1436-1449, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216551

RESUMO

Despite widespread clinical genetic testing, many individuals with suspected genetic conditions lack a precise diagnosis, limiting their opportunity to take advantage of state-of-the-art treatments. In some cases, testing reveals difficult-to-evaluate structural differences, candidate variants that do not fully explain the phenotype, single pathogenic variants in recessive disorders, or no variants in genes of interest. Thus, there is a need for better tools to identify a precise genetic diagnosis in individuals when conventional testing approaches have been exhausted. We performed targeted long-read sequencing (T-LRS) using adaptive sampling on the Oxford Nanopore platform on 40 individuals, 10 of whom lacked a complete molecular diagnosis. We computationally targeted up to 151 Mbp of sequence per individual and searched for pathogenic substitutions, structural variants, and methylation differences using a single data source. We detected all genomic aberrations-including single-nucleotide variants, copy number changes, repeat expansions, and methylation differences-identified by prior clinical testing. In 8/8 individuals with complex structural rearrangements, T-LRS enabled more precise resolution of the mutation, leading to changes in clinical management in one case. In ten individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions lacking a precise genetic diagnosis, T-LRS identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in six and variants of uncertain significance in two others. T-LRS accurately identifies pathogenic structural variants, resolves complex rearrangements, and identifies Mendelian variants not detected by other technologies. T-LRS represents an efficient and cost-effective strategy to evaluate high-priority genes and regions or complex clinical testing results.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Genet Med ; 23(10): 1933-1943, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172899

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in Lysyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (KARS1) have increasingly been recognized as a cause of early-onset complex neurological phenotypes. To advance the timely diagnosis of KARS1-related disorders, we sought to delineate its phenotype and generate a disease model to understand its function in vivo. METHODS: Through international collaboration, we identified 22 affected individuals from 16 unrelated families harboring biallelic likely pathogenic or pathogenic in KARS1 variants. Sequencing approaches ranged from disease-specific panels to genome sequencing. We generated loss-of-function alleles in zebrafish. RESULTS: We identify ten new and four known biallelic missense variants in KARS1 presenting with a moderate-to-severe developmental delay, progressive neurological and neurosensory abnormalities, and variable white matter involvement. We describe novel KARS1-associated signs such as autism, hyperactive behavior, pontine hypoplasia, and cerebellar atrophy with prevalent vermian involvement. Loss of kars1 leads to upregulation of p53, tissue-specific apoptosis, and downregulation of neurodevelopmental related genes, recapitulating key tissue-specific disease phenotypes of patients. Inhibition of p53 rescued several defects of kars1-/- knockouts. CONCLUSION: Our work delineates the clinical spectrum associated with KARS1 defects and provides a novel animal model for KARS1-related human diseases revealing p53 signaling components as potential therapeutic targets.

4.
Genet Med ; 23(9): 1604-1615, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040193

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prolidase deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism causing ulcers and other skin disorders, splenomegaly, developmental delay, and recurrent infections. Most of the literature is constituted of isolated case reports. We aim to provide a quantitative description of the natural history of the condition by describing 19 affected individuals and reviewing the literature. METHODS: Nineteen patients were phenotyped per local institutional procedures. A systematic review following PRISMA criteria identified 132 articles describing 161 patients. Main outcome analyses were performed for manifestation frequency, diagnostic delay, overall survival, symptom-free survival, and ulcer-free survival. RESULTS: Our cohort presented a wide variability of severity. Autoimmune disorders were found in 6/19, including Crohn disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and arthritis. Another immune finding was hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Half of published patients were symptomatic by age 4 and had a delayed diagnosis (mean delay 11.6 years). Ulcers were present initially in only 30% of cases, with a median age of onset at 12 years old. CONCLUSION: Prolidase deficiency has a broad range of manifestations. Symptoms at onset may be nonspecific, likely contributing to the diagnostic delay. Testing for this disorder should be considered in any child with unexplained autoimmunity, lower extremity ulcers, splenomegaly, or HLH.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Úlcera da Perna , Deficiência de Prolidase , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Tardio , Humanos , Fenótipo , Deficiência de Prolidase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Prolidase/genética
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(1): 213-218, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044030

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a critical post/peri-translational modification required for the appropriate development and function of the immune system. As an example, abnormalities in glycosylation can cause antibody deficiency and reduced lymphocyte signaling, although the phenotype can be complex given the diverse roles of glycosylation. Human MGAT2 encodes N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, which is a critical enzyme in the processing of oligomannose to complex N-glycans. Complex N-glycans are essential for immune system functionality, but only one individual with MGAT2-CDG has been described to have an abnormal immunologic evaluation. MGAT2-CDG (CDG-IIa) is a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) associated with profound global developmental disability, hypotonia, early onset epilepsy, and other multisystem manifestations. Here, we report a 4-year old female with MGAT2-CDG due to a novel homozygous pathogenic variant in MGAT2, a 4-base pair deletion, c.1006_1009delGACA. In addition to clinical features previously described in MGAT2-CDG, she experienced episodic asystole, persistent hypogammaglobulinemia, and defective ex vivo mitogen and antigen proliferative responses, but intact specific vaccine antibody titers. Her infection history has been mild despite the testing abnormalities. We compare this patient to the 15 previously reported patients in the literature, thus expanding both the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for MGAT2-CDG.

6.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 45(2): 230-238, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAODs) experience serious morbidity and mortality despite traditional dietary management including medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-supplemented, low-fat diets. Triheptanoin is a triglyceride oil that is broken down to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and propionyl-CoA, which replenishes deficient tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. We report the complex medical and nutrition management of triheptanoin therapy initiated emergently for 3 patients with LC-FAOD. METHODS: Triheptanoin (Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical, Inc, Novato, CA, USA) was administered to 3 patients with LC-FAOD on a compassionate-use basis. Triheptanoin was mixed with non-MCT-containing low-fat formula. Patients were closely followed with regular cardiac and laboratory monitoring. RESULTS: Cardiac ejection fraction normalized after triheptanoin initiation. Patients experienced fewer hospitalizations related to metabolic crises while on triheptanoin. Patient 1 has tolerated oral administration without difficulty since birth. Patients 2 and 3 experienced increased diarrhea. Recurrent breakdown of the silicone gastrostomy tube occurred in patient 3, whereas the polyurethane nasogastric tube for patient 2 remained intact. Patient 3 experiences recurrent episodes of elevated creatine kinase levels and muscle weakness associated with illness. Patient 3 had chronically elevated C10-acylcarnitines while on MCT supplementation, which normalized after initiation of triheptanoin and discontinuation of MCT oil. CONCLUSIONS: Triheptanoin can ameliorate acute cardiomyopathy and increase survival in patients with severe LC-FAOD. Substituting triheptanoin for traditional MCT-based treatment improves clinical outcomes. MCT oil might be less effective in carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency patients compared with other FAODs and needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico , Carnitina , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/tratamento farmacológico , Oxirredução , Triglicerídeos
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 827-835, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296147

RESUMO

CHRNB1 encodes the ß subunit of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. Inherited defects in the neuromuscular junction can lead to congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders which includes fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) on the severe end of the spectrum. Here, we report two unrelated families with biallelic CHRNB1 variants, and in each family, one child presented with lethal FADS. We contrast the diagnostic odysseys in the two families, one of which lasted 16 years while the other, utilizing rapid exome sequencing, led to specific treatment in the first 2 weeks of life. Furthermore, we note that CHRNB1 variants may be under-recognized because in both families, one of the variants is a single exon deletion that has been previously described but may not easily be detected in clinically available genetic testing.

8.
JIMD Rep ; 54(1): 32-36, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685348

RESUMO

Background: Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport caused by inherited defects in the ATP7B gene and results in toxic accumulation of copper in various organs. We previously reported a family with three consecutive generations affected by WD that carries the variant, p.P1379S, which was classified at the time as likely pathogenic. However, recent investigations of the p.P1379S variant indicate a possible conflict of interpretations regarding its pathogenicity. This led us to explore the quantification of ATP7B in dried blood spots (DBS) using a surrogate peptide to study the effects of the p.P1379S variant on ATP7B concentrations in two unrelated families with the common p.P1379S variant. Methods and results: ATP7B was quantified using the peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-SRM) method which utilizes antibody-mediated peptide capture from DBS. Two patients affected with WD had undetectable ATP7B level while four compound heterozygous children with one known pathogenic variant and the p.P1379S had significantly reduced ATP7B levels. Of note, all four children remain asymptomatic without abnormal laboratory consequences despite being untreated for WD. Conclusion: These two families demonstrated that p.P1379S, when compounded with two known pathogenic variants, resulted in significantly reduced protein levels but retained enough function to maintain normal copper homeostasis. This implies that p.P1379S is benign in nature. A better understanding of the nature and consequences of variants in WD will help in informing patient care and avoiding unnecessary treatments.

9.
Clin Chem ; 66(1): 199-206, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing has become a commonly used clinical diagnostic test. Multiple studies have examined the diagnostic utility and individual laboratory performance of exome testing; however, no previous study has surveyed and compared the data quality from multiple clinical laboratories. METHODS: We examined sequencing data from 36 clinical exome tests from 3 clinical laboratories. Exome data were compared in terms of overall characteristics and coverage of specific genes and nucleotide positions. The sets of genes examined included genes in Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) (n = 17723), a subset of genes clinically relevant to epilepsy (n = 108), and genes that are recommended for reporting of secondary findings (n = 57; excludes X-linked genes). RESULTS: The average exome nucleotide coverage (≥20×) of each laboratory varied at 96.49% (CV = 3%), 96.54% (CV = 1%), and 91.68% (CV = 4%), for laboratories A, B, and C, respectively. For CCDS genes, the average number of completely covered genes varied at 12184 (CV = 29%), 11687 (CV = 13%), and 5989 (CV = 37%), for laboratories A, B, and C, respectively. With smaller subsets of genes related to epilepsy and secondary findings, the CV revealed low consistency, with a maximum CV seen in laboratory C for both epilepsy genes (CV = 60%) and secondary findings genes (CV = 71%). CONCLUSIONS: Poor consistency in complete gene coverage was seen in the clinical exome laboratories surveyed. The degree of consistency varied widely between the laboratories.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Éxons , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
J Pediatr ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of rapid exome sequencing (rES) in critically ill children with likely genetic disease using a standardized process at a single institution. To provide evidence that rES with should become standard of care for this patient population. STUDY DESIGN: We implemented a process to provide clinical-grade rES to eligible children at a single institution. Eligibility included (a) recommendation of rES by a consulting geneticist, (b) monogenic disorder suspected, (c) rapid diagnosis predicted to affect inpatient management, (d) pretest counseling provided by an appropriate provider, and (e) unanimous approval by a committee of 4 geneticists. Trio exome sequencing was sent to a reference laboratory that provided verbal report within 7-10 days. Clinical outcomes related to rES were prospectively collected. Input from geneticists, genetic counselors, pathologists, neonatologists, and critical care pediatricians was collected to identify changes in management related to rES. RESULTS: There were 54 patients who were eligible for rES over a 34-month study period. Of these patients, 46 underwent rES, 24 of whom (52%) had at least 1 change in management related to rES. In 20 patients (43%), a molecular diagnosis was achieved, demonstrating that nondiagnostic exomes could change medical management in some cases. Overall, 84% of patients were under 1 month old at rES request and the mean turnaround time was 9 days. CONCLUSIONS: rES testing has a significant impact on the management of critically ill children with suspected monogenic disease and should be considered standard of care for tertiary institutions who can provide coordinated genetics expertise.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(4): e1172, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report the first case of a family with co-occurrence of Wilson disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PIDD) that features marked reduction in circulating B lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulins. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through utilization of a multiplexed biomarker peptide quantification method known as the immuno-SRM assay, we were able to simultaneously and independently identify which family members are affected with WD and which are affected with XLA using dried blood spots (DBS). CONCLUSION: Being able to delineate multiple diagnoses using proteolytic analysis from a single DBS provides support for implementation of this methodology for clinical diagnostic use as well as large-scale population screening, such as newborn screening (NBS). This could allow for early identification and treatment of affected individuals with WD or XLA, which have been shown to reduce morbidity and decrease mortality in these two populations.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/sangue , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Proteólise , Adolescente , Adulto , Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/complicações , Degeneração Hepatolenticular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Linhagem
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2228-2232, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321892

RESUMO

Primrose syndrome (PRIMS), a rare genetic disorder with several clinical findings including intellectual disability, macrocephaly, typical facial features, and muscle wasting, is caused by heterozygous variants in the ZBTB20 gene. We report the cases of two males diagnosed with PRIMS at different ages, emphasizing the likely progressive nature of the disorder, as well as the differences and similarities of presentation during infancy and adulthood. Patient 1 is a 2-year-old American male with a medical history marked by impaired hearing, developmental delays, and fainting spells. Patient 2 is a 28-year-old Brazilian male, who presents with a phenotype similar to that seen in Patient 1 with additional features of ectopic calcifications and prominent muscular and skeletal abnormalities. Additionally, Patient 2 has a history of fainting spells and diminished body height and weight, with the latter features having only been reported in one PRIMS patient so far. Both Patients 1 and 2 were found to carry heterozygous likely pathogenic missense variants, detected in the last coding exon of ZBTB20 (c.1822T>C, p.Cys608Arg, de novo, and c.1873A>G, p.Met625Val, respectively), consistent with PRIMS. Overall, these case reports highlight PRIMS's likely progressive nature and contribute to the understanding of the natural history of this condition.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Calcinose/diagnóstico , Calcinose/genética , Otopatias/diagnóstico , Otopatias/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
13.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 283-291, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964580

RESUMO

Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized molecular diagnosis in children with genetic disease over the past decade. However, exome sequencing in the inpatient setting has traditionally been discouraged, in part due to an increased risk of providers failing to retrieve and act upon results, as many patients are discharged before results return. The development of rapid turn-around-times (TATs) for genomic testing has begun to shift this paradigm. Rapid exome sequencing (rES) is increasingly being used as a diagnostic tool for critically ill infants with likely genetic disease and presents significant challenges to execute. We implemented a program, entitled the Rapid Inpatient Genomic Testing (RIGhT) project, to identify critically ill children for whom a molecular diagnosis is likely to change inpatient management. Two important goals of the RIGhT project were to provide appropriate genetic counseling, and to develop protocols to ensure efficient test coordination- both of which relied heavily on laboratory and clinic-based genetic counselors (GCs). Here, rES was performed on 27 inpatient trios from October 2016 to August 2018; laboratory and clinical GCs encountered significant challenges in the coordination of this testing. The GCs involved retrospectively reviewed these cases and identified three common challenges encountered during pretest counseling and coordination. The aim of this paper is to define these challenges using illustrative case examples that highlight the importance of including GCs to support rES programs.


Assuntos
Conselheiros , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Genet Med ; 21(3): 601-607, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TANGO2-related disorders were first described in 2016 and prior to this publication, only 15 individuals with TANGO2-related disorder were described in the literature. Primary features include metabolic crisis with rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy, intellectual disability, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias. We assess whether genotype and phenotype of TANGO2-related disorder has expanded since the initial discovery and determine the efficacy of exome sequencing (ES) as a diagnostic tool for detecting variants. METHODS: We present a series of 14 individuals from 11 unrelated families with complex medical and developmental histories, in whom ES or microarray identified compound heterozygous or homozygous variants in TANGO2. RESULTS: The initial presentation of patients with TANGO2-related disorders can be variable, including primarily neurological presentations. We expand the phenotype and genotype for TANGO2, highlighting the variability of the disorder. CONCLUSION: TANGO2-related disorders can have a more diverse clinical presentation than previously anticipated. We illustrate the utility of routine ES data reanalysis whereby discovery of novel disease genes can lead to a diagnosis in previously unsolved cases and the need for additional copy-number variation analysis when ES is performed.


Assuntos
Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Adolescente , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2733-2739, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513141

RESUMO

CACNA1C (NM_000719.6) encodes an L-type calcium voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav 1.2), and pathogenic variants have been associated with two distinct clinical entities: Timothy syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Thus far, CACNA1C has not been reported as a gene associated with epileptic encephalopathy and is less commonly associated with epilepsy. We report three individuals from two families with variants in CACNA1C. Patient 1 presented with neonatal onset epileptic encephalopathy (NOEE) and was found to have a de novo missense variant in CACNA1C (c.4087G>A (p.V1363M)) on exome sequencing. In Family 2, Patient 2 presented with congenital cardiac anomalies and cardiomyopathy and was found to have a paternally inherited splice site variant, c.3717+1_3717+2insA, on a cardiomyopathy panel. Her father, Patient 3, presented with learning difficulties, late-onset epilepsy, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Family 2 highlights variable expressivity seen within a family. This case series expands the clinical and molecular phenotype of CACNA1C-related disorders and highlights the need to include CACNA1C on epilepsy gene panels.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Alelos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Análise Citogenética , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Facies , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 33(7): 1257-1261, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29637272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome can be caused by a subgroup of mitochondrial diseases classified as primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency. Pathogenic COQ2 variants are a cause of primary CoQ10 deficiency and present with phenotypes ranging from isolated nephrotic syndrome to fatal multisystem disease. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We report three pediatric patients with COQ2 variants presenting with nephrotic syndrome. Two of these patients had normal leukocyte CoQ10 levels prior to treatment. Pathologic findings varied from mesangial sclerosis to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with all patients having abnormal appearing mitochondria on kidney biopsy. In two of the three patients treated with CoQ10 supplementation, the nephrotic syndrome resolved; and at follow-up, both have normal renal function and stable proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: COQ2 nephropathy should be suspected in patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome, although less common than disease due to mutations in NPHS1, NPHS2, and WT1. The index of suspicion should remain high, and we suggest that providers consider genetic evaluation even in patients with normal leukocyte CoQ10 levels, as levels may be within normal range even with significant clinical disease. Early molecular diagnosis and specific treatment are essential in the management of this severe yet treatable condition.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Ataxia/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Debilidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica/terapia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ubiquinona/deficiência , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/genética , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Doenças Mitocondriais/complicações , Doenças Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Debilidade Muscular/complicações , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Síndrome Nefrótica/sangue , Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/genética
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