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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been vast and are not limited to physical health. Many adolescents have experienced disruptions to daily life, including changes in their school routine and family's financial or emotional security, potentially impacting their emotional wellbeing. In low COVID-19 prevalence settings, the impact of isolation has been mitigated for most young people through continued face-to-face schooling, yet there may still be significant impacts on their wellbeing that could be attributed to the pandemic. METHODS: We report on data from 32,849 surveys from Year 7-12 students in 40 schools over two 2020 survey cycles (June/July: 19,240; October: 13,609), drawn from a study of 79 primary and secondary schools across Western Australia, Australia. The Child Health Utility Index (CHU9D) was used to measure difficulties and distress in responding secondary school students only. Using comparable Australian data collected six years prior to the pandemic, the CHU9D was calibrated against the Kessler-10 to establish a reliable threshold for CHU9D-rated distress. RESULTS: Compared to 14% of responding 12-18-year-olds in 2013/2014, in both 2020 survey cycles almost 40% of secondary students returned a CHU9D score above a threshold indicative of elevated difficulties and distress. Student distress increased significantly between June and October 2020. Female students, those in older Grades, those with few friendships or perceived poor quality friendships, and those with poor connectedness to school were more likely to score above the threshold. CONCLUSIONS: In a large dataset collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion of secondary school students with scores indicative of difficulties and distress was substantially higher than a 2013/2014 benchmark, and distress increased as the pandemic progressed, despite the low local prevalence of COVID-19. This may indicate a general decline in social and emotional wellbeing exacerbated by the events of the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTRN (ACTRN12620000922976). Retrospectively registered 17/08/2020. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=380429&isReview=true .

2.
Phys Rev E ; 104(4-2): 045212, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781487

RESUMO

We investigated the self-excited as well as optogalvanically stimulated heartbeat instability in RF discharge complex plasma. Three video cameras measured the motion of the microparticles, the plasma emission, and the laser-induced fluorescence simultaneously. Comprehensive studies of the optogalvanic control of the heartbeat instability revealed that the microparticle suspension can be stabilized by a continuous laser, whereas a modulated laser beam induces the void contraction either transiently or resonantly. The resonance occurred when the laser modulation frequency coincided with the frequency of small breathing oscillations of the microparticle suspension, which are known to be a prerequisite to the heartbeat instability. Based on the experimental results we suggest that the void contraction during the instability is caused by an abrupt void transition from the dim to the bright regime [Pikalev et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 30, 035014 (2021)PSTEEU0963-025210.1088/1361-6595/abe0a2]. In the bright regime, a time-averaged electric field at the void boundary heats the electrons causing bright plasma emission inside the void. The dim void has much lower electric field at the boundary and exhibits therefore no emission feature associated with it.

3.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(10): 103505, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717406

RESUMO

In this paper, we give a detailed description of a novel plasma chamber-the Zyflex chamber-that has been specifically designed for complex/dusty plasma research under reduced gravitational influence as realized during parabolic flight or aboard the International Space Station. The cylindrical, radio-frequency driven discharge device includes a variety of innovations that, for example, allow us to flexibly adjust plasma parameters and its volume via enhanced plasma generation control and a movable, multi-segmented electrode system. The new complex/dusty plasma research tool also supports, due to its overall increased size compared to former space based complex plasma experiments such as PKE-Nefedov or PK-3 Plus, much larger particle systems. Additionally, it can be operated at much lower neutral gas pressures, thus reducing the damping of particle motion considerably. Beyond the technical description and particle-in-cell simulation based characterization of the plasma vessel, we show sample results from experiments performed with this device in the laboratory as well as during parabolic flights, both of which clearly demonstrate the new quality of complex/dusty plasma research that becomes accessible with this new plasma device.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 103(6-1): 063212, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271636

RESUMO

Microparticle suspensions in a polarity-switched discharge plasma of the Plasmakristall-4 facility on board the International Space Station exhibit string-like order. As pointed out in [Phys. Rev. Research 2, 033314 (2020)2643-156410.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.033314], the string-order is subject to evolution on the timescale of minutes at constant gas pressure and constant parameters of polarity switching. We perform a detailed analysis of this evolution using the pair correlations and length spectrum of the string-like clusters (SLCs). Average exponential decay rate of the SLC length spectrum is used as a measure of string order. The analysis shows that the improvement of the string-like order is accompanied by the decrease of the thickness of the microparticle suspension, microparticle number density, and total amount of microparticles in the field of view. This suggests that the observed long-term evolution of the string-like order is caused by the redistribution of the microparticles, which significantly modifies the plasma conditions.

5.
Nanoscale ; 12(19): 10447-10455, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379259

RESUMO

2D nanosheets give enhanced surface area to volume ratios in particle morphology and they can also provide defined surface sites to disperse foreign atoms. Placing atoms of catalytic interest on 2D nanosheets as Single Atom Catalysts (SAC) represents one of the novel approaches due to their unique but tunable electronic and steric characteristics. Here in this mini-review, we particularly highlight some recent and important developments on heteroatom doped MoS2 nanosheets (SAC-MoS2) as catalysts for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water, which could lead to opening up to a flagship of important renewable technologies in future. It is shown that the nature of dopants, doping positions and the polytypes of MoS2 nanosheets are the determining factors in the overall catalytic abilities of these functionalised nanosheets. This may serve to obtain atomic models which lead to further understanding of the 'metal-support interaction' in catalysis.

6.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience ; 18(2): 226-229, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892222

RESUMO

Ability to direct neuronal growth not only carries great potential for treating neural conditions-for example, bridging traumatically shattered connections-but would also be an exquisite tool for bionic applications that require a physical interface between neurons and electronics. A testing platform is needed to better understand axonal guidance in the context of a specific in vivo application. Versatility of 3D printing technology allows tailoring to researcher needs, both in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we establish a fibro-neuronal co-culture inspired by our neural interface research and demonstrate axon alignment on a textured substrate fabricated with a common, versatile 3D-printing set-up.


Assuntos
Orientação de Axônios , Técnicas de Cocultura , Animais , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Neurônios/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos
7.
J Neurosci ; 38(49): 10438-10443, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355636

RESUMO

Considerable recent evidence indicates that angular gyrus dysfunction in humans does not result in amnesia, but does impair a number of aspects of episodic memory. Patients with parietal lobe lesions have been reported to exhibit a deficit when freely recalling autobiographical events from their pasts, but can remember details of the events when recall is cued by specific questions. In apparent contradiction, inhibitory brain stimulation targeting angular gyrus in healthy volunteers has been found to have no effect on free recall or cued recall of word pairs. The present study sought to resolve this inconsistency by testing free and cued recall of both autobiographical memories and word-pair memories in the same healthy male and female human participants following continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of angular gyrus and a vertex control location. Angular gyrus cTBS resulted in a selective reduction in the free recall, but not cued recall, of autobiographical memories, whereas free and cued recall of word-pair memories were unaffected. Additionally, participants reported fewer autobiographical episodes as being experienced from a first-person perspective following angular gyrus cTBS. The findings add to a growing body of evidence that a function of angular gyrus within the network of brain regions responsible for episodic recollection is to integrate memory features within an egocentric framework into the kind of first-person perspective representation that enables the subjective experience of remembering events from our personal pasts.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In seeking to understand the role played by the angular gyrus region of parietal cortex in human memory, interpreting the often conflicting findings from neuroimaging and neuropsychology studies has been hampered by differences in anatomical specificity and localization between methods. In the present study, we address these limitations using continuous theta burst stimulation in healthy volunteers to disrupt function of angular gyrus and a vertex control region. With this method, we adjudicate between two competing theories of parietal lobe function, finding evidence that is inconsistent with an attentional role for angular gyrus in memory, supporting instead an account in terms of integrating memory features within an egocentric framework into a first-person perspective representation that enables the subjective experience of remembering.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Chem Sci ; 9(21): 4769-4776, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910927

RESUMO

Surface sites of extensively exposed basal planes of MoS2 monolayer nanosheets, prepared via BuLi exfoliation of MoS2, have been doped with transition metal atoms for the first time to produce 2D monolayer catalysts used for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Their HER activity is significantly higher than the corresponding thin and bulk MoS2 layers. HAADF-STEM images show direct proof that single transition metal atoms reside at the surface basal sites, which subtly modify the electro-catalytic activity of the monolayer MoS2, dependent on their electronic and stereospecific properties. It is found that these dopants play an important role in tuning the hydrogen adsorption enthalpies of the exposed surface S atoms and Mo atoms in HER. We report electrochemical testing, characterization and computational modelling and demonstrate that Co can significantly enhance the HER activity by the dominant Co-S interaction, whereas Ni substantially lowers the HER rate due to the Ni-Mo interaction at the same basal site. The two transition metal dopants show opposite doping behavior despite the fact that they are neighbors in the periodic table.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(7): 075002, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256868

RESUMO

The wake-mediated propulsion of an "extra" particle in a channel of two neighboring rows of a two-dimensional plasma crystal, observed experimentally by Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 021101(R) (2014)PRESCM1539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.021101], is explained in simulations and theory. We use the simple model of a pointlike ion wake charge to reproduce this intriguing effect in simulations, allowing for a detailed investigation and a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics. We show that the nonreciprocity of the particle interaction, owing to the wake charges, is responsible for a broken symmetry of the channel that enables a persistent self-propelled motion of the extra particle. We find good agreement of the terminal extra-particle velocity with our theoretical considerations and with experiments.

10.
Phys Rev E ; 96(3-1): 033203, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347052

RESUMO

The effect of micron-sized particles on a low-pressure capacitively coupled rf discharge is studied both experimentally and using numerical simulations. In the laboratory experiments, microparticle clouds occupying a considerable fraction of the discharge volume are supported against gravity with the help of the thermophoretic force. The spatiotemporally resolved optical emission measurements are performed with different arrangements of microparticles. The numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of a one-dimensional hybrid (fluid-kinetic) discharge model describing the interaction between plasma and microparticles in a self-consistent way. The study is focused on the role of microparticle arrangement in interpreting the spatiotemporal emission measurements. We show that it is not possible to reproduce simultaneously the observed microparticle arrangement and emission pattern in the framework of the considered one-dimensional model. This disagreement can be attributed to the two-dimensional effects (e.g., radial diffusion of the plasma components) or to the lack of the proper description of the sharp void boundary in the frame of fluid approach.

11.
Phys Rev E ; 96(1-1): 011201, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347228

RESUMO

Spontaneous formation of spinning pairs of particles, or torsions, is studied in a single-layer complex plasma crystal by reducing the discharge power at constant neutral gas pressure. At higher gas pressures, torsions spontaneously form below a certain power threshold. Further reduction of the discharge power leads to the formation of multiple torsions. However, at lower gas pressures the torsion formation is preceded by mode-coupling instability (MCI). The crystal dynamics are studied with the help of the fluctuation spectra of crystal particles' in-plane velocities. Surprisingly, the spectra of the crystal with torsions and MCI are rather similar and contain hot spots at similar locations on the (k,ω) plane, despite very different appearances of the respective particle trajectories. The torsion rotation speed is close (slightly below) to the maximum frequency of the in-plane compressional mode. When multiple torsions form, their rotation speeds are distributed in a narrow range slightly below the maximum frequency.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(25): 255001, 2017 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303297

RESUMO

We report an experimental observation of the coupling of the transverse vertical and longitudinal in-plane dust-lattice wave modes in a two-dimensional complex plasma crystal in the absence of mode crossing. A new large-diameter rf plasma chamber was used to suspend the plasma crystal. The observations are confirmed with molecular dynamics simulations. The coupling manifests itself in traces of the transverse vertical mode appearing in the measured longitudinal spectra and vice versa. We calculate the expected ratio of the trace to the principal mode with a theoretical analysis of the modes in a crystal with finite temperature and find good agreement with the experiment and simulations.

13.
Phys Rev E ; 94(3-1): 033204, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27739834

RESUMO

We propose a method of determination of the dust particle spatial distribution in dust clouds that form in three-dimensional (3D) complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. The method utilizes the data obtained during the 3D scanning of a cloud, and it provides reasonably good accuracy. Based on this method, we investigate the particle density in a dust cloud realized in gas discharge plasma in the PK-3 Plus setup onboard the International Space Station. We find that the treated dust clouds are both anisotropic and inhomogeneous. One can isolate two regimes in which a stationary dust cloud can be observed. At low pressures, the particle density decreases monotonically with the increase of the distance from the discharge center; at higher pressures, the density distribution has a shallow minimum. Regardless of the regime, we detect a cusp of the distribution at the void boundary and a slowly varying density at larger distances (in the foot region). A theoretical interpretation of the obtained results is developed that leads to reasonable estimates of the densities for both the cusp and the foot. The modified ionization equation of state, which allows for violation of the local quasineutrality in the cusp region, predicts the spatial distributions of ion and electron densities to be measured in future experiments.

14.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(9): 093505, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782568

RESUMO

New complex-plasma facility, Plasmakristall-4 (PK-4), has been recently commissioned on board the International Space Station. In complex plasmas, the subsystem of µm-sized microparticles immersed in low-pressure weakly ionized gas-discharge plasmas becomes strongly coupled due to the high (103-104 e) electric charge on the microparticle surface. The microparticle subsystem of complex plasmas is available for the observation at the kinetic level, which makes complex plasmas appropriate for particle-resolved modeling of classical condensed matter phenomena. The main purpose of PK-4 is the investigation of flowing complex plasmas. To generate plasma, PK-4 makes use of a classical dc discharge in a glass tube, whose polarity can be switched with the frequency of the order of 100 Hz. This frequency is high enough not to be felt by the relatively heavy microparticles. The duty cycle of the polarity switching can be also varied allowing to vary the drift velocity of the microparticles and (when necessary) to trap them. The facility is equipped with two videocameras and illumination laser for the microparticle imaging, kaleidoscopic plasma glow observation system and minispectrometer for plasma diagnostics and various microparticle manipulation devices (e.g., powerful manipulation laser). Scientific experiments are programmed in the form of scripts written with the help of specially developed C scripting language libraries. PK-4 is mainly operated from the ground (control center CADMOS in Toulouse, France) with the support of the space station crew. Data recorded during the experiments are later on delivered to the ground on the removable hard disk drives and distributed to participating scientists for the detailed analysis.

15.
Phys Rev E ; 93(5): 053202, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27300990

RESUMO

A unique type of quasi-two-dimensional complex plasma system was observed which consisted of monodisperse microspheres and their binary agglomerations (dimers). The particles and their dimers levitated in a plasma sheath at slightly different heights and formed two distinct sublayers. The system did not crystallize and may be characterized as a disordered solid. The dimers were identified based on their characteristic appearance in defocused images, i.e., rotating interference fringe patterns. The in-plane and interplane particle separations exhibit nonmonotonic dependence on the discharge pressure.

16.
Phys Rev E ; 93(3): 031201, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078284

RESUMO

An interferometric imaging technique has been proposed to instantly measure the diameter of individual spherical dust particles suspended in a gas discharge plasma. The technique is based on the defocused image analysis of both spherical particles and their binary agglomerates. Above a critical diameter, the defocused images of spherical particles contain stationary interference fringe patterns and the fringe number increases with particle diameters. Below this critical diameter, the particle size has been measured using the rotational interference fringe patterns which appear only on the defocused images of binary agglomerates. In this case, a lower cutoff limit of particle diameter has been predicted, below which no such rotational fringe patterns are observed for the binary agglomerates. The method can be useful as a diagnostics for complex plasma experiments on earth as well as under microgravity conditions.

17.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(3): 033505, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27036775

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a single-layer plasma crystal was performed using a commercial plenoptic camera. To enhance the out-of-plane oscillations of particles in the crystal, the mode-coupling instability (MCI) was triggered in it by lowering the discharge power below a threshold. 3D coordinates of all particles in the crystal were extracted from the recorded videos. All three fundamental wave modes of the plasma crystal were calculated from these data. In the out-of-plane spectrum, only the MCI-induced hot spots (corresponding to the unstable hybrid mode) were resolved. The results are in agreement with theory and show that plenoptic cameras can be used to measure the 3D dynamics of plasma crystals.

18.
Phys Rev E ; 93(1): 013204, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26871180

RESUMO

The spectral asymmetry of the wave-energy distribution of dust particles during mode-coupling-induced melting, observed for the first time in plasma crystals by Couëdel et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 053108 (2014)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.89.053108], is studied theoretically and by molecular-dynamics simulations. It is shown that an anisotropy of the well confining the microparticles selects the directions of preferred particle motion. The observed differences in intensity of waves of opposed directions are explained by a nonvanishing phonon flux. Anisotropic phonon scattering by defects and Umklapp scattering are proposed as possible reasons for the mean phonon flux.

19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(43): 8962-5, 2015 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25929791

RESUMO

(7)Li-(7)Li correlation MAS NMR spectroscopy, interpreted using periodic DFT including molecular dynamics conformational sampling of Li(+) sites, is employed to obtain the siting of Li(+) at exchangeable positions of ferrierites and the local structure of these Li(+) sites. The former is controlled by the Al siting in the zeolite framework.

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