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1.
Sci Adv ; 8(10): eabm5120, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275730

RESUMO

Stimuli-interactive structural color (SC) of a block copolymer (BCP) photonic crystal (PC) uses reversible alteration of the PC using external fluids and applied forces. The origin of the diffusional pathways of a stimulating fluid into a BCP PC has not been examined. Here, we directly visualize the vertically oriented screw dislocations in a one-dimensional lamellar BCP PC that facilitate the rapid response of visible SC. To reveal the diffusional pathway of the solvent via the dislocations, BCP lamellae are swollen with an interpenetrated hydrogel network, allowing fixation of the swollen state and subsequent microscopic examination. The visualized defects are low-energy helicoidal screw dislocations having unique, nonsingular cores. Location and areal density of these dislocations are determined by periodic concentric topographic nanopatterns of the upper surface-reconstructed layer. The nonsingular nature of the interlayer connectivity in the core region demonstrates the beneficial nature of these defects on sensing dynamics.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 1861-1873, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978172

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) rigid polymers provide an opportunity to translate the high-strength, high-modulus mechanical performance of classic rigid-rod 1D polymers across a plane by extending covalent bonding into two dimensions while simultaneously reducing density due to microporosity by structural design. Thus far, this potential has remained elusive because of the challenge of producing high-quality 2D polymer thin films, particularly those with irreversible, rigid benzazole linkages. Here, we present a facile two-step process that allows the deposition of a uniform intermediate film network via reversible, non-covalent interactions, followed by a subsequent solid-state annealing step that facilitates the irreversible conversion to a 2D covalently bonded polymer product with benzoxazole linkages. We demonstrate the versatility of this synthesis method by producing films with four different aromatic core units. The resulting films show microporosity and anisotropy with a 2D layered structure that can be exfoliated into few-layer nanosheets using a freeze-thaw method. These films have promising mechanical properties with an in-plane ultimate tensile strength of nearly 40 MPa and axial tensile and transverse compressive elastic moduli on the scale of several GPa, rivaling the performance of solution-cast films of 1D polybenzoxazole, as well as several other 1D high-strength polymer films.

3.
Nano Lett ; 21(8): 3355-3363, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856816

RESUMO

Herein, we aim to develop a facile method for the fabrication of mechanical metamaterials from templated polymerization of thermosets including phenolic and epoxy resins using self-assembled block copolymer, polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane with tripod network (gyroid), and tetrapod network (diamond) structures, as templates. Nanoindentation studies on the nanonetwork thermosets fabricated reveal enhanced energy dissipation from intrinsic brittle thermosets due to the deliberate structuring; the calculated energy dissipation for gyroid phenolic resins is 0.23 nJ whereas the one with diamond structure gives a value of 0.33 nJ. Consistently, the gyroid-structured epoxy gives a high energy dissipation value of 0.57 nJ, and the one with diamond structure could reach 0.78 nJ. These enhanced properties are attributed to the isotropic periodicity of the nanonetwork texture with plastic deformation, and the higher number of struts in the tetrapod diamond network in contrast to tripod gyroid, as confirmed by the finite element analysis.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723049

RESUMO

Periodic gyroid network materials have many interesting properties (band gaps, topologically protected modes, superior charge and mass transport, and outstanding mechanical properties) due to the space-group symmetries and their multichannel triply continuous morphology. The three-dimensional structure of a twin boundary in a self-assembled polystyrene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-PDMS) double-gyroid (DG) forming diblock copolymer is directly visualized using dual-beam scanning microscopy. The reconstruction clearly shows that the intermaterial dividing surface (IMDS) is smooth and continuous across the boundary plane as the pairs of chiral PDMS networks suddenly change their handedness. The boundary plane therefore acts as a topological mirror. The morphology of the normally chiral nodes and strut loops within the networks is altered in the twin-boundary plane with the formation of three new types of achiral nodes and the appearance of two new classes of achiral loops. The boundary region shares a very similar surface/volume ratio and distribution of the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the IMDS as the adjacent ordered DG grain regions, suggesting the twin is a low-energy boundary.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(6): 2003142, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747728

RESUMO

Thin layered mats comprised of an interconnected meandering network of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are subjected to a hypersonic micro-projectile impact test. The mat morphology is highly compliant and while this leads to rather modest quasi-static mechanical properties, at the extreme strain rates and large strains resulting from ballistic impact, the MWCNT structure has the ability to reconfigure resulting in extraordinary kinetic energy (KE) absorption. The KE of the projectile is dissipated via frictional interactions, adiabatic heating, tube stretching, and ultimately fracture of taut tubes and the newly formed fibrils. The energy absorbed per unit mass of the film can range from 7-12 MJ kg-1, much greater than any other material.

6.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2439-2446, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503365

RESUMO

Matrix-free assemblies of polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) enable mechanically robust materials for a variety of structural, electronic, and optical applications. Recent quasi-static mechanical studies have identified the key parameters that enhance canopy entanglement and promote plasticity of the PGNs below Tg. Here we experimentally explore the high-strain-rate shock impact behavior of polystyrene grafted NPs and compare their energy absorption capabilities to that of homopolystyrene for film thicknesses ranging from 75 to 550 nm and for impact velocities from 350 to 800 m/s. Modeling reveals that the initial shock compression results in a rapid temperature increase at the impact site. The uniformity of this heating is consistent with observations of greater kinetic energy absorption per mass (Ep*) of thinner films due to extensive visco-plastic deformation of molten film around the penetration site. Adiabatic heating is insufficient to raise the temperature at the exit surface of the thickest films resulting in increased strain localization at the impact periphery with less melt elongation. The extent and distribution of entanglements also influence Ep*. Structurally, each NP acts as a giant cross-link node, coupling surrounding nodes via the number of canopy chains per NP and the nature and number of entanglements between canopies anchored to different NPs. Load sharing via this dual network, along with geometrical factors such as film thickness, lead to extreme Ep* arising from the sequence of instantaneous adiabatic shock heating followed by visco-plastic drawing of the film by the projectile. These observations elucidate the critical factors necessary to create robust polymer-nanocomposite multifunctional films.

7.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352785

RESUMO

To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first time that a thorough study of the synthetic procedures, molecular and thermal characterization, followed by structure/properties relationship for symmetric and non-symmetric second generation (2-G) dendritic terpolymers is reported. Actually, the synthesis of the non-symmetric materials is reported for the first time in the literature. Anionic polymerization enables the synthesis of well-defined polymers that, despite the architecture complexity, absolute control over the average molecular weight, as well as block composition, is achieved. The dendritic type macromolecular architecture affects the microphase separation, because different morphologies are obtained, which do not exhibit long range order, and various defects or dislocations are evident attributed to the increased number of junction points of the final material despite the satisfactory thermal annealing at temperatures above the highest glass transition temperature of all blocks. For comparison reasons, the initial dendrons (miktoarm star terpolymer precursors) which are connected to each other in order to synthesize the final dendritic terpolymers are characterized in solution and in bulk and their self-assembly is also studied. A major conclusion is that specific structures are adopted which depend on the type of the core connection between the ligand and the active sites of the dendrons.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Polímeros/química , Polimerização , Temperatura
8.
Sci Adv ; 6(42)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055164

RESUMO

Nanonetwork-structured materials can be found in nature and synthetic materials. A double gyroid (DG) with a pair of chiral networks but opposite chirality can be formed from the self-assembly of diblock copolymers. For triblock terpolymers, an alternating gyroid (GA) with two chiral networks from distinct end blocks can be formed; however, the network chirality could be positive or negative arbitrarily, giving an achiral phase. Here, by taking advantage of chirality transfer at different length scales, GA with controlled chirality can be achieved through the self-assembly of a chiral triblock terpolymer. With the homochiral evolution from monomer to multichain domain morphology through self-assembly, the triblock terpolymer composed of a chiral end block with a single-handed helical polymer chain gives the chiral network from the chiral end block having a particular handed network. Our real-space analyses reveal the preferred chiral sense of the network in the GA, leading to a chiral phase.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(30): eabb5769, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832673

RESUMO

The development of a lightweight, low-power, user-interactive three-dimensional (3D) touchless display in which a human stimulus can be detected and simultaneously visualized in noncontact mode is of great interest. Here, we present a user-interactive 3D touchless sensing display based on multiorder reflection structural colors (SCs) of a thin, solid-state block copolymer (BCP) photonic crystal (PC). Full-visible-range SCs are developed in a BCP PC consisting of alternating lamellae, one of which contains a chemically cross-linked, interpenetrated hydrogel network. The absorption of a nonvolatile ionic liquid into the domains of the interpenetrated network allows for further manipulation of SC by using multiple-order photonic reflections, giving rise to unprecedented visible SCs arising from reflective color mixing. Furthermore, by using a hygroscopic ionic liquid ink, a printable 3D touchless interactive display is created where 3D position of a human finger is efficiently visualized in different SCs as a function of finger-to-display distance.

10.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751589

RESUMO

The synthesis, molecular and morphological characterization of a 3-miktoarm star terpolymer of polystyrene (PS, M¯n = 61.0 kg/mol), polybutadiene (PB, M¯n = 38.2 kg/mol) and polyisoprene (PI, M¯n = 29.2 kg/mol), corresponding to volume fractions (φ) of 0.46, 0.31 and 0.23 respectively, was studied. The major difference of the present material from previous ABC miktoarm stars (which is a star architecture bearing three different segments, all connected to a single junction point) with the same block components is the high 3,4-microstructure (55%) of the PI chains. The interaction parameter and the degree of polymerization of the two polydienes is sufficiently positive to create a three-phase microdomain structure as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results in combination with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and birefringence experiments suggest a cubic tricontinuous network structure, based on the I4132 space group never reported previously for such an architecture.

11.
Differentiation ; 112: 58-66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954271

RESUMO

Despite significant effort devoted to developing new treatments and procedures, cardiac disease is still one of the leading causes of death in the world. The loss of myocytes due to ischemic injury remains a major therapeutic challenge. However, cell-based therapy to repair the injured heart has shown significant promise in basic and translation research and in clinical trials. Embryonic stem cells have been successfully used to improve cardiac outcomes. Unfortunately, treatment with these cells is complicated by ethical and legal issues. Recent progress in developing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using non-viral vectors has made it possible to derive cardiomyocytes for therapy. This review will focus on these non-integration-based approaches for reprogramming and their therapeutic advantages for cardiovascular medicine.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Cardiopatias/terapia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Vetores Genéticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências
12.
Biomacromolecules ; 21(3): 1179-1185, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935074

RESUMO

Spider silks are remarkable materials designed by nature to have extraordinary elasticity. Their elasticity, however, remains poorly understood, as typical stress-strain experiments only allow access to the axial Young's modulus. In this work, micro-Brillouin light spectroscopy (micro-BLS), a noncontact, nondestructive technique, is utilized to probe the direction-dependent phonon propagation in the Nephila pilipes spider silk and hence solve its full elasticity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration on the determination of the anisotropic Young's moduli, shear moduli, and Poisson's ratios of a single spider fiber. The axial and lateral Young's moduli are found to be 20.9 ± 0.8 and 9.2 ± 0.3 GPa, respectively, and the anisotropy of the Young's moduli further increases upon stretching. In contrast, the shear moduli and Poisson's ratios exhibit very weak anisotropy and are robust to stretching.


Assuntos
Seda , Anisotropia , Módulo de Elasticidade , Elasticidade , Análise Espectral
13.
Cells ; 10(1)2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396426

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells which can proliferate and replace dead cells in the body. MSCs also secrete immunomodulatory molecules, creating a regenerative microenvironment that has an excellent potential for tissue regeneration. MSCs can be easily isolated and grown in vitro for various applications. For the past two decades, MSCs have been used in research, and many assays and tests have been developed proving that MSCs are an excellent cell source for therapy. This review focusses on quality control parameters required for applications of MSCs including colony formation, surface markers, differentiation potentials, and telomere length. Further, the specific mechanisms of action of MSCs under various conditions such as trans-differentiation, cell fusion, mitochondrial transfer, and secretion of extracellular vesicles are discussed. This review aims to underline the applications and benefits of MSCs in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo
14.
Nature ; 575(7781): 175-179, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659340

RESUMO

Supramolecular soft crystals are periodic structures that are formed by the hierarchical assembly of complex constituents, and occur in a broad variety of 'soft-matter' systems1. Such soft crystals exhibit many of the basic features (such as three-dimensional lattices and space groups) and properties (such as band structure and wave propagation) of their 'hard-matter' atomic solid counterparts, owing to the generic symmetry-based principles that underlie both2,3. 'Mesoatomic' building blocks of soft-matter crystals consist of groups of molecules, whose sub-unit-cell configurations couple strongly to supra-unit-scale symmetry. As yet, high-fidelity experimental techniques for characterizing the detailed local structure of soft matter and, in particular, for quantifying the effects of multiscale reconfigurability are quite limited. Here, by applying slice-and-view microscopy to reconstruct the micrometre-scale domain morphology of a solution-cast block copolymer double gyroid over large specimen volumes, we unambiguously characterize its supra-unit and sub-unit cell morphology. Our multiscale analysis reveals a qualitative and underappreciated distinction between this double-gyroid soft crystal and hard crystals in terms of their structural relaxations in response to forces-namely a non-affine mode of sub-unit-cell symmetry breaking that is coherently maintained over large multicell dimensions. Subject to inevitable stresses during crystal growth, the relatively soft strut lengths and diameters of the double-gyroid network can easily accommodate deformation, while the angular geometry is stiff, maintaining local correlations even under strong symmetry-breaking distortions. These features contrast sharply with the rigid lengths and bendable angles of hard crystals.

15.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 146(1): 863, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370575

RESUMO

The ability to control and direct acoustic energy is essential for many engineering applications such as vibration and noise control, invisibility cloaking, acoustic sensing, energy harvesting, and phononic switching and rectification. The realization of acoustic regulators requires overcoming fundamental challenges inherent to the time-reversal nature of wave equations. Typically, this is achieved by utilizing either a parameter that is odd-symmetric under time-reversal or by introducing passive nonlinearities. The former approach is power consuming while the latter has two major deficiencies: it has high insertion losses and the outgoing signal is harvested in a different frequency than that of the incident wave due to harmonic generation. Here, a unique approach is adopted that exploits spatially distributed linear and nonlinear losses in a fork-shaped resonant metamaterials. This compact metamaterial design demonstrates asymmetric acoustic reflectance and transmittance, and acoustic switching. In contrast to previous studies, the non-Hermitian metamaterials exhibit asymmetric transport with high frequency purity of the outgoing signal.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(10): 4080-4089, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765528

RESUMO

We explore the generality of the influence of segment chirality on the self-assembled structure of achiral-chiral diblock copolymers. Poly(cyclohexylglycolide) (PCG)-based chiral block copolymers (BCPs*), poly(benzyl methacrylate)-b-poly(d-cyclohexylglycolide) (PBnMA-PDCG) and PBnMA-b-poly(l-cyclohexyl glycolide) (PBnMA-PLCG), were synthesized for purposes of systematic comparison with polylactide (PLA)-based BCPs*, previously shown to exhibit chirality transfer from monomeric unit to the multichain domain morphology. Opposite-handed PCG helical chains in the enantiomeric BCPs* were identified by the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) studies revealing transfer from chiral monomers to chiral intrachain conformation. We report further VCD evidence of chiral interchain interactions, consistent with some amounts of handed skew configurations of PCG segments in a melt state packing. Finally, we show by electron tomography [3D transmission electron microscope tomography (3D TEM)] that chirality at the monomeric and intrachain level ultimately manifests in the symmetry of microphase-separated, multichain morphologies: a helical phase (H*) of hexagonally, ordered, helically shaped tubular domains whose handedness agrees with the respective monomeric chirality. Critically, unlike previous PLA-based BCP*s, the lack of a competing crystalline state of the chiral PCGs allowed determination that H* is an equilibrium phase of chiral PBnMA-PCG. We compared different measures of chirality at the monomer scale for PLA and PCG, and argued, on the basis of comparison with mean-field theory results for chiral diblock copolymer melts, that the enhanced thermodynamic stability of the mesochiral H* morphology may be attributed to the relatively stronger chiral intersegment forces, ultimately tracing from the effects of a bulkier chiral side group on its main chain.

17.
Soft Matter ; 14(18): 3612-3623, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683466

RESUMO

Triply-periodic networks (TPNs), like the well-known gyroid and diamond network phases, abound in soft matter assemblies, from block copolymers (BCPs), lyotropic liquid crystals and surfactants to functional architectures in biology. While TPNs are, in reality, volume-filling patterns of spatially-varying molecular composition, physical and structural models most often reduce their structure to lower-dimensional geometric objects: the 2D interfaces between chemical domains; and the 1D skeletons that thread through inter-connected, tubular domains. These lower-dimensional structures provide a useful basis of comparison to idealized geometries based on triply-periodic minimal, or constant-mean curvature surfaces, and shed important light on the spatially heterogeneous packing of molecular constituents that form the networks. Here, we propose a simple, efficient and flexible method to extract a 1D skeleton from 3D volume composition data of self-assembled networks. We apply this method to both self-consistent field theory predictions as well as experimental electron microtomography reconstructions of the double-gyroid phase of an ABA triblock copolymer. We further demonstrate how the analysis of 1D skeleton, 2D inter-domain surfaces, and combinations therefore, provide physical and structural insight into TPNs, across multiple length scales. Specifically, we propose and compare simple measures of network chirality as well as domain thickness, and analyze their spatial and statistical distributions in both ideal (theoretical) and non-ideal (experimental) double gyroid assemblies.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1653, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162804

RESUMO

Aluminium typically deforms via full dislocations due to its high stacking fault energy. Twinning in aluminium, although difficult, may occur at low temperature and high strain rate. However, the 9R phase rarely occurs in aluminium simply because of its giant stacking fault energy. Here, by using a laser-induced projectile impact testing technique, we discover a deformation-induced 9R phase with tens of nm in width in ultrafine-grained aluminium with an average grain size of 140 nm, as confirmed by extensive post-impact microscopy analyses. The stability of the 9R phase is related to the existence of sessile Frank loops. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the formation mechanisms of the 9R phase in aluminium. This study sheds lights on a deformation mechanism in metals with high stacking fault energies.

19.
Adv Mater ; 29(29)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556348

RESUMO

Structural colors (SCs) of photonic crystals (PCs) arise from selective constructive interference of incident light. Here, an ink-jet printable and rewritable block copolymer (BCP) SC display is demonstrated, which can be quickly written and erased over 50 times with resolution nearly equivalent to that obtained with a commercial office ink-jet printer. Moreover, the writing process employs an easily modified printer for position- and concentration-controlled deposition of a single, colorless, water-based ink containing a reversible crosslinking agent, ammonium persulfate. Deposition of the ink onto a self-assembled BCP PC film comprising a 1D stack of alternating layers enables differential swelling of the written BCP film and produces a full-colored SC display of characters and images. Furthermore, the information can be readily erased and the system can be reset by application of hydrogen bromide. Subsequently, new information can be rewritten, resulting in a chemically rewritable BCP SC display.

20.
Science ; 354(6310): 312-316, 2016 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846562

RESUMO

We demonstrate the dynamic creation and subsequent static evolution of extreme gradient nanograined structures in initially near-defect-free single-crystal silver microcubes. Extreme nanostructural transformations are imposed by high strain rates, strain gradients, and recrystallization in high-velocity impacts of the microcubes against an impenetrable substrate. We synthesized the silver microcubes in a bottom-up seed-growth process and use an advanced laser-induced projectile impact testing apparatus to selectively launch them at supersonic velocities (~400 meters per second). Our study provides new insights into the fundamental deformation mechanisms and the effects of crystal and sample-shape symmetries resulting from high-velocity impacts. The nanostructural transformations produced in our experiments show promising pathways to developing gradient nanograined metals for engineering applications requiring both high strength and high toughness-for example, in structural components of aircraft and spacecraft.

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