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1.
Neurologist ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding cause-specific mortality following a perioperative stroke. In this study, we aim to establish the risk of cause-specific mortality associated with perioperative stroke following cardiac and vascular procedures at 30 days, 90 days, and 1-year postoperative. It is hoped that this fund of knowledge will enhance perioperative risk stratification and medical management for patients who have suffered a perioperative stroke. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study evaluating 277,654 cardiac and vascular surgical patients dually documented within the Inpatient Discharge Claims Database and the Pennsylvania Department of Health Death Statistics database. A univariate assessment followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, malignancy, infectious, and dementia causes of mortality following perioperative stroke. RESULTS: Perioperative stroke significantly increased the odds of overall mortality (P<0.0001) as well as cause-specific mortality in all categories (P<0.05) except dementia (P=0.8907) at all-time endpoints. Cerebrovascular-related mortality was most impacted by perioperative stroke [adjusted odds ratio: 34.5 (29.1, 40.9), P<0.0001 at 30 d]. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative stroke in the cardiac and vascular surgical population is associated with increased odds of overall, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, pulmonary, malignancy, and infectious causes of mortality at 30 days, 90 days, and 1-year postoperatively when compared with patients who did not experience a perioperative stroke.

2.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the ability of multimodality intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and EEG, to predict perioperative clinical stroke and stroke-related mortality after open-heart surgery in high-risk patients. METHODS: The records of all consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, and cardiac valve repair/replacement with high risk for stroke who underwent both SSEP and EEG recording at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. Sensitivity and specificity of these modalities to predict in-hospital clinical strokes and stroke-related mortality were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 531 patients underwent open cardiac procedures monitored using SSEP and EEG. One hundred thirty-one patients (24.67%) experienced significant changes in either modality. Fourteen patients (2.64%) suffered clinical strokes within 24 hours after surgery, and eight patients (1.50%) died during their hospitalization. The incidence of in-hospital clinical stroke and stroke-related mortality among patients who experienced a significant change in monitoring compared with those with no significant change was 11.45% versus 1.75%. The sensitivity and specificity of significant changes in either SSEP or EEG to predict in-hospital major stroke and stroke-related mortality were 0.93 and 0.77, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring with SSEP and EEG has high sensitivity and specificity in predicting perioperative stroke and stroke-related mortality after open cardiac procedures. These results support the benefits of multimodality neuromonitoring during cardiac surgery.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) during aortic arch reconstruction with hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) to predict early (<48 hours) adverse neurologic events (ANE; stroke or transient ischemic attack) and operative mortality. METHODS: This was an observational study of aortic arch surgeries requiring HCA from 2010 to 2018. Patients were monitored with electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). Baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared according to presence or absence of IONM changes, which were defined as any acute variation in SSEP or EEG, compared with baseline. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of IONM changes with operative mortality and early ANE. RESULTS: A total of 563 patients underwent aortic arch reconstruction with HCA and IONM. Of these, 119 (21.1%) patients had an IONM change, whereas 444 (78.9%) did not. Patients with IONM changes had increased operative mortality (22.7% vs 4.3%) and increased early ANE (10.9% vs 2.9%). In multivariable analysis, SSEP changes were correlated with early ANE (odds ratio [OR], 4.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-14.56; P = .008), whereas EEG changes were not (P = .532). Permanent SSEP changes were correlated with early ANE (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 1.51-13.77; P = .007), whereas temperature-related SSEP changes were not (P = .997). Finally, any IONM change (either SSEP or EEG) was correlated with operative mortality (OR, 5.82; 95% CI, 2.72-12.49; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal IONM events during aortic arch reconstruction with HCA portend worse neurologic outcomes and operative mortality and have a negative predictive value of 97.1%. SSEP might be more sensitive than EEG for predicting early ANE, especially when SSEP changes are permanent.

4.
J Neurol Surg B Skull Base ; 82(Suppl 3): e342-e348, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306959

RESUMO

Objective This study proposes to present reference parameters for trigeminal (V) and facial (VII) cranial nerves (CNs)-triggered electromyography (tEMG) during endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) skull base surgeries to allow more precise and accurate mapping of these CNs. Study Design We retrospectively reviewed EEA procedures performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center between 2009 and 2015. tEMG recorded in response to stimulation of CN V and VII was analyzed. Analysis of tEMG waveforms included latencies and amplitudes. Medical records were reviewed to determine the presence of perioperative neurologic deficits. Results A total of 28 patients were included. tEMG from 34 CNs (22 V and 12 VII) were analyzed. For CN V, the average onset latency was 2.9 ± 1.1 ms and peak-to-peak amplitude was 525 ± 436.94 µV ( n = 22). For CN VII, the average onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude were 5.1 ± 1.43 ms and 315 ± 352.58 µV for the orbicularis oculi distribution ( n = 09), 5.9 ± 0.67 ms and 517 ± 489.07 µV on orbicularis oris ( n = 08), and 5.3 ± 0.98 ms 303.1 ± 215.3 µV on mentalis ( n = 07), respectively. Conclusion Our data support the notion that onset latency may be a feasible parameter in the differentiation between the CN V and VII during the crosstalk phenomenon in EEA surgeries but the particularities of this type of procedure should be taken into consideration. A prospective analysis with a larger data set is necessary.

5.
Med Care ; 59(10): 921-928, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is little literature describing if and how payers are utilizing patient-reported outcomes to predict future costs. This study assessed if Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) domain scores, collected in routine practice at neurology clinics, improved payer predictive models for unplanned care utilization and cost. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of private Health Plan-insured patients with visits at 18 Health Plan-affiliated neurology clinics. METHODS: PROMIS domains (Anxiety v1.0, Cognitive Function Abilities v2.0, Depression v1.0, Fatigue v1.0, Pain Interference v1.0, Physical Function v2.0, Sleep Disturbance v1.0, and Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities v2.0) are collected as part of routine care. Data from patients' first PROMIS measures between June 27, 2018 and April 16, 2019 were extracted and combined with claims data. Using (1) claims data alone and (2) PROMIS and claims data, we examined the association of covariates to utilization (using a logit model) and cost (using a generalized linear model). We evaluated model fit using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (for unplanned care utilization), akaike information criterion (for unplanned care costs), and sensitivity and specificity in predicting top 15% of unplanned care costs. RESULTS: Area under the receiver operating curve values were slightly higher, and akaike information criterion values were similar, for PROMIS plus claims covariates compared with claims alone. The PROMIS plus claims model had slightly higher sensitivity and equivalent specificity compared with claims-only models. CONCLUSION: One-time PROMIS measure data combined with claims data slightly improved predictive model performance compared with claims alone, but likely not to an extent that indicates improved practical utility for payers.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Sistemas de Informação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(24): E1343-E1352, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958542

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This study is a meta-analysis of prospective and retrospective studies identified in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase with outcomes of patients who received intraoperative somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring during lumbar spine surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative lower extremity SSEP changes for predicting postoperative neurological deficit. As a secondary analysis, we evaluated three subtypes of intraoperative SSEP changes: reversible, irreversible, and total signal loss. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Lumbar decompression and fusion surgery can treat lumbar spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis but carry a risk for nerve root injury. Published neurophysiological monitoring guidelines provide no conclusive evidence for the clinical utility of intraoperative SSEP monitoring during lumbar spine surgery. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies with outcomes of patients who underwent lumbar spine surgeries with intraoperative SSEP monitoring. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated and presented with forest plots and a summary receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 5607 patients. All significant intraoperative SSEP changes had a sensitivity of 44% and specificity of 97% with a DOR of 22.13 (95% CI, 11.30-43.34). Reversible and irreversible SSEP changes had sensitivities of 28% and 33% and specificities of 97% and 97%, respectively. The DORs for reversible and irreversible SSEP changes were 13.93 (95% CI, 4.60-40.44) and 57.84 (95% CI, 15.95-209.84), respectively. Total loss of SSEPs had a sensitivity of 9% and specificity of 99% with a DOR of 23.91 (95% CI, 7.18-79.65). CONCLUSION: SSEP changes during lumbar spine surgery are highly specific but moderately sensitive for new postoperative neurological deficits. Patients who had postoperative neurological deficit were 22 times more likely to have exhibited intraoperative SSEP changes.Level of Evidence: 2.


Assuntos
Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Humanos , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(7): 105833, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular surgical procedures have one of the highest risks of perioperative stroke and stroke-related mortality, yet the independent risk factors contributing to this increased mortality have not been described. Perioperative strokes are thought to result from a combination of embolism and hypoperfusion mechanisms. The purpose of this study is to describe the independent predictors of perioperative stroke-related mortality in the vascular surgical population using the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4) database which collects cause of death data. METHODS: This retrospective, case-control study evaluated 4,128 patients aged 18-99 who underwent a vascular, non-carotid surgical procedure and subsequently suffered perioperative mortality. Common surgical comorbidities and risk factors for perioperative stroke, including carotid stenosis and atrial fibrillation, were evaluated in multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with carotid stenosis were 2.6 (aOR, 95% CI 1.4-4.5) times more likely to suffer perioperative mortality from stroke than from other causes. Additionally, in-hospital stroke, history of stroke, admission from a healthcare facility, and cancer were all positive predictive factors, whereas atrial fibrillation, emergency admission, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with decreased risk of perioperative stroke-related mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of vascular surgical population-specific predictors of stroke-related mortality can help to enhance preoperative risk-stratification tools and guide perioperative management of identified high-risk patients. Increased neurophysiologic monitoring in the perioperative period to prevent delays in diagnosis of perioperative stroke offers a strategy to reduce risk of perioperative stroke-related mortality in vascular surgical patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Período Perioperatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
8.
Global Spine J ; : 21925682211018472, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013769

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. OBJECTIVES: Malposition of pedicle screws during instrumentation in the lumbar spine is associated with complications secondary to spinal cord or nerve root injury. Intraoperative triggered electromyographic monitoring (t-EMG) may be used during instrumentation for early detection of malposition. The association between lumbar pedicle screws stimulated at low EMG thresholds and postoperative neurological deficits, however, remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess whether a low threshold t-EMG response to lumbar pedicle screw stimulation can serve as a predictive tool for postoperative neurological deficit. METHODS: The present study is a meta-analysis of the literature from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase identifying prospective/retrospective studies with outcomes of patients who underwent lumbar spinal fusion with t-EMG testing. RESULTS: The total study cohort consisted of 2,236 patients and the total postoperative neurological deficit rate was 3.04%. 10.78% of the patients incurred at least 1 pedicle screw that was stimulated below the respective EMG alarm threshold intraoperatively. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits in patients with a lumbar pedicle screw stimulated below EMG alarm threshold during placement was 13.28%, while only 1.80% in the patients without. The pooled DOR was 10.14. Sensitivity was 49% while specificity was 88%. CONCLUSIONS: Electrically activated lumbar pedicle screws resulting in low t-EMG alarm thresholds are highly specific but weakly sensitive for new postoperative neurological deficits. Patients with new postoperative neurological deficits after lumbar spine surgery were 10 times more likely to have had a lumbar pedicle screw stimulated at a low EMG threshold.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e250-e256, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that pedicle screw stimulation thresholds ≤6-8 mA yield a high diagnostic accuracy of detecting misplaced screws. Our objective was to determine the optimal "low" stimulation threshold to predict new postoperative neurologic deficits and identify additional risk factors associated with deficits. METHODS: We included patients with complete pedicle screw stimulation testing who underwent posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgeries from 2010-2012. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of pedicle screw responses of ≤4 mA, ≤6 mA, ≤8 mA, ≤10 mA, ≤12 mA, and ≤20 mA to predict new postoperative lower-extremity (LE) neurologic deficits. We used multivariate modeling to determine the best logistic regression model to predict LE deficits and identify additional risk factors. Statistics software packages used were Python3.8.5, NumPy 1.19.1, Pandas 1.1.1, and SPSS26. RESULTS: We studied 1179 patients who underwent 8584 pedicle screw stimulations with somatosensory evoked potential and free-run electromyographic monitoring for posterior lumbar spinal fusion. Twenty-five (2.1%) patients had new LE neurologic deficits. A stimulation threshold of ≤8 mA had a sensitivity/specificity of 32%/90% and a diagnostic odds ratio/area under the curve of 4.34 [95% confidence interval: 1.83, 10.27]/0.61 [0.49, 0.74] in predicting postoperative deficit. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who had pedicle screws with stimulation thresholds ≤8 mA are 3.15 [1.26, 7.83]× more likely to have postoperative LE deficits while patients who have undergone a revision lumbar spinal fusion surgery are 3.64 [1.38, 9.61]× more likely. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that low thresholds are indicative of not only screw proximity to the nerve but also an increased likelihood of postoperative neurologic deficit. Thresholds ≤8 mA prove to be the optimal "low" threshold to help guide a correctly positioned pedicle screw placement and detect postoperative deficits.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Parafusos Pediculares/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Spine J ; 21(4): 555-570, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical decompression and fusion surgery remains a mainstay of treatment for a variety of cervical pathologies. Potential intraoperative injury to the spinal cord and nerve roots poses nontrivial risk for consequent postoperative neurologic deficits. Although neuromonitoring with intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) is often used in cervical spine surgery, its therapeutic value remains controversial. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether significant SSEP changes can predict postoperative neurologic complications in cervical spine surgery. A subgroup analysis was performed to compare the predictive power of SSEP changes in both anterior and posterior approaches. STUDY DESIGN: The present study was a meta-analysis of the literature from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase to identify prospective/retrospective studies with outcomes of patients who underwent cervical spine surgeries with intraoperative SSEP monitoring. PATIENT SAMPLE: The total cohort consisted of 7,747 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery with intraoperative SSEP monitoring. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for study selection were as follows: (1) prospective or retrospective cohort studies, (2) studies conducted in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery not due to aneurysm, tumor, or trauma with intraoperative SSEP monitoring, (3) studies that reported postoperative neurologic outcomes, (4) studies conducted with a sample size ≥20 patients, (5) studies with only adult patients ≥18 years of age, (6) studies published in English, (7) studies inclusive of an abstract. OUTCOME MEASURES: The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and likelihood ratios of overall SSEP changes, reversible SSEP changes, irreversible SSEP changes, and SSEP loss for predicting postoperative neurological deficit were calculated. RESULTS: The total rate of postoperative neurological deficits was 2.50% (194/7,747) and the total rate of SSEP changes was 7.36% (570/7,747). The incidence of postoperative neurological deficit in patients with intraoperative SSEP changes was 16.49% (94/570) while only 1.39% (100/7,177) in patients without. All significant intraoperative SSEP changes had a sensitivity of 46.0% and specificity of 96.7% with a DOR of 27.32. Reversible and irreversible SSEP changes had sensitivities of 17.7% and 37.1% and specificities of 97.5% and 99.5%, respectively. The DORs for reversible and irreversible SSEP changes were 9.01 and 167.90, respectively. SSEP loss had a DOR of 51.39, sensitivity of 17.3% and specificity 99.6%. In anterior procedures, SSEP changes had a DOR of 9.60, sensitivity of 34.2%, and specificity of 94.7%. In posterior procedures, SSEP changes had a DOR of 13.27, sensitivity of 42.6%, and specificity of 94.0%. CONCLUSIONS: SSEP monitoring is highly specific but weakly sensitive for postoperative neurological deficit following cervical spine surgery. The analysis found that patients with new postoperative neurological deficits were nearly 27 times more likely to have had significant intraoperative SSEP change. Loss of SSEP signals and irreversible SSEP changes seem to indicate a much higher risk of injury than reversible SSEP changes.


Assuntos
Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Adulto , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Perioper Pract ; 31(3): 80-88, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative stroke-related mortality in the non-cardiovascular, non-neurological surgery population is an uncommon, yet devastating outcome. A combination of emboli and hypoperfusion may cause large vessel occlusions leading to perioperative strokes and mortality. Identifying independent risk factors for perioperative stroke-related mortality may enhance risk-stratification algorithms and preventative therapies. OBJECTIVES: This study utilised cause-of-death data to determine independent risk scores for common surgical comorbidities that may lead to perioperative stroke-related mortality, including atrial fibrillation and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. METHODS: This retrospective, IRB-exempt, case-control study evaluated non-cardiovascular, non-neurological surgical patients in a claims-based database. ICD-10-CM and ICD-9-CM codes identified cause of death and comorbidity incidences, respectively. A multivariate regression analysis then established adjusted independent risk scores of each comorbidity in relation to perioperative stroke-related mortality. RESULTS: Patients with atrial fibrillation were more likely (1.7 aOR, 95% CI (1.1, 2.8) p = 0.02) to die from perioperative stroke-related mortality than from other causes. No association was found with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Further, in-hospital strokes (25.9 aOR, 95% CI (16.0, 41.8) p < 0.001) or diabetes (1.8 aOR, 95% CI (1.1, 2.9) p = 0.02) may increase perioperative stroke-related mortality risk. CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation, diabetes and in-hospital strokes may be independent risk factors for perioperative stroke-related mortality in the non-cardiovascular, non-neurological surgery population.

12.
World Neurosurg ; 148: e43-e57, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the role of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in internal carotid artery (ICA) injury during endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery (EESBS). METHODS: The study group included all 13 patients who had experienced an ICA injury during EESBS with IONM from 2004 to 2017. The medical records were reviewed for the perioperative data. The IONM reports were reviewed to evaluate the baseline somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), electroencephalography (EEG), and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and their significant changes related to ICA injury and/or the subsequent surgical/endovascular interventions. RESULTS: All 13 patients had undergone SSEP and 7 patients had BAEP monitoring during surgery. EEG was added during emergent angiography following the surgery for 5 patients. Two patients showed significant SSEP changes, and one showed significant SSEP and EEG changes, indicating cerebral hypoperfusion. Of these 3 patients, patient 1 had experienced irreversible SSEP loss with postoperative stroke. Patients 2 and 3 had SSEP and/or EEG changes that had recovered to baseline after interventions without postoperative deficits. Despite ICA injury, 10 patients showed no significant SSEP and/or EEG changes, and all 7 patients with BAEP monitoring showed no significant BAEP changes, indicating adequate cerebral and brainstem perfusion, respectively. The injured ICA was sacrificed in 4 patients, of whom 3 showed stable SSEP and 1 had experienced irreversible SSEP loss. IONM correlated with the postoperative neurologic examination findings in all cases, adequately predicting the neurologic outcomes after ICA injury. CONCLUSION: SSEP and EEG monitoring can accurately detect cerebral hypoperfusion and provide real-time feedback during surgery. SSEP and EEG changes predicted for neurologic outcomes and guide surgical decisions regarding the preservation or sacrifice of the ICA. Comprehensive multimodality monitoring according to the surgical risks can serve to detect and guide the management of ICA injury in EESBS.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Artéria Carótida Interna , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Neuroendoscopia/efeitos adversos , Base do Crânio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Nasal/cirurgia
13.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(2): E139-E145, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347093

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that pedicle screw stimulation thresholds less than or equal to 8 mA yield a very high diagnostic accuracy of detecting misplaced screws in spinal surgery. In our study, we determined clinical implications of low stimulation thresholds. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Posterior lumbar spinal fusions (PSF), using pedicle screws, are performed to treat many spinal pathologies, but misplaced pedicle screws can result in new postoperative neurological deficits. METHODS: Patients with pedicle screw stimulation testing who underwent PSF between 2010 and 2012 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) were included in the study. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) to determine how effectively low pedicle screw responses predict new postoperative lower extremity neurological deficits. RESULTS: One thousand one hundred seventy nine eligible patients underwent 8584 pedicle screw stimulations with lower extremity somatosensory evoked potentials (LE SSEP) monitoring for lumbar fusion surgery. One hundred twenty one of these patients had 187 pedicle screws with a stimulation response at a threshold less than or equal to 8 mA. Smoking had a significant correlation to pedicle screw stimulation less than or equal to 8 mA (P = 0.012). A threshold of less than or equal to 8 mA had a sensitivity/specificity of 0.32/0.90 with DOR of 4.34 [1.83, 10.27] and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.61 [0.49, 0.74]. Patients with screw thresholds less than or equal to 8 mA and abnormal baselines had a DOR of 9.8 [95% CI: 2.13-45.17] and an AUC of 0.73 [95% CI: 0.50-0.95]. CONCLUSION: Patients with pedicle screw stimulation thresholds less than or equal to 8 mA are 4.34 times more likely to have neurological clinical manifestations. Smoking and LE deficits were shown to be significantly correlated with pedicle screw stimulation thresholds less than or equal to 8 mA. Low stimulation thresholds result in a high specificity of 90%. Pedicle screw stimulation less than or equal to 8 mA can serve as an accurate rule in test for postoperative neurological deficit, warranting reevaluation of screw placement and/or replacement intraoperatively.Level of Evidence: 3.


Assuntos
Região Lombossacral/cirurgia , Parafusos Pediculares , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Int J Spine Surg ; 14(4): 607-614, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative neurological complications after spine surgery can result in increased mortality and morbidity. Despite the introduction of new spinal implants and surgical technology, reoperation rates have remained stable over recent years. Understanding the reasons for revision (refusion) surgery and the risk of neurological complications can assist in developing more effective screening protocols for repeat surgeries and early detection of potential neurological complications. METHODS: This study was designed and conducted as a retrospective cohort study. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether revision spine surgery increased the risk of postoperative neurological deficits. A secondary objective of the study was to analyze whether deficits following repeat spine surgery increased morbidity and mortality. Data on revision spine procedures were extracted from the California State Inpatient Database for years 2008 to 2011. Patients who developed postoperative neurological deficits were then subdivided into causative procedure: revision anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, revision posterior cervical fusion, and revision thoracolumbar fusion. These data were then used to calculate the total incidence of postoperative neurological deficits following each type of procedure. The impact of neurological deficits on in-hospital morbidity following revision procedures was also calculated. RESULTS: Revision procedures accounted for 5.84% of all spine procedures in a total of 7645 patients. Among these patients, 67 patients (0.88%) developed a postoperative neurological deficit with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.56 (95% CI, 1.20-2.00, P < .05). When using individuals with no neurological deficit as the reference group, the odds of morbidity were 5.3 (95% CI, 3.15-9.00, P < .05) in those who sustained neurological deficit following revision procedure. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study exposes the increased risk of postoperative neurological complications in revision spine surgeries. In response, further studies are needed to evaluate the use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring to reduce this risk.

15.
Neurologist ; 25(5): 113-116, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a proven approach in the treatment of coronary heart disease, but the surgery has several complications, including stroke and death. Though it has been established that perioperative stroke is associated with higher rates of long-term mortality, the relationship between stroke and mortality in the perioperative period has not yet been systematically examined. METHODS: Online databases of peer-reviewed literature were searched to retrieve articles concerning mortality and stroke after CABG in patients with carotid stenosis. Six studies (n=3786) were included for analysis. This study was conducted at a single University hospital system, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, on patients who underwent CABG. The data obtained from peer-reviewed literature originated from several sources, primarily single institution hospitals. RESULTS: Consistent with current literature, the incidence of stroke in CABG patients with significant carotid stenosis was 2.1%. Data were further analyzed to generate a summary odds ratio of stroke-related mortality after CABG, which showed that patients who died within 30 days of CABG were 7.3 times more likely to have had a perioperative stroke (95% confidence interval, 4.1-13.2). The 30-day mortality rate among perioperative stroke victims was 14.4% versus 2.3% for nonstroke patients. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data suggest an association between stroke and mortality in the perioperative period in patients undergoing CABG, demonstrating a need for improved monitoring, screening, and treatment of stroke before, during, and shortly after surgery.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105158, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intra-operative stroke (IOS) is associated with poor clinical outcome as detection is often delayed and time of symptom onset or patient's last known well (LKW) is uncertain. Intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is uniquely capable of detecting onset of neurological dysfunction in anesthetized patients, thereby precisely defining time last electrically well (LEW). This novel parameter may aid in the detection of large vessel occlusion (LVO) and prompt treatment with endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained AIS and LVO database from May 2018-August 2019. Inclusion criteria required any surgical procedure under general anesthesia (GA) utilizing EEG (electroencephalography) and/or SSEP (somatosensory evoked potentials) monitoring with development of intraoperative focal persistent changes using predefined alarm criteria and who were considered for EVT. RESULT: Five cases were identified. LKW to closure time ranged from 66 to 321 minutes, while LEW to closure time ranged from 43 to 174 min. All LVOs were in the anterior circulation. Angiography was not pursued in two cases due to large established infarct (both patients expired in the hospital). EVT was pursued in two cases with successful recanalization and spontaneous recanalization was noted in one patient (mRS 0-3 at 90 days was achieved in all 3 cases). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that significant IONM changes can accurately identify patients with an acute LVO in the operative setting. Given the challenges of recognizing peri-operative stroke, LEW may be an appropriate surrogate to quickly identify and treat IOS.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Triagem , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(2): 320-328, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncompressible hemorrhage remains a high-mortality injury, and aortic balloon occlusion poses limitations in terms of distal ischemic injury. Our hypothesis was that a retrievable Rescue stent would confer improved outcome over aortic balloon occlusion. METHODS: A three-tier, retrievable stent graft was laser welded from nitinol and polytetrafluoroethylene to provide rapid thoracic and abdominal coverage with an interval bare metal segment to preserve visceral flow. Anesthetized swine had injury of the thoracic or abdominal aorta followed by balloon occlusion or a Rescue stent. A 1-hour long damage-control phase with blood repletion was used to simulate the prolonged interval between injury and repair, especially in the battlefield setting. Following the damage-control phase, the balloon or stent were retrieved followed by vascular repair and recovery to 48 hours. Animals were compared in terms of hemodynamics, blood loss, neurophysiologic spinal cord ischemia, ischemic organ injury, and survival. RESULTS: Despite antegrade hemorrhage control, balloon occlusion averaged 3.5 L of retrograde hemorrhage, loss of visceral perfusion, and permanent spinal cord ischemia by neurophysiology in six of seven animals. After permanent repair, all balloon occlusion animals died with only a single short term (5 hours) survivor. Conversely, Rescue stent animals revealed rapid hemorrhage control (in under 2 minutes) whether the injury was thoracic or abdominal with improved hemodynamics, preserved visceral flow, reduced spinal cord ischemia, negligible histologic organ injury and survival to end of study in all abdominal injured animals (n = 6) and four of six thoracic injured animals, with two deaths related to arrhythmia. CONCLUSION: Compared with aortic balloon occlusion, a Rescue stent offers superior hemorrhage control and survival by virtue of reduced ischemic injury and direct control of the hemorrhagic injury. The Rescue stent may become a useful tool for damage control, especially on the battlefield where definitive repair presents logistical challenges.


Assuntos
Aorta/lesões , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Hemorragia/cirurgia , Stents , Animais , Hemodinâmica , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais , Medula Espinal/irrigação sanguínea , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vísceras/irrigação sanguínea , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/complicações , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/cirurgia
20.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(7): 1508-1516, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether significant intraoperative electroencephalography (EEG) changes have predictive value for perioperative stroke within 30 days after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) procedures for carotid stenosis (CS) patients. We also assessed the diagnostic accuracy of various EEG changes in predicting perioperative stroke. METHODS: We searched databases for reports with outcomes of CS patients who underwent CEA with intraoperative EEG monitoring. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of EEG changes for predicting perioperative stroke. Sensitivity and specificity were presented with forest plots and a summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 10,672 patients. Intraoperative EEG changes predicted 30-day stroke with a sensitivity of 46% (95% CI, 38-54%) and specificity of 86% (95% CI, 83-88%). The estimated DOR was 5.79 (95% CI, 3.86-8.69). The estimated DOR for reversible and irreversible EEG changes were 8.25 (95% CI, 3.34-20.34) and 70.84 (95% CI, 36.01-139.37), respectively. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative EEG changes have high specificity but modest sensitivity for predicting perioperative stroke following CEA. Patients with irreversible EEG changes are at high risk for perioperative stroke. SIGNIFICANCE: Intraoperative EEG changes can help surgeons predict the risk of perioperative stroke for CS patients following CEA.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/normas , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
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