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1.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anhedonia, or loss of pleasure, is related to deficits in reward processing across a variety of psychiatric disorders. In light of research suggesting abnormal reward processing in eating disorders (EDs), the study of anhedonia in EDs may yield important insights into the role of reward in eating pathology. This meta-analysis and review aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the existing literature on this topic. METHOD: We conducted this research (or these meta-analyses) according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched four databases for both peer-reviewed and unpublished literature, and included studies only if a self-report or clinical interview measure of anhedonia was administered to a sample with an ED diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 21 studies in the systematic review, and 10 studies in two meta-analyses that compared anhedonia between ED and control samples (n = 9 studies) and within different ED diagnoses (n = 5 studies). Meta-analyses revealed that anhedonia was significantly higher in ED groups compared to healthy controls, but there was no significant difference in anhedonia between ED diagnostic groups. A qualitative review of the literature also suggested that anhedonia may be correlated with increased ED symptom severity. DISCUSSION: Findings indicated that anhedonia is elevated in EDs and may be a relevant treatment target. Future research should examine how self-reported anhedonia may correlate with components of reward processing in EDs in order to improve theoretical models as well as targeted interventions.

2.
Ment Health Phys Act ; 21: 100407, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804201

RESUMO

Background: While lockdown restrictions in response to COVID-19 indisputably mitigated virus transmission, the aim of this longitudinal study was to establish indirect effects on vulnerable young people's mental well-being and physical activity (PA) levels. Methods: Surveys conducted at time 1 (February 2020), and time 2 (April 2020) comprised of the short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and self-reported moderate and vigorous PA levels. Repeated measures analyses established changes pre-post lockdown restrictions, and differences between sub-groups. Associations between changes in well-being, self-esteem and PA over time were explored through further regression analyses. Results: 65 respondents completed the survey at time 1, and 50 respondent at time 2. Wellbeing increased significantly over time, yet remained significantly lower than the population average. Self-esteem increased significantly post-lockdown, however remained significantly lower for females, compared with males. Overall, PA levels increased-whereby 'inactive' participants at time 1 reported significant increases in moderate and total activity levels at time 2. Increased PA levels significantly predicted increased well-being: F(1, 48) = 4.15, p < .05; while participants who had become less active accounted for 69.2% with low self-esteem at time 2. Conclusions: Findings indicate that increased PA accounted for improved mental well-being, while decreased PA was associated with reduced levels of self-esteem. PA may represent a modifiable means of mitigating risk, and promoting resilience for vulnerable young people experiencing adverse conditions.

3.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(4)2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698287

RESUMO

Project Vigilancia de Embarazadas con Zika (VEZ), an intensified surveillance of pregnant women with symptoms of the Zika virus disease (ZVD) in Colombia, aimed to evaluate the relationship between symptoms of ZVD during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. During May-November 2016, pregnant women in three Colombian cities who were reported with symptoms of ZVD to the national surveillance system, or with symptoms of ZVD visiting participating clinics, were enrolled in Project VEZ. Data from maternal and pediatric (up to two years of age) medical records were abstracted. Available maternal specimens were tested for the presence of the Zika virus ribonucleic acid and/or anti-Zika virus immunoglobulin antibodies. Of 1213 enrolled pregnant women with symptoms of ZVD, 1180 had a known pregnancy outcome. Results of the Zika virus laboratory testing were available for 569 (48.2%) pregnancies with a known pregnancy outcome though testing timing varied and was often distal to the timing of symptoms; 254 (21.5% of the whole cohort; 44.6% of those with testing results) were confirmed or presumptive positive for the Zika virus infection. Of pregnancies with a known outcome, 50 (4.2%) fetuses/infants had Zika-associated brain or eye defects, which included microcephaly at birth. Early childhood adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes were more common among those with Zika-associated birth defects than among those without and more common among those with laboratory evidence of a Zika virus infection compared with the full cohort. The proportion of fetuses/infants with any Zika-associated brain or eye defect was consistent with the proportion seen in other studies. Enhancements to Colombia's existing national surveillance enabled the assessment of adverse outcomes associated with ZVD in pregnancy.

5.
J Neurophysiol ; 126(5): 1622-1634, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495785

RESUMO

Choline is an essential nutrient under evaluation as a cognitive enhancing treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in clinical trials. As a result, there is increased pressure to identify therapeutic mechanism(s) of action. Choline is not only a precursor for several essential cell membrane components and signaling molecules but also has the potential to directly affect synaptic mechanisms that are believed important for cognitive processes. In the current work, we study how the direct application of choline can affect synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampal slices obtained from adolescent (postnatal days 21-28) Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus). The acute administration of choline chloride (2 mM) reliably induced a long-term depression (LTD) of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the DG in vitro. The depression required the involvement of M1 receptors, and the magnitude of the effect was similar in slices obtained from male and female animals. To further study the impact of choline in an animal model of FASD, we examined offspring from dams fed an ethanol-containing diet (35.5% ethanol-derived calories) throughout gestation. In slices from the adolescent animals that experienced prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE), we found that the choline induced an LTD that uniquely involved the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and M1 receptors. This study provides a novel insight into how choline can modulate hippocampal transmission at the level of the synapse and that it can have unique effects following PNEE.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Choline supplementation is a nutraceutical therapy with significant potential for a variety of developmental disorders; however, the mechanisms involved in its therapeutic effects remain poorly understood. Our research shows that choline directly impacts synaptic communication in the brain, inducing a long-term depression of synaptic efficacy in brain slices. The depression is equivalent in male and female animals, involves M1 receptors in control animals, but uniquely involves NMDA receptors in a model of FASD.

6.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(5)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496463

RESUMO

Objective: The DSM-5 criteria for avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) include ambiguities. Diagnostic criteria that allow for clinical judgment are essential for clinical practice. However, ambiguities can have major implications for treatment access and comparability and generalizability of research studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which distinct operationalizations of the diagnostic criteria for ARFID contribute to differences in the frequency of individuals who are eligible for the ARFID diagnosis.Methods: Because criteria B, C, and D are rule-outs, we focused on criterion A, identified 19 potential operational definitions, and determined the extent to which these different methods impacted the proportion of individuals who met criteria for ARFID in a sample of children, adolescents, and young adults (n = 80; September 2016-February 2020) enrolled in an avoidant/restrictive eating study.Results: Within each criterion, the proportion of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria differed significantly across the methodologies (all P values < .008). Using the strictest definition of each criterion, 50.0% (n = 40) of participants met criteria for ARFID. In contrast, under the most lenient definition of each criterion, the number nearly doubled, resulting in 97.5% (n = 78) meeting ARFID criteria.Conclusions: Comparison of diagnostic definitions for ARFID among children, adolescents, and young adults confirmed a broad range of statistically distinct proportions within a single sample. Our findings support the need for additional contextual support and consensus among disciplines on operationalization in both research and clinical settings.

7.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(11): 2246-2255, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently showed that alcohol and cannabis can interact prenatally, and in a recent review paper, we identified parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons in the hippocampus as a potential point of convergence for these teratogens. METHODS: A 2 (Ethanol [EtOH], Air) × 2 (tetrahydrocannabinol [THC], Vehicle) design was used to expose pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either EtOH or air, in addition to either THC or the inhalant vehicle solution, during gestational days 5-20. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect PV interneurons in 1 male and 1 female pup from each litter at postnatal day 70. RESULTS: Significant between-group and subregion-specific effects were found in the dorsal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) subfield and the ventral dentate gyrus (DG). In the dorsal CA1 subfield, there was an increase in the number of PV interneurons in both the EtOH and EtOH +THC groups, but a decrease with THC alone. There were fewer changes in interneuron numbers overall in the DG, though there was a sex difference, with a decrease in the number of PV interneurons in the THC-exposed group in males. There was also a greater cell layer volume in the DG in the EtOH +THC group than the control group, and in the CA1 region in the EtOH group compared to the control and THC groups. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to alcohol and THC differentially affects parvalbumin-positive interneuron numbers in the hippocampus, indicating that both individual and combined exposure can impact the balance of excitation and inhibition in a structure critically involved in learning and memory processes.

8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(10): 1719-1729, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555191

RESUMO

This editorial seeks to encourage the increased application of three open science practices in eating disorders research: Preregistration, Registered Reports, and the sharing of materials, data, and code. For each of these practices, we introduce updated International Journal of Eating Disorders author and reviewer guidance. Updates include the introduction of open science badges; specific instructions about how to improve transparency; and the introduction of Registered Reports of systematic or meta-analytical reviews. The editorial also seeks to encourage the study of open science practices. Open science practices pose considerable time and other resource burdens. Therefore, research is needed to help determine the value of these added burdens and to identify efficient strategies for implementing open science practices.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Humanos
9.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 247, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with structural brain abnormalities. Studies have reported less cerebral tissue and more cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in individuals with AN relative to healthy controls, although findings are variable and inconsistent due to variations in sample size, age, and disease state (e.g., active AN, weight-recovered AN). Further, it remains unclear if structural brain abnormalities observed in AN are a consequence of specific brain pathologies or malnutrition, as very few longitudinal neuroimaging studies in AN have been completed. METHODS: To overcome this issue, this comprehensive meta-analysis will combine region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approaches to understand how regional and global structural brain abnormalities differ among individuals with AN and healthy controls (HCs). Additionally, we aim to understand how clinical characteristics and physiological changes during the course of illness, including acute illness vs. weight recovery, may moderate these structural abnormalities. We will create an online database of studies that have investigated structural brain abnormalities in AN. Data will be reviewed independently by two members of our team using MEDLINE databases, Web of Science, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and CINAHL. We will conduct ROI and VBM meta-analysis using seed-based d mapping in AN and HCs. We will include all studies that include structural neuroimaging of individuals with AN (both acute and weight-recovered) and HCs between January 1997 and 2020. DISCUSSION: This systematic review will assess the effects of AN compared to HC on brain structure. Futhermore, it will explore the role of acute AN and weight-recovered AN on brain structure. Findings will help researchers and clinicians to better understand the course of illness in AN and the nature of recovery, in terms of weight, malnutrition, and the state of the brain. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020180921.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Metanálise como Assunto , Neuroimagem , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 402, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babesia species are intraerythrocytic Apicomplexan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. These pathogens are typically transmitted either by tick vectors or by direct blood-to-blood contact, and may cause life-threatening clinical disease, such as thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure, in canine hosts. While Babesia vogeli and Babesia gibsoni infections have both been reported in Oklahoma, reports of Babesia conradae infections have been limited to California. METHODS: Four separate kennels of coyote-hunting dogs were identified in Oklahoma after the kennels had consulted with Oklahoma State University Boren Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (antemortem cases) or the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Lab (postmortem cases). Upon owner consent, every accessible dog from each of the four kennels was briefly examined for ectoparasites, particularly ticks, and whole blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes. Clinically ill dogs were examined by a practicing veterinarian, and clinical signs included anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, fever and anemia. DNA was extracted from each blood sample, and a nested PCR was performed using general apicomplexan primers for the partial 18S rRNA gene. PCR products were electrophoresed in agarose matrix, and appropriately sized amplicons were sequenced. Sequences were compared to reference 18S rRNA gene sequences available in GenBank, and samples with > 98% homology to B. conradae (GenBank: AF158702) were considered positive. Babesia conradae-positive dogs were then treated with atovaquone (13.5 mg/kg three times per day) and azithromycin (10 mg/kg once daily) for 10 days and retested at 30 and 60 days post-treatment by PCR. RESULTS: Of 40 dogs tested, 15 (37.5%) were positive for B. conradae with 98-99% sequence homology to B. conradae from California. All positive cases were coyote-hunting Greyhounds. Ectoparasites were not identified on any of the dogs at the time of blood collection. Treatment of clinically ill dogs with atovaquone and azithromycin resulted in complete clinical recovery in all treated dogs with negative follow-up PCR at 30 and 60 days post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, this study (i) documents the occurrence of B. conradae in Oklahoma, (ii) highlights this pathogen as a differential to be considered when clinical signs are present, (iii) supports the use of atovaquone and azithromycin as effective treatment in these cases and (iv) demonstrates chronic subclinical carrier dogs serving as potential reservoirs of B. conradae infection to naïve dogs.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães Trabalhadores/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Coiotes , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
11.
J Behav Cogn Ther ; 31(1): 47-55, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423319

RESUMO

There are currently no evidence-based treatments for adults with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and proof-of-concept of cognitive-behavioral therapy for ARFID (CBT-AR) for adults. Males and females (ages 18-55 years) were offered 20-30 outpatient sessions of CBT-AR delivered by one of five therapists. Of 18 eligible adults offered CBT-AR, 15 chose to participate and 14 completed treatment. All patients endorsed high ratings of treatment credibility and expected improvement after the first session, and 93% of completers provided high ratings of satisfaction at the conclusion of treatment. Therapists rated the majority (80%) of patients as "much improved" or "very much improved." Based on intent-to-treat analyses, ARFID severity on the Pica, ARFID, and Rumination Disorder Interview (PARDI) showed a large and significant decrease from pre- to post-treatment; and patients incorporated a mean of 18.0 novel foods. The underweight subgroup (n = 4) gained an average of 11.38 pounds, showing a large and significant increase in mean BMI from the underweight to the normal-weight range. At post-treatment, 47% of patients no longer met criteria for ARFID. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective treatment study of ARFID in adults. The findings of this study provide preliminary evidence of feasibility, acceptability, and proof-of-concept of CBT-AR for heterogeneous presentations of ARFID in adults. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02963220.

12.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 36, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When considering adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, many different cut-points are used. The primary goals of this study were to identify a level of self-reported medication adherence that best distinguished HIV viral suppression from non-suppression, and to compare the ability of a single-item and a 3-item adherence questionnaire to predict HIV viral suppression. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 380 persons with HIV (PWH) from the Florida Cohort study who completed a self-reported ART adherence measure within 30-days of having an HIV viral load test. We used Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and ROCContrast to compare the ability of a single-item and a 3-item self-reported adherence measure to predict HIV viral suppression (defined as ≤ 200 copies/mL). We used the Youden index and chi square statistics to assess specific cut-points, and repeated the analysis with a different definition of HIV viral suppression (≤ 1000 copies/mL). RESULTS: The mean percent adherence was 92.4% using the single-item score and 90.4% using the 3-item score; 81.6% had viral suppression. The areas under the curve for the single-item and 3-item adherence measures were generally poor overall and not significantly different from each other (0.589 and 0.580, p = 0.67). The Youden index identified cut-points of 93% and 89% as maximizing the sensitivity and specificity for the single-item and 3-item measures, respectively, whereas a cut-point of 80% on the single-item measure was best able to discriminate those with viral suppression (58% vs. 84%, p < 0.001). Results were similar with viral suppression defined as ≤ 1000 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of PWH, a single question on medication adherence was as good as a 3-item questionnaire in predicting HIV viral suppression, although neither had good discriminatory ability. A cut-point close to 90% adherence maximized sensitivity and specificity, although viral suppression was very similar for nearly all measures above 80%.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrelato , Carga Viral
13.
mBio ; 12(3)2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006659

RESUMO

Carriage evaluations were conducted during 2015 to 2016 at two U.S. universities in conjunction with the response to disease outbreaks caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and at a university where outbreak and response activities had not occurred. All eligible students at the two universities received the serogroup B meningococcal factor H binding protein vaccine (MenB-FHbp); 5.2% of students (181/3,509) at one university received MenB-4C. A total of 1,514 meningococcal carriage isolates were obtained from 8,905 oropharyngeal swabs from 7,001 unique participants. Whole-genome sequencing data were analyzed to understand MenB-FHbp's impact on carriage and antigen genetic diversity and distribution. Of 1,422 isolates from carriers with known vaccination status (726 [51.0%] from MenB-FHbp-vaccinated, 42 [3.0%] from MenB-4C-vaccinated, and 654 [46.0%] from unvaccinated participants), 1,406 (98.9%) had intact fHbp alleles (716 from MenB-FHbp-vaccinated participants). Of 726 isolates from MenB-FHbp-vaccinated participants, 250 (34.4%) harbored FHbp peptides that may be covered by MenB-FHbp. Genogroup B was detected in 122/1,422 (8.6%) and 112/1,422 (7.9%) isolates from MenB-FHbp-vaccinated and unvaccinated participants, respectively. FHbp subfamily and peptide distributions between MenB-FHbp-vaccinated and unvaccinated participants were not statistically different. Eighteen of 161 MenB-FHbp-vaccinated repeat carriers (11.2%) acquired a new strain containing one or more new vaccine antigen peptides during multiple rounds of sample collection, which was not statistically different (P = 0.3176) from the unvaccinated repeat carriers (1/30; 3.3%). Our findings suggest that lack of MenB vaccine impact on carriage was not due to missing the intact fHbp gene; MenB-FHbp did not affect antigen genetic diversity and distribution during the study period.IMPORTANCE The impact of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines on carriage is not completely understood. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we assessed the diversity and distribution of MenB vaccine antigens (particularly FHbp) among 1,514 meningococcal carriage isolates recovered from vaccinated and unvaccinated students at three U.S. universities, two of which underwent MenB-FHbp mass vaccination campaigns following meningococcal disease outbreaks. The majority of carriage isolates recovered from participants harbored intact fHbp genes, about half of which were recovered from MenB-FHbp-vaccinated participants. The distribution of vaccine antigen peptides was similar among carriage isolates recovered from vaccinated and unvaccinated participants, and almost all strains recovered from repeat carriers retained the same vaccine antigen profile, suggesting insignificant vaccine selective pressure on the carriage population in these universities.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo B/genética , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Antígenos de Bactérias/classificação , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo B/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Orthop ; 25: 129-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34025056

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the location of ACL tears in preoperative planning for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair. Methods: Thirty-four patients who underwent ACL repair were retrospectively analyzed to compare intraoperative arthroscopic findings with preoperative MRIs. Results: For identifying type I tears, the sensitivity of MRI was 9.0% and the accuracy of MRI was 8.8%. There was moderate interrater agreement between MRI findings for tear location and tear degree. Conclusion: MRI alone may not necessarily be accurate in identifying which ACL tears are amenable to repair. Study design: Retrospective case series; Level of Evidence: IV.

15.
J Pain Res ; 14: 1161-1169, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948090

RESUMO

Purpose: Patients on long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for pain have difficulty accessing primary care clinicians who are willing to prescribe opioids or provide multimodal pain treatment. Recent treatment guidelines and statewide policies aimed at reducing inappropriate prescribing may exacerbate these access issues, but further research is needed on this issue. This study aimed to understand barriers to primary care access and multimodal treatment for chronic pain from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. Methods: Qualitative, semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with adult patients with chronic pain, primary care clinicians, and clinic office staff in Michigan. Interview questions covered stakeholder experiences with prescription opioids, opioid-related policies, and access to care for chronic pain. Interviews were coded using inductive and deductive methods for thematic analysis. Results: A total of 25 interviews were conducted (15 patients, 7 primary care clinicians, and 3 office staff). Barriers to treatment access were attributed to six themes: (1) reduced clinic willingness to manage prescribed opioids for new patients; (2) lack of time and reimbursement for quality opioid-related care; (3) paucity of multimodal care and coordination between providers; (4) fear of liability and use of new guidelines to justify not prescribing opioids; (5) delayed prescription receipt due to prior authorization and pharmacy issues; and (6) poor availability of effective non-opioid treatments. Conclusion: Issues of policy, logistics, and clinic-level resources converge to disrupt treatment access for patients with chronic pain, as many clinics both do not offer multimodal pain care and are unwilling to prescribe LTOT. The resulting conceptual model can inform the development of policy interventions to help mitigate these access barriers.

16.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105243, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is characterized by restrictive eating and failure to meet nutritional needs but is distinct from anorexia nervosa (AN) because restriction is not motivated by weight/shape concerns. We examined levels of orexigenic ghrelin and anorexigenic peptide YY (PYY) in young females with ARFID, AN and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 94 females (22 low-weight ARFID, 40 typical/atypical AN, and 32 HC ages 10-22 years) underwent fasting blood draws for total ghrelin and total PYY. A subset also provided blood 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized meal. RESULTS: Females with ARFID ate less than those with AN or HC (ps<0.012); were younger (14.4 ± 3.2 years) than those with AN (18.9 ± 3.1 years) and HC (17.4 ± 3.1 years) (ps<0.003) and at a lower Tanner stage (3.1 ± 1.5) than AN (4.5 ± 1.1;) and HC (4.4 ± 1.1; ps<0.005), but did not differ in BMI percentiles or BMI Z-scores from AN (ps>0.44). Fasting and postprandial ghrelin were lower in ARFID versus AN (ps≤.015), but not HC (ps≥0.62). Fasting and postprandial PYY did not differ between ARFID versus AN or HC (ps≥0.13); ARFID did not demonstrate the sustained high PYY levels post-meal observed in those with AN and HC. Secondary analyses controlling age or Tanner stage and calories consumed showed similar results. Exploratory analyses suggest that the timing of the PYY peak in ARFID is earlier than HC, showing a peak PYY level 30 min post-meal (p = .037). CONCLUSIONS: ARFID and AN appear to have distinct patterns of secretion of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones that may aid in differential diagnosis and provide new treatment targets.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S65-S73, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal specimens (NPS) are commonly used for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing but can be uncomfortable for patients. Self-collected saliva specimens (SS) or anterior nasal specimens (ANS) for SARS-CoV-2 detection are less invasive, but the sensitivity of these specimen types has not been thoroughly evaluated. METHODS: During September-November 2020, 730 adults undergoing SARS-CoV-2 testing at community testing events and homeless shelters in Denver provided self-collected SS and ANS before NPS collection and answered a short survey about symptoms and specimen preference. Specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by means of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR); viral culture was performed on a subset of specimens positive by rRT-PCR. The sensitivity of SS and ANS for SARS-CoV-2 detection by rRT-PCR was measured against that of NPS. Subgroup analyses included test outcomes by symptom status and culture results. RESULTS: Sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection by rRT-PCR appeared higher for SS than for ANS (85% vs 80%) and higher among symptomatic participants than among those without symptoms (94% vs 29% for SS; 87% vs 50% for ANS). Among participants with culture-positive SARS-CoV-2 by any specimen type, the sensitivities of SS and ANS by rRT-PCR were 94% and 100%, respectively. SS and ANS were equally preferred by participants; most would undergo NPS collection again despite this method's being the least preferred. CONCLUSIONS: SS were slightly more sensitive than ANS for SARS-CoV-2 detection with rRT-PCR. With both SS and ANS, SARS-CoV-2 was reliably detected among participants with symptoms. Self-collected SS and ANS offer practical advantages, are preferred by patients, and might be most useful for testing people with coronavirus disease 2019 symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Saliva , Manejo de Espécimes
19.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(10): 1782-1792, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Nine Item Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) Screen (NIAS) has three subscales aligned with ARFID presentations but clinically validated cutoff scores have not been identified. We aimed to examine NIAS subscale (picky eating, appetite, fear) validity to: (1) capture clinically-diagnosed ARFID presentations; (2) differentiate ARFID from other eating disorders (other-ED); and (3) capture ARFID symptoms among individuals with ARFID, individuals with other-ED, and nonclinical participants. METHOD: Participants included outpatients (ages 10-76 years; 75% female) diagnosed with ARFID (n = 49) or other-ED (n = 77), and nonclinical participants (ages 22-68 years; 38% female, n = 40). We evaluated criterion-related concurrent validity by conducting receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses to identify potential subscale cutoffs and by testing if cutoffs could capture ARFID with and without use of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). RESULTS: Each NIAS subscale had high AUC for capturing those who fit versus do not fit each ARFID presentation, resulting in proposed cutoffs of ≥10 (sensitivity = .97, specificity = .63), ≥9 (sensitivity = .86, specificity = .70), and ≥ 10 (sensitivity = .68, specificity = .89) on the NIAS-picky eating, NIAS-appetite, and NIAS-fear subscales, respectively. ARFID versus other-ED had high AUC on the NIAS-picky eating (≥10 proposed cutoff), but not NIAS-appetite or NIAS-fear subscales. NIAS subscale cutoffs had a high association with ARFID diagnosis, but only correctly classified other-ED in combination with EDE-Q Global <2.3. DISCUSSION: To screen for ARFID, we recommend using a screening tool for other-ED (e.g., EDE-Q) in combination with a positive score on any NIAS subscale (i.e., ≥10, ≥9, and/or ≥10 on the NIAS-picky eating, NIAS-appetite, and NIAS-fear subscales, respectively).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
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