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1.
Front Chem ; 7: 222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032247

RESUMO

Photoelectron/photoion imaging spectrometry employing dispersed VUV radiation from the SOLEIL synchrotron has been used to study the predissociation of N2 + states located up to 1.3 eV above the ion's first dissociation limit. Branching ratios for unimolecular decay into either N2 + or N+ were obtained by measuring coincidences between threshold electrons and mass-selected product ions, using a supersonic beam of either 14N2 or 15N2 as photoionization target. The results confirm that predissociation of the C 2 Σ u + state of 14N2 + is faster than emission to the electronic ground-state by a factor 10 or more for all vibrational levels v' ≥ 3, while for 15N2 + the two decay modes have comparable probabilities for the levels v' = 3, 4, and 5. In contrast, no significant isotope effect could be observed for the other states of N2 + identified in the photoelectron spectrum. For both 14N2 + and 15N2 + isotopologues all vibrational levels of these other states decay to an extent of at least 95% by predissociation.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(4): 439, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27023520

RESUMO

It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks ("seeds") for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Meteoroides , Análise de Fourier , Modelos Teóricos
3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(41): 18264-87, 2011 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21931881

RESUMO

This paper presents a review of the current knowledge on the doubly-charged atomic and molecular positive ions in the planetary atmospheres of the Solar System. It is focused on the terrestrial planets which have a dense atmosphere of N(2) or CO(2), i.e. Venus, the Earth and Mars, but also includes Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, which has a dense atmosphere composed mainly of N(2) and a few percent of methane. Given the composition of these neutral atmospheres, the following species are considered: C(++), N(++), O(++), CH(4)(++), CO(++), N(2)(++), NO(++), O(2)(++), Ar(++) and CO(2)(++). We first discuss the status of their detection in the atmospheres of planets. Then, we provide a comprehensive review of their complex and original photochemistry, production and loss processes. Synthesis tables are provided for those ions, while a discussion on individual species is also provided. Methods for detecting doubly-charged ions in planetary atmospheres are presented, namely with mass-spectrometry, remote sensing and fine plasma density measurements. A section covers some original applications, like the possible effect of the presence of doubly-charged ions on the escape of an atmosphere, which is a key topic of ongoing planetary exploration, related to the evolution of a planet. The results of models, displayed in a comparative way for Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan, are discussed, as they can predict the presence of doubly-charged ions and will certainly trigger new investigations. Finally we give our view concerning next steps, challenges and needs for future studies, hoping that new scientific results will be achieved in the coming years and feed the necessary interdisciplinary exchanges amongst different scientific communities.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(34): 15432-6, 2011 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21766124

RESUMO

Gas phase VUV single-photon photoionization spectroscopy of electrospray-produced multiply protonated cytochrome c protein (12 kDa) has been performed by means of coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron beamline. The thresholds for the ionization of the 8+ and 11+ charge state precursors to radical 9+ and 12+ species were measured to be 12.75 ± 0.10 and 13.51 ± 0.10 eV, respectively.


Assuntos
Citocromos c/química , Gases/química , Íons/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
5.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(23): 6463-71, 2010 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20491460

RESUMO

Crossed-beam scattering experiments were carried out at collision energies of 4.51 and 2.71 eV to elucidate the electronic states involved in the nondissociative and dissociative electron-transfer reactions observed following CO(2)(2+)/CO(2) collisions. Specifically, we focus on the observation that, in the dissociative electron-transfer reaction, forming CO(+), the majority of the CO(+) product ions are formed via electron capture by the CO(2)(2+) rather than via ejection of an electron from the neutral CO(2) reaction partner. The main channels resulting in nondissociative electron transfer are reactions of the ground (X(3)Sigma(g)(-)) and excited states of CO(2)(2+) to give different combinations of the ground and excited states of the product pair of CO(2)(+) ions in which the combination AA appears to be significant. The CO(+) ions appear mainly to arise from slow dissociation of CO(2)(+)(b(4)Pi(u)) formed following electron capture by the ground state of the dication reactant (X(3)Sigma(g)(-)), with possible contributions from electron capture by higher triplet excited states of the dication.

6.
Anal Chem ; 82(4): 1371-80, 2010 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20102174

RESUMO

The polymeric composition of Titan's tholins--laboratory analogues of Titan's aerosols--is elucidated using high-resolution mass spectrometry. This complex organic matter is produced by plasma discharge in a gaseous nitrogen-methane mixture and analyzed with a hybrid linear trap/orbitrap mass-spectrometer. The highly structured mass spectra are treated with tools developed for petroleomics (Kendrick and van Krevelen diagrams), with original adaptations for nitrogen-rich compounds. Our goal is to find the best chemical basis set to describe the compositional space that these polymers occupy, to shed light onto the chemical structure of tholins. We succeeded in assigning the molecules identified in the mass spectra of tholins to a small number of regularly distributed X-(CH(2))(m)(HCN)(n) families, where the balanced copolymer (m = n) is determined to play a central role. Within each family, the polymer lengths n and m present Poisson-type distributions. We also identify the smallest species of a subset of families as linear and cyclic amino nitrile compounds of great astrobiological interest: biguanide, guanidin, acetamidine, aminoacetonitrile, and methylimidazole.

7.
Faraday Discuss ; 147: 337-48; discussion 379-403, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21302555

RESUMO

The description of planetary and interstellar chemistry relies strongly on ion-molecule reaction rate data collected at room temperature or above. However, the temperature in the ionospheres of planets and in the interstellar medium can decrease down to 100 K and 10 K, respectively. We present here a simple semiempirical method to extend available measurements towards those temperatures. Our approach is based on the long-range capture theory combined with room temperature data. Results are presented for cation-molecule and anion-molecule reactions. An overall good agreement is observed between our model and various experimental data in the temperature range 20-295 K. Deviations larger than a factor of 2 are found, however, with ion trap measurements below approximately 50 K. Predictions are also made for reactions of carbon chain and hydrocarbon ions with atomic hydrogen, of particular importance in Titan's atmosphere and in interstellar clouds.

8.
Faraday Discuss ; 147: 495-508; discussion 527-52, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21302562

RESUMO

HCN polymers are complex organic solids resulting from the polymerization of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecules. They have been suspected to contribute to the refractory carbonaceous component of comets as well as the distributed CN sources in cometary atmospheres. Titan's tholins are also organic compounds produced in a laboratory setting but result from the complex chemistry between N2 and CH4 induced by UV radiation or electric discharges. Some of these compounds have optical properties in the visible range fairly similar to those of Titan's aerosols or those of the reddish surfaces of many icy satellites and small bodies. It has been proposed that HCN polymers are constituents of tholins but this statement has never received any clear demonstration. We report here on the comparative analysis of tholins and HCN polymers in order to definitely establish if the molecules identified in the HCN polymers are present in the tholins as well. First, we present a global comparison of HCN polymers with three kinds of tholins, using elemental analysis measurements, infrared spectroscopy and very high resolution mass spectrometry of their soluble fraction. We show that the chemical composition of the HCN polymers is definitely simpler than that of any of the tholins studied. Second, we focus on six ions representative of the composition of HCN polymers and using mass spectrometry (HRMS and MS/HRMS), we determine that these tholins contain at best a minor fraction of this kind of HCN polymers.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 113(49): 13694-9, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19863107

RESUMO

The description of Titan's chemistry relies strongly on reaction rate data collected at room temperature or above. However, the temperature in the atmosphere of Titan ranges from 70 to 200 K. We describe here a simple theoretical method to extend the available measurements toward those temperatures. It is based on the long-range capture theory combined with room temperature data. First results are presented for 28 neutral reactions involving atomic carbon, CN, CH, and C(2)H radicals and are compared to low-temperature Cinétique de Réaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme measurements. A good agreement is observed, to within a factor of 2, for most reactions in the temperature range 13-295 K. Predictions are made for reactions of the CN radical with hydrocarbons and nitriles of particular importance in Titan's atmosphere.

10.
J Phys Chem A ; 113(42): 11211-20, 2009 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19769328

RESUMO

Experimental simulations of the initial steps of the ion-molecule reactions occurring in the ionosphere of Titan were performed at the synchrotron source Elettra in Italy. The measurements consisted of irradiating gas mixtures with a monochromatic photon beam, from the methane ionization threshold at 12.6 eV, up to and beyond the molecular nitrogen dissociative ionization threshold at 24.3 eV. Three gas mixtures of increasing complexity were used: N(2)/CH(4) (0.96/0.04), N(2)/CH(4)/C(2)H(2) (0.96/0.04/0.001), and N(2)/CH(4)/C(2)H(2)/C(2)H(4) (0.96/0.04/0.001/0.001). The resulting ions were detected with a high-resolution (1 T) FT-ICR mass spectrometer as a function of time and VUV photon energy. In order to interpret the experimental results, a Titan ionospheric model was adapted to the laboratory conditions. This model had previously allowed the identification of the ions detected in the Titan upper atmosphere by the ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Comparison between observed and modeled ion densities validates the kinetic model (reactions, rate constants, product branching ratios) for the primary steps of molecular growth. It also reveals differences that we attribute to an intense surface chemistry. This result implies that heterogeneous chemistry on aerosols might efficiently produce HCN and NH(3) in the Titan upper atmosphere.

11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 10(33): 5135-43, 2008 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18701963

RESUMO

The bimolecular reactivity of the CO(2)(2+) dication with neutral CO(2) is investigated using triple quadrupole and ion-ion coincidence mass spectrometry. Crucial for product analysis is the use of appropriate isotope labelling in the quadrupole experiments in order to distinguish the different reactive pathways. The main reaction corresponds to single-electron transfer from the neutral reagent to the dication, i.e. CO(2)(2+) + CO(2) --> 2CO(2)(+); this process is exothermic by almost 10 eV, if ground state monocations are formed. Interestingly, the results indicate that the CO(2)(+) ion formed when the dication accepts an electron dissociates far more readily than the CO(2)(+) ion formed from the neutral CO(2) molecule. This differentiation of the two CO(2)(+) products is rationalized by showing that the population of the key dissociative states of the CO(2)(+) monocation will be favoured from the CO(2)(2+) dication rather than from neutral CO(2). In addition, two bond-forming reactions are observed as minor channels, one of which leads to CO(+) and O(2)(+) as ionic products and the other affords a long-lived C(2)O(3)(2+) dication.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 126(13): 134310, 2007 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17430035

RESUMO

Photoionization cross sections for the production of the doubly charged ion N2+ from N2 have been measured by means of synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range from 50 to 110 eV. The appearance energy for N2+ has been determined as 55.2+/-0.2 eV, i.e., about 1.3 eV higher than the spectroscopic dissociation limit leading to the charge asymmetric dissociation channel N2+(2P)+N(4S) at 53.9 eV. The onset of a second threshold at 59.9+/-0.2 eV is detected and the energy dependence of photoion intensities near the threshold regions is interpreted in terms of the Wannier theory. The production of the N2+ dication is discussed in terms of direct and indirect mechanisms for dissociative charge asymmetric photoionization and by comparison with the potential energy curves of the intermediate N(2)2+ dication. Experimental evidences for the opening of the Coulomb explosion channel N2++N+ at high photon energies are provided by measuring the kinetic energy release spectra of N2+ fragments at selected photon energies.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(20): 6447-53, 2006 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16706400

RESUMO

Structural aspects as well as the stability and reactivity of the CHBr(2+) dication are studied both experimentally and theoretically. Translational energy distributions of the CHBr(+) products from charge transfer between CHBr(2+) and Kr indicate that the dication exists in two isomeric forms, H-C-Br(2+) and C-Br-H(2+). In the reaction of CHBr(2+) with H(2), the dominant channel corresponds to proton transfer leading to CBr(+) + H(3)(+). Other reaction channels involve the formation of the intermediates CH(3)Br(2+) and CH(2)BrH(2+), respectively. Both of the latter dications can either lose a proton to form CH(2)Br(+) or undergo a spin-isomerization followed by cleavage of the C-Br bond. The proposed mechanisms are supported by DFT calculations and deuterium labeling experiments.

14.
J Chem Phys ; 122(9): 094306, 2005 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15836127

RESUMO

Charge stripping (CS) of the molecular ion of toluene, C(7)H(8) (+)-->C(7)H(8) (2+)+e, is often used as a reference for the determination of second ionization energies in energy-resolved CS experiments. For calibration of the kinetic energy scale, a value of IE(C(7)H(8) (+))=(15.7+/-0.2) eV derived from the appearance energy of the toluene dication upon electron ionization has been accepted generally. Triggered by some recent discrepancies between CS measurements on the one hand and different experimental methods as well as theoretical predictions on the other, we have reinvestigated the photon-induced double ionization of toluene using synchrotron radiation. These photoionization measurements yield phenomenological appearance energies of AE(C(7)H(8) (+))=(8.81+/-0.03) eV for the monocation and AE(C(7)H(8) (2+))=(23.81+/-0.06) eV for the dication. The former is in good agreement with a much more precise spectroscopic value, IE(C(7)H(8))=(8.8276+/-0.0006) eV. Explicit consideration of the Franck-Condon envelopes associated with photoionization to the dication in conjunction with the application of the Wannier law leads to an adiabatic ionization energy IE(a)(C(7)H(8) (+))=(14.8+/-0.1) eV, which is as much as 0.9 eV lower than the previous value derived from electron ionization. Because in many previous CS measurements the transition C(7)H(8) (+)-->C(7)H(8) (2+)+e was used as a reference, the energetics of several gaseous dications might need some readjustment.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 43(6): 1976-85, 2004 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15018519

RESUMO

Trimethyl vanadate(V), OV(OCH(3))(3) (1), is examined by various mass spectrometric means. Photoionization experiments yield an ionization energy of IE(OV(OCH(3))(3)) = 9.54 +/- 0.05 eV for the neutral molecule. The primary fragmentation of the molecular cation 1(+), i.e., loss of neutral formaldehyde, can occur via two independent routes of hydrogen migrations to afford the formal V(IV) compounds HOV(OCH(3))(2)(+) and OV(OCH(3))(CH(3)OH)(+), respectively. These two pathways are associated with low-lying activation barriers of almost identical height. At elevated energies, direct V-O bond cleavage of 1(+) allows for expulsion of a methoxy radical concomitant with the generation of the cationic fragment OV(OCH(3))(2)(+), a formal V(V) compound. Trimethyl vanadate can also form a molecular anion, 1(-), whose most abundant dissociation channel involves loss of a methyl radical, thereby leading to the formal V(V) compound OV(OCH(3))(2)O(-). Various mass spectrometric experiments and extensive theoretical studies provide detailed insight into the ion structures and the relative energetics of the primary dissociation reactions of the molecular cations and anions of 1.

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