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1.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(4): 689-702, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600631

RESUMO

The physical examination of the patient is the cornerstone of the practice of medicine, and the skills to complete a thorough abdominal examination are critical in the care of patients. When performed correctly, the abdominal examination can be revealing when it comes to the overall health of the patient as well as acute pathology. The examination of the abdomen has the potential to minimize further testing or radiation and serves as a key diagnostic tool. In this article, we will discuss each portion of the abdominal examination in detail as well as pathologic findings, abdomen-specific signs, special patient populations, and clinical pearls.


Assuntos
Abdome , Exame Físico/métodos , Auscultação , Exame Retal Digital , Medicina de Emergência , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Palpação , Percussão
2.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(9): 1878-1879, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503692
4.
Heart ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of two-dimensional multiplanar speckle tracking strain to assess for cardiotoxicity post allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for haematological conditions. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 120 consecutive patients post-BMT (80 pretreated with anthracyclines (BMT+AC), 40 BMT alone) recruited from a late effects haematology clinic, compared with 80 healthy controls, as part of a long-term cardiotoxicity surveillance study (mean duration from BMT to transthoracic echocardiogram 6±6 years). Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS), global circumferential strain (LV GCS) and right ventricular free wall strain (RV FWS) were compared with traditionl parameters of function including LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and RV fractional area change. RESULTS: LV GLS (-17.7±3.0% vs -20.2±1.9%), LV GCS (-14.7±3.5% vs -20.4±2.1%) and RV FWS (-22.6±4.7% vs -28.0±3.8%) were all significantly (p=0.001) reduced in BMT+AC versus controls, while only LV GCS (-15.9±3.5% vs -20.4±2.1%) and RV FWS (-23.9±3.5% vs -28.0±3.8%) were significantly (p=0.001) reduced in BMT group versus controls. Even in patients with LVEF >53%, ~75% of patients in both BMT groups demonstrated a reduction in GCS. CONCLUSION: Multiplanar strain identifies a greater number of BMT patients with subclinical LV dysfunction rather than by GLS alone, and should be evaluated as part of post-BMT patient surveillence. Reduction in GCS is possibly due to effects of preconditioning, and is not fully explained by AC exposure.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 105-113, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049674

RESUMO

Left atrial (LA) enlargement predicts adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of LA reservoir strain, a novel measure of LA function, as a prognostic marker for adverse renal outcomes. A total of 280 patients (65.8 ± 12.2years, 63% male) with stable Stage 3 and 4 CKD without prior cardiac history were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography and prospectively followed for up to 5 years. The primary end point was progressive renal failure, which was the composite of death from renal cause, end-stage renal failure and/or doubling of serum creatinine. Over a mean follow up of 3.9 ± 2.7years, 56 patients reached the composite endpoint. By log rank test, older age, lower baseline eGFR, anemia, diabetes mellitus, higher urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, number of antihypertensive medications, higher indexed left ventricular mass, larger LA volumes, and impaired LA reservoir strain were significant predictors of the composite outcome (p <0.01 for all). Multi-variable Cox regression analysis found LA reservoir strain, eGFR, number of antihypertensive medications and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were independent predictors for progressive renal failure (p <0.01 for all). Impaired LA reservoir strain was associated with a 2.5-fold higher risk of the composite outcome (HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.19 to 5.30, p = 0.02) and was the only echocardiographic parameter that predicted progressive renal failure independent of established clinical risk factors for end-stage renal failure. Its utility requires validation in high risk CKD patients with cardiac disease.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Creatinina/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade
6.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(10): 1067-1076.e3, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) size indexed to body surface area (BSA) is a clinically important marker of cardiovascular prognosis. However, indexation using a scaling variable such as BSA has inherent flaws, particularly in an obese population. The aim of this study was to determine whether alternative indexation methods may more accurately scale for LA size. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to execute a structured search of medical databases, to identify articles discussing alternative methods of LA indexation in echocardiography. Articles that stratified indexed LA size by obesity class were also included. Two independent reviewers identified relevant articles and extracted baseline characteristics, alternative indexation methods, scaling variables, obesity class characteristics, and correlation coefficients. RESULTS: A total of 3,804 articles were found in the database search after removing duplicates. After abstract and full-text screening, 13 relevant articles were identified. Twelve studies used alternative methods of LA indexation, of which nine reported allometric indices. Seven of the included studies reported LA size by obesity class, of which six reported alternative indices. Correlation coefficients plotted for indexed LA size against absolute measured LA size showed that allometric indices (specifically to height) were more likely to maintain proportionality to body size compared with isometric indices such as BSA. Allometric indices were less likely to overcorrect for body size compared with isometric indices. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with isometric indexation to BSA, allometric indexation (specifically to height) improves scaling of LA volumes to maintain proportionality and avoid overcorrection for body size.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Átrios do Coração , Tamanho Corporal , Ecocardiografia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Obesidade
7.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 11(2): 383-393, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968617

RESUMO

Background: The prognostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) derived left atrial (LA) strain, ejection fraction (LAEF) and indexed volumes (LAVImax and LAVImin) after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between LA function and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after STEMI. Methods: A total of 202 prospectively recruited patients who underwent CMR at median day 4 after STEMI had complete CMR data for feature tracking assessment. LA reservoir and booster strain were quantified based on the average of three independently repeated measurements. Results: MACE occurred in 35 patients during a median follow up of 607 days. Patients with MACE had lower median LA reservoir strain (18.9% vs. 29.4%, P<0.001), LA booster strain (9.4% vs. 13.0%, P=0.002) and LAEF (41.5% vs. 49.2%, P<0.001) than patients without MACE. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated a difference in MACE between high- and low-risk groups for LA reservoir strain (cutoff 19.2%, P<0.001), LA booster strain (cutoff 9.7%, P<0.001) and LAEF (cutoff 38.5%, P<0.001). The AUC increased from 0.713 (95% CI: 0.608-0.818) for LVEF to 0.775 (95% CI: 0.680-0.870) when LA reservoir strain was added to LVEF (P=0.047). Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that all LA parameters had a significant effect on MACE, while multivariate analysis found LA reservoir strain was an independent predictor of MACE (HR 0.905; 95% CI: 0.843-0.972, P=0.006). Conclusions: CMR derived LA reservoir strain independently predicted MACE after STEMI when adjusted for standard risk measures.

8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789859

RESUMO

A 54-year-old Indian female presented to the hospital with a 4-day history of fever, shortness of breath and blood-streaked sputum. Chest radiograph showed consolidation and she was admitted as a case of bilateral bronchopneumonia. She was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics and antivirals but she continued to deteriorate clinically with increasing oxygen requirement and worsening lung infiltrates. Since lab investigations also revealed significant anaemia and renal impairment, vasculitic workup for pulmonary renal haemorrhagic syndrome was ordered even though she had no haemoptysis in the hospital and haemoglobin was stable after initial blood transfusion. High-resolution computed tomography scan was done on day 5 to assess progression and for any clue to diagnosis. It showed extensive bilateral air space consolidation and ground-glass opacities with suggested radiological differential diagnosis of cryptogenic organising pneumonia or pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonology team did not recommend bronchoscopy at the time.In view of the clinical features of rapidly progressing pneumonia despite standard treatment, history of haemoptysis, anaemia, renal impairment and CT scan findings suggestive of pulmonary haemorrhage, pulse intravenous Methylprednisolone was initiated. The patient showed marked clinical and radiological improvement. The vasculitic workup later revealed positive myeloperoxidase antibody and a definitive diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis was made. She was discharged in a stable condition and advised to follow-up in rheumatology where she continues to follow-up 2 years after her initial diagnosis.This is the first case reported in literature, where treatment was initiated for this rare disease entity within a week of presentation based on highly suggestive clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence without waiting for a confirmatory diagnosis. Delay in this rapidly deteriorating patient could have been fatal and our prompt action was crucial in securing a favourable outcome.


Assuntos
Pneumonia em Organização Criptogênica , Pneumopatias , Pneumonia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peroxidase , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e019476, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749308

RESUMO

Background Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction detected by 2-dimensional global longitudinal strain post breast radiotherapy has been described in patients with breast cancer. We hypothesized that left ventricular dysfunction postradiotherapy may be site specific, based on differential segmental radiotherapy dose received. Methods and Results Transthoracic echocardiograms were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 months postradiotherapy on 61 chemotherapy-naïve women with left-sided breast cancer undergoing tangential breast radiotherapy. Radiation received within basal, mid, and apical regions for the 6 left ventricular walls was quantified from the radiotherapy treatment planning system. Anterior, anteroseptal, and anterolateral walls received the highest radiation doses, while inferolateral and inferior walls received the lowest. There was a progressive increase in the radiation dose received from basal to apical regions. At 6 weeks, the most significant percentage deterioration in strain was seen in the apical region, with greatest reductions in the anterior wall followed by the anteroseptal and anterolateral walls, with a similar pattern persisting at 12 months. There was a within-patient dose-response association between the segment-specific percentage deterioration in strain at 6 weeks and 12 months and the radiation dose received. Conclusions Radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer causes differential segmental dysfunction, with myocardial segments that receive the highest radiation dose demonstrating greatest strain impairment. Percentage deterioration in strain observed 6 weeks postradiotherapy persisted at 12 months and demonstrated a dose-response relationship with radiotherapy dose received. Radiotherapy-induced subclinical cardiac dysfunction is of importance because it could be additive to chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity in patients with breast cancer. Long-term outcomes in patients with asymptomatic strain reduction require further investigation.

11.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 22(8): 855-865, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585879

RESUMO

AIMS: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) originates from scar, identified as low-voltage areas with invasive high-density electroanatomic mapping (EAM). Abnormal myocardial deformation on speckle tracking strain echocardiography can non-invasively identify scar. We examined if regional and global longitudinal strain (GLS) can localize and quantify low-voltage scar identified with high-density EAM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 60 patients, 40 ICM patients undergoing VT ablation and 20 patients undergoing ablation for other arrhythmias as controls. All patients underwent an echocardiogram prior to high-density left ventricular (LV) EAM. Endocardial bipolar and unipolar scar location and percentage were correlated with regional and multilayer GLS. Controls had normal GLS and normal bipolar and unipolar voltages. There was a strong correlation between endocardial and mid-myocardial longitudinal strain and endocardial bipolar scar percentage for all 17 LV segments (r = 0.76-0.87, P < 0.001) in ICM patients. Additionally, indices of myocardial contraction heterogeneity, myocardial dispersion (MD), and delta contraction duration (DCD) correlated with bipolar scar percentage. Endocardial and mid-myocardial GLS correlated with total LV bipolar scar percentage (r = 0.83; 0.82, P < 0.001 respectively), whereas epicardial GLS correlated with epicardial bipolar scar percentage (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Endocardial GLS -9.3% or worse had 93% sensitivity and 82% specificity for predicting endocardial bipolar scar >46% of LV surface area. CONCLUSIONS: Multilayer strain analysis demonstrated good linear correlations with low-voltage scar by invasive EAM. Validation studies are needed to establish the utility of strain as a non-invasive tool for quantifying scar location and burden, thereby facilitating mapping and ablation of VT.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Ablação por Cateter , Taquicardia Ventricular , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/cirurgia , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Endocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia
12.
Echocardiography ; 38(3): 417-426, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594734

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Left atrial (LA) function by two-dimensional (2D) strain is an emerging tool with increasing clinical utility. Age and gender are key modulators of strain parameters; however, the specific time course for LA structural and functional changes is not clearly defined. METHODS: A total of 147 healthy individuals (20-69 years) underwent transthoracic echocardiography; subjects were evaluated by age (decade) and gender. LA and left ventricular (LV) volumetric and strain measurements were performed. RESULTS: Left atrial reservoir (ƐR) and conduit strain (ƐCD) with negatively correlated with age (r =-.36; r = -.56; P < .001, respectively) being significantly lower by the 6th and 5th decades, respectively. Contractile strain (ƐCT) positively correlated with age (r = .36; P < .001), being significantly higher by the 6th decade. ƐR and ƐCD were higher in young females (20-34 years) compared to young males (P = .033 and P < .001, respectively). ƐCT was significantly higher in middle-aged adult males (35-50yrs; P = .010), though seen later in females (≥51 years; P = .005). Standard deviation of time to positive strain (SD-TPS) significantly higher by the 5th decade and correlated with age in both males (r = .44; P <.001) and females (r = .40; P = .001). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that ƐR and ƐCD are lower with age, with differing rates between males and females. As a compensatory mechanism for decline in ƐCD, ƐCT is higher, more notably in males; comparatively, females display a more prominent decline in ƐR and ƐCD with age. Alteration in electromechanical properties occurred in both genders with SD-TPS becoming higher with age.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Átrios do Coração , Adulto , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(4): 1279-1288, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389361

RESUMO

Left atrial strain (LAS) on transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) is increasingly recognised to have clinical utility in cardiovascular disease. Differences in LAS measurements between vendors remains a barrier for clinical use. We sought to compare LAS between two commonly used software platforms; the layer-specific endocardial and mid-myocardial measurements of LAS on General Electric (GE) Echopac were compared to TomTec strain. LAS was measured in 88 individuals with no previous cardiac history and 40 paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients, in sinus rhythm at TTE. Conventionally, LAS measured using GE Echopac is mid-myocardial strain (GE-mid); additionally, endocardial (GE-endo) LAS was evaluated. Both LAS measurements by GE were compared to TomTec-Arena (v2.30.02) measurements. Reservoir (ƐR), contractile (ƐCT) and conduit (ƐCD) phasic strain were evaluated. Both GE-mid and GE-endo LAS correlated well with TomTec LAS. On Bland-Altman analysis, GE-mid LAS measurements were systematically lower than TomTec LAS (ƐR: mean difference (MD) - 6.08%, limits of agreement (LOA) - 12%, 0%, ƐCT: MD - 0.8%, LOA - 7%, 5%, ƐCD: MD - 5.2% LOA - 12%, 1%). GE-endo LAS demonstrated no systematic difference from TomTec LAS, but had wider limits of agreement (ƐR: MD 0.41%, LOA - 7%, 8%, ƐCT: MD 0.50%, LOA - 6%, 7%, ƐCD: MD - 0.08%, LOA - 7%, 7%). ƐR had the best reproducibility. Mid-myocardial LAS, routinely evaluated by GE Echopac software, systematically underestimates LAS compared to TomTec. Using GE endocardial LAS eliminated this bias, but introduced greater variation between measurements. Serial measurements of LAS should therefore be performed on the same vendor system.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Ecocardiografia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Software , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 13-18, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with diabetes mellitus presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the degree to which cardiac death rates may be attributed to an increased burden of coronary artery disease is not clear. METHODS: This prospective observational study examines rates of cardiac death between those with and without diabetes at long term follow up, stratified by presence of multivessel disease (MVD), in consecutive STEMI patients from 5 Australian hospitals. RESULTS: Amongst 2083 patients, 393 patients had diabetes (18.8%), and 810 (38.8%) had MVD. Patients with diabetes were more likely to have MVD 48.6% (191/393) than patients without diabetes 36.6% (619/1690; p < .001). At final follow up (median 3.6 years [IQR 2.4-5.4]) cardiac death occurred in 37/393 diabetic patients and 92/1690 nondiabetic patients (adjusted HR1.67, 95% CI 1.10-2.52). In those with MVD cardiac death occurred in 27/191 diabetic patients, and 54/619 non-diabetic patients (adjusted HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.17-3.23). In single vessel disease (SVD) cardiac death occurred in 10/202 diabetic patients, and 38/1071 non-diabetic patients (adjusted HR 1.37; 95% CI 0.65-2.89). Both diabetes and MVD were independently associated with cardiac death. CONCLUSIONS: STEMI patients with diabetes are more likely to have MVD, with an absolute difference in MVD rates of 12%, and higher rates of cardiac death. Randomized trials studying these high risk patients are needed to reduce cardiac mortality in patients with diabetes, MVD and STEMI.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Diabetes Mellitus , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(4): 405-413.e2, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement in Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is associated with increased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness. The aim of this study was to evaluate if two-dimensional global and regional strain in patients with AFD can identify early myocardial involvement (when LV wall thickness and function are normal). Additionally, the association of altered strain with adverse cardiovascular events was evaluated. METHODS: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, 43 patients with AFD, before enzyme replacement therapy (mean age, 44 ± 12 years; 58.1% men), were compared with age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. The mean follow-up duration among patients with AFD for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) was 82 months. RESULTS: LV ejection fraction was similar between groups (patients with AFD vs control subjects, 61 ± 8% vs 61 ± 6%; P = .89). However, global longitudinal strain (LS) was impaired in patients with AFD compared with control subjects (-16.5 ± 3.8% vs -20.2 ± 1.7%, P < .001), with greater impairment in patients with AFD with increased LV wall thickness (-15.4 ± 3.9% vs -18.7 ± 2.3%, P < .006). Additionally, LS was most impaired in the basal segments in patients with AFD (-14.8 ± 3.7% vs -20.3 ± 1.1%, P < .001). MACE occurred in 19 of 43 patients (four women, 15 men), and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that MACE were associated with impaired basal LS. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AFD, altered basal LS is present even in those with normal LV wall thickness and is associated with MACE. Therefore, basal LS should be considered when screening for cardiac involvement in AFD, particularly in female patients with AFD with normal LV wall thickness.

16.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(4): 471-480, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incomplete revascularisation is common and prognostically important. The degree to which incomplete revascularisation (IR) is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with diabetes and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. METHODS: Late outcomes (3.6 years) were evaluated in 589 consecutive STEMI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention in this observational study. Associations between incomplete revascularisation, and diabetes were assessed. A residual SYNergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With TAXus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) Score (rSS) >8 defined IR. The primary endpoint studied was cardiac death, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. RESULTS: Incomplete revascularisation occurred in 36% of patients with diabetes (46/127) and 32% of patients without diabetes (147/462); p=0.329. The primary endpoint occurred in 27% of patients with diabetes compared to 18% of patients without diabetes (p=0.042); and in 28% with a rSS>8 compared to 16% of patients with a rSS≤8 (p<0.001). The primary endpoint occurred in 35% of patients with both diabetes and a rSS>8, 27% without diabetes with a rSS>8, 22% with diabetes and a rSS≤8, and 14% of with patients neither factor (p<0.001), with cardiac death rates respectively of 22%, 9%, 6%, 2% (p<0.001). Patients with both IR and diabetes accounted for only 8% of STEMI patients but 30% of all cardiac deaths. On multivariable analyses diabetes and IR were independently associated with cardiac death, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident; both p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes and IR contribute independently to late outcomes in STEMI patients. The prognostic impact of diabetes was not due to IR alone. Diabetes acts synergistically with incomplete revascularisation to worsen prognosis.

17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(2): 166-175, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, which is underestimated by traditional risk stratification algorithms. We sought to determine clinical and echocardiographic predictors of adverse outcomes in CKD patients. METHODS: Two hundred forty-three prospectively recruited stage 3/4 CKD patients (male, 63%; mean age, 59.2 ± 14.4 years) without previous cardiac disease made up the study cohort. All participants underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram, with left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) strain analysis. Participants were followed for 3.9 ± 2.7 years for the primary end point of cardiovascular death and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). The secondary end point was the composite of all-cause death and MACE. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients met the primary end point, and 65 the secondary end point. On log-rank tests, older age, diabetes mellitus, anemia, greater LV mass, reduced LV global longitudinal strain, larger indexed LA volume, higher E/e' ratio, and reduced LA reservoir strain (LASr; P < .01 for all) were independent predictors of cardiovascular death and MACE. On multivariable regression analysis of univariate predictors, LASr (P < .01) was the only independent predictor for the primary end point as well as for the secondary end point. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed LASr was a stronger predictor of adverse events (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.84) compared to the Framingham (AUC = 0.58) and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (AUC = 0.59) risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: LASr is an independent predictor of cardiovascular death and MACE in CKD patients, superior to clinical risk scores, LV parameters, and LA volume.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e017840, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372523

RESUMO

Background Left atrial (LA) function plays a pivotal role in modulating left ventricular performance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between resting LA function by strain analysis and exercise capacity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and evaluate its utility compared with exercise E/e'. Methods and Results Consecutive patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD without prior cardiac history were prospectively recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics and underwent clinical evaluation and resting and exercise stress echocardiography. Resting echocardiographic parameters including E/e' and phasic LA strain (LA reservoir [LASr], conduit, and contractile strain) were measured and compared with exercise E/e'. A total of 218 (63.9±11.7 years, 64% men) patients with CKD were recruited. Independent clinical parameters associated with exercise capacity were age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, body mass index, and sex (P<0.01 for all), while independent resting echocardiographic parameters included E/e', LASr, and LA contractile strain (P<0.01 for all). Among resting echocardiographic parameters, LASr demonstrated the strongest positive correlation to metabolic equivalents achieved (r=0.70; P<0.01). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that LASr (area under the curve, 0.83) had similar diagnostic performance as exercise E/e' (area under the curve, 0.79; P=0.20 on DeLong test). A model combining LASr and clinical metrics showed robust association with metabolic equivalents achieved in patients with CKD. Conclusions LASr, a marker of decreased LA compliance is an independent correlate of exercise capacity in patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD, with similar diagnostic value to exercise E/e'. Thus, LASr may serve as a resting biomarker of functional capacity in this population.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Átrios do Coração , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Echocardiography ; 37(12): 2018-2028, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) deformation during the reservoir phase (LASr) has demonstrated strong prognostic value in different clinical settings. Although determinants of left atrial reservoir strain including left atrial relaxation, left atrial compliance, and left ventricular longitudinal systolic function are fairly well defined, there is incomplete information regarding the effect of left atrial volume on this relationship which is the focus of our study. METHOD: Consecutive patients without prior cardiac disease referred for transthoracic echocardiography were prospectively recruited. All participants underwent clinical assessment, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and screening exercise stress test. Only patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or myocardial ischemia on stress testing were included. RESULTS: A total of 260 patients (57% male, mean age 59 ± 14 years) were included. 70% had hypertension, 33% had diabetes mellitus, and 31% had both HTN and DM. On multivariate analysis, age, e', LAVI, and LV GLS (P < .01 for all) showed an independent association with LASr. Of interest, at lower tertiles of LAVI, a linear decrease in LASr was observed parallel to worsening LV GLS, whilst at higher tertiles of LAVI, the reduction in LASr was non-linear implying that LA enlargement, consequent to LA remodeling, had an incremental effect on LASr. CONCLUSION: Age, e', LV GLS, and LAVI were independently associated with LASr. LA remodeling reflected by larger LAVI had an incremental negative association with LASr independent of LV GLS.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda
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