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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444126

RESUMO

Although absolute jump heights should be considered an important factor in judging the performance requirements of volleyball players, limited data is available on age-appropriate categories. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in specific anthropometric characteristics and jumping performance variables in under-19 female volleyball players in relation to playing position and performance level. The sample of subjects consisted of 354 players who prepared for the U19 Women's Volleyball European Championship 2020 (17.4 ± 0.8 years, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 67.5 ± 7.1 kg). Playing positions analyzed were setters (n = 55), opposites (n = 37), middle blockers (n = 82), outside hitters (n = 137), and liberos (n = 43). The results showed player position differences in every performance level group in variables of body height, spike, and block jump. Observed differences are a consequence of highly specific tasks of different positions in the composition of the team. Players of different performance levels are significantly different, with athletes of higher-ranked teams achieving better results. The acquired data could be useful for the selection and profiling of young volleyball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos
2.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 258-267, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211318

RESUMO

Stretching is commonly used to increase range of motion and flexibility. Therefore, investigations are usually oriented towards the muscle-tendon unit. Limited evidence exists regarding potential effects of stretching on peripheral nerves which lie within muscles. The objective of this investigation will be to elucidate the responses of peripheral nerves to stretching. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching protocols on responses of peripheral nerves were retrieved for investigation. The NHLBI tool was used for quality assessment. Outcomes included nerve stiffness, nerve displacement, pain pressure thresholds and resistive torque. A total of 10 studies were considered eligible and were included in this investigation. The quality assessment of the studies revealed an overall "fair to good" methodological quality across the included studies. All studies except for one involved healthy participants. High heterogeneity of stretching protocols was retrieved. As a consequence of stretching, nerve stiffness (-15.6%) and pain pressure thresholds (-1.9kg) increased. Nerve displacements on each movement plane for all the considered nerves and nerve deformation were also frequently observed. Peripheral nerve responses to muscle stretching include decreased nerve stiffness and increased pain pressure thresholds. Nerve displacement also frequently occurs. It is still unclear if reduced nerve displacement may lead to clinical outcomes. There is a lack of longitudinal studies regarding peripheral nerve adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 43, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate if the supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) juice may affect plasma redox balance and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters following a maximal effort test, in young physically active women. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled and crossover study comprising eight women (23.25 ± 2.95 years, 54.13 ± 9.05 kg, 157.75 ± 0.66 cm and BMI of 21.69 ± 0.66 kg/m2) was carried out. A juice containing OFI diluted in water and a Placebo solution were supplied (170 ml; OFI = 50 ml of OFI juice + 120 ml of water; Placebo = 170 ml beverage without Vitamin C and indicaxanthin). Participants consumed the OFI juice or Placebo beverage every day for 3 days, before performing a maximal cycle ergometer test, and for 2 consecutive days after the test. Plasma hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity (PAT), Skin Carotenoid Score (SCS) and HRV variables (LF, HF, LF/HF and rMSSD) were recorded at different time points. RESULTS: The OFI group showed significantly lower levels of hydroperoxides compared to the Placebo group in pre-test, post-test and 48-h post-test. PAT values of the OFI group significantly increased compared to those of the Placebo group in pre-test and 48-h post-test. SCS did not differ between groups. LF was significantly lower in the OFI group 24-h after the end of the test, whereas rMSSD was significantly higher in the OFI group 48-h post-test. CONCLUSION: OFI supplementation decreased the oxidative stress induced by intense exercise and improved autonomic balance in physically active women.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Frequência Cardíaca , Opuntia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/sangue , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Neurosci ; 22(1): 34, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT) is widely adopted to evaluate manual dexterity, it presents normative data but the test is influenced by different factors. The influence of time spent on smartphones has not been considered before, for this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate if smartphone use influences the time to complete the GPT. A total of 38 (21 women; 17 men) young adults 20.7 (1.5) years participated in the study. The time spent on the smartphones during the last seven days was recorded through the device itself and the GPT performance was measured. A correlation analysis between the time spent on the smartphone and GPT was performed while the t-test was adopted to evaluate gender differences. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between men and women in the time to complete the GPT (p = 0.20) and in the time spent on the smartphone (p = 0.87). The GPT and the time spent using the smartphone were not correlated (r = 0.044, p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: The time spent on the smartphone by young adults does not influence the time to complete the GPT, indicating that smartphone use does not influence measures of manual dexterity.

5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880736

RESUMO

Aging and menopause are associated with morphological and functional changes which may lead to loss of muscle mass and therefore quality of life. Resistance training (RT) is an effective training mode to increase muscle mass. We reviewed the existing literature to identify studies implementing RT protocols and evaluating muscle hypertrophy exclusively in healthy, postmenopausal and elderly women. Participants' age range was comprised between 50 and 80 years. The primary outcome observed was muscle hypertrophy. Fat mass was also evaluated, if available. PubMed and Web of Science were the screened database, and original articles written in English and published from 2000 up to 2020 were included. 26 articles were considered eligible and included. Quality assessment revealed a "moderate quality" of the included studies, however the majority of studies was able to reach level 4 of evidence and on overall grade of recommendation C. In total, data from 745 female participants subjected to different forms of resistance training were considered. Heterogeneity across studies was present regarding study design, intervention length (mean 16 weeks), training frequency (3 d/w), no. of exercises (n = 7.4) and participants' age (65.8 ± 4.9 years). Small-to-moderate significant increases (k = 43; SMD = 0.44; 95% CI 0.28; 0.60; p < 0.0001) of lean body mass were observed in post-menopausal and elderly women, regardless of age, intervention period, weekly training frequency and no. of exercises. No effects were noted for fat mass (k = 17; SMD = 0.27; 95% CI - 0.02; 0.55; p = 0.07). Studies need to concentrate on providing information regarding training parameters to more effectively counteract the effects of aging and menopause on skeletal muscle mass.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Like other combat sports, sambo has competition rules that divide athletes into categories based on gender, age and weight. Athletes in combat sports often resort to rapid weight loss (RWL) methods to be more competitive in lower weight categories and gain an advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker competitors. The aim of this study was to examine the methodology implemented by two different sambo age categories, junior and senior athletes, in order to attain RWL. METHODS: The sample consisted of 103 male sambo elite athletes (seniors/juniors: age 28.5 ± 4.3/18.9 ± 0.8; height (m): 1.7 ± 0.1/1.8 ± 0.1; weight (kg): 76.3 ± 17.8/74.4 ± 16.3; BMI (kg/m2): 25.0 ± 3.8/23.7 ± 3.9) who completed a survey on RWL. RESULTS: Athletes reported losing a mean of 5 kg starting approximately 12 days before a competition. The most common methodology reported by senior and junior sambo athletes was gradually increasing dieting, followed by sauna and plastic suit training. Less common methods adopted were laxatives, diuretics, the use of diet pills and vomiting. There were significant group differences for sauna and diet pill ingestion. Coaches and parents are influential people in the lives of athletes concerning the weight loss strategy to be adopted. CONCLUSIONS: This study's results unequivocally confirm the prevalent practice of RWL in both senior and junior sambo athletes. Although athletes prevalently chose "less harmful" methods, there is a need to inform parents and coaches of the risks and benefits of RWL.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Artes Marciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Laxantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Banho a Vapor/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo , Vômito
7.
Int J Sports Med ; 42(6): 481-493, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440445

RESUMO

The aim of this study will be to review the current body of literature to understand the effects of stretching on the responses of the cardiovascular system. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding the effects of stretching on responses of the cardiovascular system were investigated. Outcomes regarded heart rate(HR), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV of which baPWV for brachial-ankle and cfPWV for carotid-femoral waveforms), heart rate variability and endothelial vascular function. Subsequently, the effects of each outcome were quantitatively synthetized using meta-analytic synthesis with random-effect models. A total of 16 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. Groups were also stratified according to cross-sectional or longitudinal stretching interventions. Quality assessment through the NHLBI tools observed a "fair-to-good" quality of the studies. The meta-analytic synthesis showed a significant effect of d=0.38 concerning HR, d=2.04 regarding baPWV and d=0.46 for cfPWV. Stretching significantly reduces arterial stiffness and HR. The qualitative description of the studies was also supported by the meta-analytic synthesis. No adverse effects were reported, after stretching, in patients affected by cardiovascular disease on blood pressure. There is a lack of studies regarding vascular adaptations to stretching.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Velocidade da Onda de Pulso Carótido-Femoral/métodos , Análise de Dados , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
8.
Eur J Transl Myol ; 30(2): 9050, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782766

RESUMO

The standing broad jump (SBJ) is a valid, reliable and feasible field-based test, which can evaluate explosive strength of the lower limbs and physical fitness. This study aimed to provide normative data for the SBJ for male and female children and adolescents and describe differences in performance between age groups and genders. A total number of 2140 children and adolescents, sampled in seven European nations have been included for analysis. The SBJ was performed to derive percentile values for gender and each age group. In general, males have greater jumping performance compared to females. Data demonstrate a linear increase in the jumping distance for both males and females until adolescence. However, such increase is evident in males up to 16-17 years old, whereas in females a plateau value is met at 12-13 years old, with a subsequent decrease in the jumping performance. No differences were present in jumping performance between male and female children, however differences between male and female adolescents were evinced. The study has provided percentile values useful to monitor the physical fitness status of children and adolescents.

9.
J Aging Phys Act ; 29(1): 162-177, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788414

RESUMO

Dual-task (DT) consists of the performance of two tasks simultaneously. An index of DT difficulty has been linked to decreased postural control. Because a wide range of DT is employed, this study aimed to evaluate its effects in static balance in older adults. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were screened, and the secondary tasks were grouped as manual, reaction time, discrimination and decision making, mental tracking, verbal fluency, working memory, or "other" tasks. A total of 66 studies have been included. The meta-analysis was conducted on 28 effects and showed a significant mean effect size of d = 0.24 (p = .02, SE = 0.10; confidence interval [0.04, 0.44]), indicating a worsening in stability during DT. In conclusion, postural control was worsened by the Stroop test and the arithmetic tasks improved it. The results do not underpin any conclusive statement on the impact of DT, and a standard operating procedure was created.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Caminhada/psicologia
10.
Heliyon ; 6(8): e04678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817897

RESUMO

Background: Manual dexterity is an important aspect in everyday life, which is widely studied through the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT). Since Dual-Tasks (DT) activities are widely investigated and important to simulate everyday life situations, the objectives of the present pilot study were the evaluation of the effect of a cognitive task and a motor task during the performance of the GPT and the feasibility of the GPT in a DT contest. A secondary objective was to evaluate the training effect of the GPT. Methods: A total of 31 young adults (20 man and 11 woman, age (SD): 27.7 (2.5)) performed the GPT eight times to understand the presence of a training effect before performing the GPT in DT. The additional tasks were a secondary cognitive task and a secondary motor task. Results: All participants were able to complete the required conditions. The GPT performed in motor DT were significantly slower than those performed singularly (p < 0.01). The GPT performed with the cognitive task was slower than the secondary motor task (p < 0.05). A training effect was present up to the 4th consecutive trial. Conclusions: The GPT can be executed with a cognitive or motor task to increase the difficulty of the trial to better evaluate manual dexterity and cognitive capacities.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disease with a precocious significant impairment of growth and neuromotor development. Thyroid hormones are essential for central nervous system development, maturation, and myelination. Furthermore, thyroid hormone deficiency affects the function of several systems, including the musculoskeletal system. The disease has a significant incidence in the general population (1:3000-1:2000 newborns in Italy). The aim of the present study was to evaluate any differences in upper and lower limb strength, body sway, and plantar loading distribution in children with CH compared to healthy children. METHODS: In this study, the case group was composed of children with CH (CHG), while the control group included healthy children (CG). Both groups comprised 19 children (CHG: female = 12; CG: female = 9). The maximum isometric handgrip strength and explosive-elastic lower limb strength were assessed with the handgrip test and the Sargent test, respectively. The stabilometric and baropodometric analyses were used to measure the Center of Pressure displacements and the plantar loading distribution between feet, respectively. The differences between groups were analyzed by a univariate analysis of covariance using as covariates weight and height with the significant level set at < 0.05. RESULTS: We found that CHG children were shorter and thinner than CG ones (p < 0.05). No significant difference in the upper and lower limb strength was found between groups. CHG exhibited a significant greater Sway Path Length (p < 0.01) and Ellipse Surface (p < 0.05) than CG. Moreover, CHG displayed an asymmetric plantar loading distribution with a significant lower percentage in the right than in the left foot (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant lower plantar loading percentage in the right foot of CHG than in the right foot of CG was observed (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings seem to suggest that CH does not affect muscle strength in early treated children. However, these patients show poor postural control ability and asymmetric plantar loading distribution. Increasing the physical activity in these children could improve their body posture.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
12.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(10): 1167-1174, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A wide inter-individual variability in terms of size, orientation and insertion is observed regarding ankle ligaments. The aim of this study is to identify and describe the anatomical features of the posterior talocalcaneal ligament (PTCL) observed through the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the ankle. METHODS: The study was retrospectively carried out on 893 ankle MRI's exams. The exams have all been performed using a 1.5-T (T) MRI. The same scanning protocols and scan planes were carried out in all the exams. The first evaluated parameter was the recognition of the PTCL. Subsequently, in all those cases where the ligament was present, its features such as insertion sites, length, and thickness were evaluated. RESULTS: The PTCL identification was possible in 77 exams (8.6% of the total number). Among these, we were able to identify some variants regarding insertion sites, length, and thickness. The PTCL could be further classified into four categories based on the most common characteristics observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has identified different characteristics of the PTCL that allow us to further understand the characteristics of the ligament itself. In conclusion, the need for further studies focused on the biomechanical role of the PTCL in the ankle joint appears mandatory.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos Articulares/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Articulação Talocalcânea/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tornozelo/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ligamentos Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação Talocalcânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155773

RESUMO

Background: Physical fitness in youth is a predictor of health in adulthood. The main objective of the present study was to understand if an enriched sport activity program could increase physical fitness in a population of schoolchildren. Methods: In a sample of 672 children aged 10.0 ± 1.90 years, different motor skills were tested by the 1 kg and 3 kg ball throw (BT), the standing broad jump (SBJ), the 30 m sprint (30mS), the leger shuttle run (LSR), the illinois agility test (IGT), and the quadruped test (QT). Within the controlled-trial, the intervention group (ESA) underwent an additional warm-up protocol, which included cognitive enhancing elements, for 14 weeks while the control group continued with ordinary exercise activity. Results: A significant increase was present regarding the 1 kg and 3 kg BT, the SBJ, the 30mS, and the IGT, while no significant difference was shown regarding the QT and the LSR in the ESA group between pre and post intervention. In the control group, no differences were present for any test except for the QT and the LSR post-test. Conclusion: A 14-week structured physical intervention had moderate effects regarding throwing, jumping, sprinting, and agility in a sample of schoolchildren.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Força Muscular , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Illinois , Masculino
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18645, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895827

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Calcific tendinopathy is one of the most frequent causes of nontraumatic shoulder pain. However, intra-articular calcifications appear to be an infrequent condition. We herein report a rare case study of an intra-articular calcification of the acromioclavicular joint. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old man presented with an acute pain in the anterior superior region of the left shoulder which also radiated to the left cervical region. The man during the physical evaluation also presented severe functional limitation of the shoulder movements in all planes of motion. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis was carried out through a radiographic and an echotomographic examination, highlighting the intra-articular calcific formation associated to a reactive inflammatory reaction. INTERVENTIONS: An ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment following the guidelines for calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder was carried out. OUTCOMES: The posttreatment was satisfactory with the disappearance of the pain and the recovery of the shoulder movements in all planes of motion. LESSONS: We can affirm that the ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment in patients with calcification of the acromion-clavicular joint represents a valid and nonpainful therapeutic treatment.


Assuntos
Articulação Acromioclavicular/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/terapia , Tendinopatia/terapia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 27: 35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462989

RESUMO

Background: Muscle energy techniques are applied to reduce pain and increase range of motion. These are applied to a variety of pathological conditions and on asymptomatic subjects. There is however limited knowledge on their effectiveness and which protocol may be the most beneficial. Objective: The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy of muscle energy techniques (MET) in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Design: Systematic Review. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, NLM Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Studies regarding MET in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were considered for investigation. The main outcomes took into account range of motion, chronic and acute pain and trigger points. Two trained investigators independently screened eligible studies according to the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Randomized control trials (RCT's) were analyzed for quality using the PEDro scale. Results: A total of 26 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis: 14 regarding symptomatic patients and 12 regarding asymptomatic subjects. Quality assessment of the studies through the PEDro scale observed a "moderate to high" quality of the included records. Conclusions: MET are an effective treatment for reducing chronic and acute pain of the lower back. MET are also effective in treating chronic neck pain and chronic lateral epicondylitis. MET can be applied to increase range of motion of a joint when a functional limitation is present. Other techniques seem to be more appropriate compared to MET for trigger points.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/terapia , Doenças Assintomáticas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Manipulação Osteopática , Músculos/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16218, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to demographic changes the world's population is progressively ageing. The physiological decay of the elderly adult may lead to a reduction in the ability to balance and an increased risk of falls becoming an important issue among the elderly. In order to counteract the decay in the ability to balance, physical activity has been proven to be effective. The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature in order to identify physical activity programs able to increase balance in the elderly. METHODS: This review is based on the data from Medline-NLM, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, and SPORTDiscuss and includes randomized control trials that have analyzed balance and physical activity in healthy elderly over 65 years of age during the last decade. A final number of 8 manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis, which comprised 200 elderly with a mean age of 75.1 ±â€Š4.4 years. The sample size of the studies varied from 9 to 61 and the intervention periods from 8 to 32 weeks. RESULTS: Eight articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. The articles investigated the effects of resistance and aerobic exercise, balance training, T-bow© and wobble board training, aerobic step and stability ball training, adapted physical activity and Wii Fit training on balance outcomes. Balance measures of the studies showed improvements between 16% and 42% compared to baseline assessments. CONCLUSIONS: Balance is a multifactorial quality that can be effectively increased by different exercise training means. It is fundamental to promote physical activity in the aging adult, being that a negative effect on balance performance has been seen in the no-intervention control groups.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Humanos
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311141

RESUMO

Over the last years, a growing body of evidence suggests that gut microbial communities play a fundamental role in many aspects of human health and diseases. The gut microbiota is a very dynamic entity influenced by environment and nutritional behaviors. Considering the influence of such a microbial community on human health and its multiple mechanisms of action as the production of bioactive compounds, pathogens protection, energy homeostasis, nutrients metabolism and regulation of immunity, establishing the influences of different nutritional approach is of pivotal importance. The very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet is a very popular dietary approach used for different aims: from weight loss to neurological diseases. The aim of this review is to dissect the complex interactions between ketogenic diet and gut microbiota and how this large network may influence human health.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Microbiota , Animais , Variação Biológica Individual , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Cetose
18.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 188, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In postural stability evaluation, the dual-task concept is often adopted in order to create a more challenging situation. The dual-task consists of performing simultaneously two tasks, a primary static or dynamic motor task and an additional secondary cognitive task. Usually, a multitask condition leads to a reduction in the postural control performance, especially in older adults. Considering the wide spectrum of secondary task conditions existing in scientific literature, the present manuscript aims to write a peer-reviewed protocol that will be used in a systematic review and meta-analysis performed to identify the effects of different secondary tasks conditions in a population of older adults during static postural stability. METHODS: The study will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and for this manuscript, the PRISMA Protocol. PICOS criteria (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design) will be also followed. The population examined will be healthy older adults over 60 years of age and all quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods study design will be included. Original articles will be also included if written in English, while no restriction criteria will be applied to the country of origin. Instead, reviews, meta-analysis, abstracts, citations, scientific conferences, opinion pieces, books, books reviews, statements, letters, editorials, non-peer reviewed journals articles, and commentaries will be excluded. The research of literature will be performed using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus with words related to the topic. From each included study, information previously agreed will be extracted and inserted into a spreadsheet and a narrative synthesis containing summary tables and graphs will describe the articles taken in examination. Furthermore, a meta-analysis will be performed to establish which DT condition has a greater effect following the Hedges and Olkin approach, extension of Glass' method and Cohen's d will be calculated. DISCUSSION: The present manuscript wants to provide the protocol that will be used in the systematic review and meta-analysis with the intent to inform the researchers and professionals about the dual-task condition effects. Such will lead future investigations in using the most appropriate dual-task condition. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018116597.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189647

RESUMO

The aim of the present investigation was to describe profiles of adolescents' fitness level, identify latent classes of fitness-related risk behaviours, and describe their sociodemographic and environmental predictors. In total, 883 adolescents (16.4 ± 1.4 years; 167.3 ± 10.4 cm; 62.8 ± 13.5 kg; 62.2% males) were assessed for personal and lifestyle information and for physical fitness components. Eleven possible fitness determinants and seven predictors were included. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to determine fitness-related risk behaviours. Logistic regressions predicted class membership and assessed associations with fitness levels and fitness components. Five latent classes were recognised: 1-virtuous, 30.7% of respondents; 2-low physical activity/sport, 18.8%; 3-incorrect alcohol/food habits, 25.8%; 4-health risk/overweight, 15.9%; 5-malaise/diseases, 8.8%. Sex, age, parents' overweightness/obesity and education, and school type predicted most classes significantly. Compared to class 1, class 2 had higher odds of having all poor fitness components except upper body maximal strength; class 4 had higher risk of low muscular endurance; and class 5 was likely to have lower maximal strength, muscular endurance, and speed/agility. Educating adolescents to reach a sufficient practice of PA/sport could help decreasing the risk of low health-related fitness more than discouraging them from using alcohol, addressing proper food behaviours and habits, and helping them understand their psychophysical malaise symptoms.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Aptidão Física , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Esportes
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