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1.
Meat Sci ; 171: 108271, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827804

RESUMO

Ruminant meats contain ester and ether-linked phosphatidylcholines-(PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines-(PE) enriched with ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids-(PUFA) essential for human health and nutrition. Oxidative degradation of these lipids during grilling compromises meat quality and safety. The effect of marinades containing unfiltered session ales, herbs and spices on these lipids in grilled beef and moose meat was investigated in current study. Marination preserved (P < 0.05) ester and ether linked PUFA-enriched PC and PE in moose, and PUFA-enriched ether PC and diacyl PE in beef against oxidative degradation. Furthermore, India ale-based marinated meats retained higher (P < 0.05) PUFA-enriched lysophosphatidylcholines-(LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamines-(LPE) compared to Wheat ale-based marinated meats. The preserved PUFA-enriched lipids were positively correlated with phenolics, oxygenated terpenes, and antioxidants present in the marinades, and negatively correlated to oxidation status. These findings appear to suggest that unfiltered beer-based marination could be a useful precooking technique to increase dietary access and consumption of essential fatty acids while preserving grilled meat nutritional quality and safety.

2.
Data Brief ; 33: 106324, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015257

RESUMO

This article presents the associated data set in the research article entitled "Assessing beer-based marinades effects on ether and ester linked phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in grilled beef and moose meat" published in Meat Science [1], demonstrating the use of unfiltered beer-based marinades in improving the nutritional quality of grilled ruminant meat by suppressing the degradation of health-promoting ester and ether-linked PC and PE the most predominant glycerophospholipids (GPL) in meat. High throughput lipidomics analysis was conducted using high-resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS/MS-MS) to profile the meat lipids following marination and grilling. The marinades were composed of a combination of unfiltered beers, fruits, herbs and spices. The data presented show the retention levels of ether as well as ester linked PC and PE molecular species; Pearson's correlations for the associations between antioxidants, phenolics, volatile oxygenated terpenes, oxidation status and preserved phospholipid species in the marinated grilled meats. There are many studies demonstrating cooking effects on fatty acid composition of meat phospholipids in the literature. However, information on how marination and grilling affects intact ether and ester linked PC and PE composition in grilled ruminant meats is limited. As such, this dataset provides useful information on the preservation of ruminant meat ester and ether-linked glycerophospholipid composition following marination with unfiltered beer-based marinades and meat preparation via grilling. Specifically, this data demonstrate the preservation of ether and ester linked PC and PE enriched with essential ω3 and ω6 fatty acids from degradation during grilling. For additional insights see [1] DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108271.

3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127384, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615384

RESUMO

Dairy polar lipids (PL) seem to exhibit antiplatelet effects. However, it is not known what molecular species may be responsible. In this study, we confirmed using C30 reversed-phase (C30RP) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (HRAM-MS/MS) that fermentation of yoghurts from ovine milk using specific starter cultures altered the PL composition. These lipid alterations occurred concomitant with increased antithrombotic properties of the yoghurts PL fractions against platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Specifically, elevation in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and their molecular species were observed following yoghurt fermentation. Furthermore, PC(18:0/18:1), PE(18:1/18:2), SM(d18:0/22:0) and several other molecular species were significantly inversely correlated with the inhibition of PAF and thrombin. These molecular species were abundant in the most bioactive yoghurts fermented by S. thermophilus and L. acidophilus, which suggest that fermentation by these microorganisms increases the antithrombotic properties of ovine milk PL.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/análise , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Ovinos , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Trombina/farmacologia
4.
MethodsX ; 6: 2686-2697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799138

RESUMO

Cooking techniques such as grilling confer several benefits to meat during food preparation including improved palatability, digestibility, preservation, and safety, as well as enhancing the sensory characteristics and net nutritional gain. However, grilling can lead to the formation of harmful compounds such heterocyclic amines (HCAs). HCAs are potent carcinogenic and mutagenic nitrogen containing compounds produced during certain cooking conditions of protein rich foods. Dietary intake of HCAs is associated with increased risk factors for cancers in humans. As such, there is overwhelming interest in identifying improved methods for rapid and accurate determination of heterocyclic amines in food matrices that is sensitive and avoids exhaustive sample preparation steps. Herein, we describe an approach that involves first extracting HCAs by pressurized accelerated solvent extractor using methanol as solvent, followed by addition of internal standard and quantification of HCAs by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution accurate mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRAMS). This method is fast, accurate, reproducible and does not require exhaustive sample pre-treatments prior to UHPLC-HRAMS analysis compared to existing/traditional methods for HCA analysis. •The method is automated, fast and uses tunable pressurized liquid extractor to selectively extract HCAs•Method does not require exhaustive cleanup and preconcentration steps prior to UHPLC/HRAMS analysis of HCAs•Validation showed method to be accurate, precise, and useful for routine multi-sample HCA analyses.

5.
Data Brief ; 27: 104801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799349

RESUMO

Objective of this data isn brief article is to present the associated data set regarding the revised article entitled "Unfiltered beer based marinades reduced exposure to carcinogens and suppressed conjugated fatty acid oxidation in grilled meats" recommended for publication in Food Control [1]. Grill food safety and quality is a major concern globally. Here in we present data demonstrating the use of novel unfiltered beer based marinades in improving the nutritional quality and safety of grilled ruminant meat. Grilling can lead to the formation of harmful compounds and modify the functional lipids in meats via oxidation, thereby affecting the nutritional quality and safety of the finished product. Lipid oxidation is a deteriorative process involving the degradation of lipid double bonds and the formation of new compounds. Some of these compounds can result in reduced meat quality and off-flavours affecting the sensory, nutritional quality and safety of grilled meat. Unfiltered beers, herbs and spices are known to be excellent sources of antioxidants and polyphenols which can suppress oxidation of functional lipids in grilled meat. Novel unfiltered beer based marinades were developed and used to marinate ruminant meat (beef and moose) prior to grilling. The effect of marination on the fatty acid profile, including saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, of grilled meat was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In this data in brief article, we include 3 tables containing the fatty acid composition of unmarinated and marinated grilled ruminant meats (beef and moose), a figure showing the percent distribution of grilled meat fatty acid classes, and 2 figures on Pearson's correlation for the associations between phenolic contents, oxidation status and total conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) content. To the best of our knowledge, there is a paucity of information in the literature on the fatty acid composition of wild Cervid meat following preparation by grilling. Grill food safety and nutritional quality is of significant interest to researchers and consumers in the scientific and general food science communities. This article provides data on the fatty composition of grilled moose meat and could be of value to fill the paucity of information currently available in the scientific community on the observed fatty acid composition of grill moose meat. Furthermore, the article presents data on the effects of beer based marinade formulations on the quality of the fatty acid composition of grilled ruminant meats (beef and moose). The growing awareness of the benefits of dietary fatty acids in enhancing personal and population health by reducing the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders means that consumers demand meat products with improved fatty acid composition [2,3]. Cervids such as moose (Alces alces) are popular as superior sources of low-fat lean meat with balanced omega 6:3 essential fatty acids compared to traditional farm raised or domesticated meat animals due to the forage they consume as a normal part of their diet [2,4,5]. Furthermore, session ale beers is currently a global phenomenon derived from unique combinations of grains, hops, fruits and herbs to produce low alcohol by volume beers with unique flavors popular among consumers. Two unfiltered session beers were used as base ingredients to produce two novel marinades infused with unique combination of antioxidant rich herbs and spices as a suitable system for the production of grilled foods with enhanced nutritional and sensory characteristics. Whilst there are a limited number of studies in the literature that have used unfiltered beers to evaluate the effects of these beers on suppression of lipid oxidation in grilled meat, none to the best of our knowledge has evaluated the effect of antioxidant rich unfiltered beer based marinades on fatty acid composition of grilled meat systems [6] [7]. As such, this data set presents the concept of using craft beers (specifically session ales) infused with unique combination of herbs and spices to produce unfiltered beer base marinades with enhanced ability to improve grill food sensory attributes and quality, and demonstrates that novel formulations of popular unfiltered India session ale and wheat ale based marinades infused with unique combinations of herbs and spices could be used to marinate beef and moose meats prior to grilling to preserve meat lipids including anticarcinogenic linoleic acid and essential ω3 and ω6 fatty acids.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5048, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911033

RESUMO

Lipids are important biomolecules in all biological systems and serve numerous essential cellular functions. The global analysis of complex lipids is very challenging due to the extreme diversity in lipid structures. Variation in linkages and positions of fatty acyl chain(s) on the lipid backbone, functional group modification, occurrence of the molecular species as isomers or isobars are among some of the greatest challenges to resolve in lipidomics. In this work, we describe a routine analytical approach combining two liquid chromatography platforms: hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and C30 reversed-phase chromatography (C30RP) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) as complementary high throughput platforms to analyze complex lipid mixtures. Vascular plants (kale leaves and corn roots), rat brain and soil microbes were used as proxies to evaluate the efficiency of the enhanced approach to resolve traditional, as well as, modified lipids during routine lipidomics analysis. We report for the first time, the observation of a modified class of acylphosphatidylglycerol (acylPG) in corn roots by HILIC, and further resolution of the isomers using C30RP chromatography. We also used this approach to demonstrate the presence of high levels of N-monomethyl phosphatidylethanolamine (MMPE) in soil microbes, as well as to determine the regioisomers of lysophospholipids in kale leaves. Additionally, neutral lipids were demonstrated using C30RP chromatography in positive ion mode to resolve triacylglycerol isomers in rat brain. The work presented here demonstrates how the enhanced approach can more routinely permit novel biomarker discovery, or lipid metabolism in a wide range of biological samples.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Lipidômica , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos de Membrana/análise , Lipídeos de Membrana/química , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Molecules ; 24(2)2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634564

RESUMO

Fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFA), diglycerides (DG) and monoacetyldiglycerides (MAcDG) are gaining interest as functional lipids in pharmaceuticals and functional food formulations for managing and treating metabolic or inflammatory diseases. Herein, we investigated whether the antler and/or meat of two Cervids (moose and caribou) are novel sources of FAHFA, DG and MAcDG. We observed FAHFA present in moose and caribou composed mainly of polyunsaturated families, and that the esterification occurred frequently at the C5-hydroxy fatty acid moiety, most noticeably arachidonic acid 5-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (ARA-5-HERA). Moose antler, caribou and moose meat also contained significant levels of both 1,2-DG and 1,3-DG lipids. The 1,3-DG molecular species consisted mainly of 16:0/18:1, 18:0/16:0, and 18:0/18:1. On the other hand, major 1,2-DG species consisted of DG 18:0/18:0, 16:0/16:0 and 18:1/18:1 molecular species with higher levels in the antler compared to the meat. The molecular species composition of MAcDG was very simple and consisted of 14:2/18:2/2:0, 16:0/18:2/2:0, 16:0/18:1/2:0 and 18:0/18:1/2:0 with the first species 14:2/18:2/2:0 predominating in the tip of moose antlers. Increasing access to and knowledge of the presence of these functional lipids in foods will enhance their intake in the diet with potential implications in improving personal and population health.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Lipídeos/análise , Carne/análise , Animais , Cervos , Diglicerídeos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Ácidos Graxos , Alimento Funcional
8.
Food Res Int ; 107: 726-737, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580540

RESUMO

Biofortification using agronomic practices can be used to improve the nutritional quality of food crops. Three natural media amendments (dry vermicast, potassium (K)-humate and volcanic minerals) were assessed under greenhouse conditions to determine the effects on the chemical composition of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala 'Ripbor'). The results indicated that K-humate had low pH, while the volcanic minerals had high pH. Plants grown in the dry vermicast amended media had the highest levels of macronutrients and micronutrients except for zinc and iron. However, the glycolipid: phospholipid ratio was lower in kale plants cultivated in dry vermicast compared to plants cultivated in the volcanic minerals or K-humate. Conversely, plants cultivated in the dry vermicast had enhanced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in plants cultivated in dry vermicast and potassium humate, while the omega-6 fatty acids were unaffected by media amendments. Dry vermicast was the most effective at increasing plant tissue oleic acid content. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were highest in plants treated with K-humate, but lowest in the dry vermicast treated plants. In conclusion, dry vermicast proved to be the most effective in enhancing the phytochemical composition of kale 'Ripbor'. These results suggest dry vermicast could be a potential target natural media amendment for biofortifying kale plants during cultivation.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Brassica/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Substâncias Húmicas , Valor Nutritivo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Erupções Vulcânicas , Antioxidantes/análise , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipídeos/análise , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise
9.
J Exp Biol ; 217(Pt 9): 1580-7, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24790101

RESUMO

Most animals store energy as long-chain triacylglycerols (lcTAGs). Trace amounts of acetylated triacylglycerols (acTAGs) have been reported in animals, but are not accumulated, likely because they have lower energy density than lcTAGs. Here we report that acTAGs comprise 36% of the neutral lipid pool of overwintering prepupae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, while only 17% of the neutral lipid pool is made up of typical lcTAGs. These high concentrations of acTAGs, present only during winter, appear to be synthesized by E. solidaginis and are not found in other freeze-tolerant insects, nor in the plant host. The mixture of acTAGs found in E. solidaginis has a significantly lower melting point than equivalent lcTAGs, and thus remains liquid at temperatures at which E. solidaginis is frozen in the field, and depresses the melting point of aqueous solutions in a manner unusual for neutral lipids. We note that accumulation of acTAGs coincides with preparation for overwintering and the seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance. This is the first observation of accumulation of acTAGs by an animal, and the first evidence of dynamic interconversion between acTAGs and lcTAGs during development and in response to stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Água Corporal/metabolismo , Congelamento , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Larva/química , Larva/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Tephritidae/química
10.
J Neuroinflammation ; 9: 153, 2012 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22747852

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8 days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterobacteriaceae , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Propionatos/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Humanos , Infusões Intraventriculares , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Propionatos/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
11.
J Insect Physiol ; 57(12): 1602-13, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21878339

RESUMO

Triacylglycerides (TAGs) are the most important stored energy reserve in eukaryotes and are regularly measured in insects. Quantitative analysis of TAGs is complicated by their diversity of structure, and there are concerns with the quantitative accuracy of commonly used analytical methods. We used thin layer chromatography coupled to a flame ionisation detector (TLC-FID), an accurate method that is not sensitive to saturation or chain length of fatty acids, to quantify TAG content in small amounts of insect tissue, and used it to validate three high-throughput lipid assays (gravimetric, vanillin, and enzymatic). The performance of gravimetric assays depended on the solvent used. Folch reagent (chloroform: methanol 2:1 v/v) was a good index of TAG content, but overestimated lipid content due to the extraction of structural lipid and non-lipid components. Diethyl ether produced reasonable quantitative measurements but lacked precision and could not produce a repeatable rank-order of samples. The vanillin assay was accurate both as a quantitative method and as an index, preferably with a standard of mixed fatty acid composition. The enzymatic assay did not accurately or precisely quantify TAGs under our assay conditions. We conclude that the vanillin assay is suitable as a high-throughput method for quantifying TAG providing fatty acid composition does not change among treatment groups. However, if samples contain significant quantities of di- or mono-acylglycerides, or the fatty acid composition differs across treatment groups, TLC-FID is recommended.


Assuntos
Borboletas/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Benzaldeídos/química , Borboletas/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ionização de Chama , Larva/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
12.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 84(4): 438-49, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21743257

RESUMO

During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ∼30°C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals in torpor (T ∼ 5°C), the early phase of arousal (T ∼ 15°C), late arousal (T ∼ 30°C), interbout euthermia (T ∼ 37°C), and summer-active animals (T ∼ 37°C) that do not hibernate. Phosphatidylcholine content increased in late arousal relative to interbout euthermia, while phosphatidylethanolamine decreased. Phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) did not change throughout arousal, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and MUFA/PUFA decreased and increased, respectively. In the fatty acid conjugates of phospholipids, neither unsaturation index nor n-3/n-6 differed. Few changes in individual fatty acids were noted, but palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-7) was higher in interbout euthermia and summer. Although 16:1 accounted for less than 1.5% of phospholipid fatty acids, it correlated strongly and positively with succinate-fueled state 3 mitochondrial respiration. No other phospholipid characteristic measured here correlated with mitochondrial respiration. These data show that mitochondrial membranes are remodeled rapidly during arousal, but the contribution to reversible suppression of mitochondrial respiration remains unclear.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Sciuridae/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Respiração Celular , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
13.
J Comp Physiol B ; 181(5): 699-711, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21207037

RESUMO

We examined respiration and lipid composition of liver mitochondria purified from a hibernator (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in different stages of a torpor bout. Between interbout euthermia (body temperature, T (b), 37°C) and early entrance (T (b) 30°C), state 3 and state 4 respirations, fueled by 6 mM succinate, fell by over 50%. Mitochondrial respiration did not decline any further in the late entrance and torpor stages (T (b) 15 and 5°C, respectively). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity declined in a similar pattern as mitochondrial respiration, and there was a significant positive correlation between state 3 respiration and SDH activity. However, unlike during arousal from torpor, oxaloacetate was not a major factor in inhibition of SDH. Analysis of mitochondrial lipids showed little change in neutral lipids or phospholipid classes, except for a transient decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine content in early entrance. In the transition from interbout euthermia to early entrance, we found transient increases in some saturated phospholipid fatty acids (16:0, 18:0) and decreases in some unsaturates (18:2, 20:4). These changes resulted in transient increases in total saturates and the ratio of saturates to unsaturates, and transient decreases in total unsaturates, total polyunsaturates, total n-6, the ratio of monounsaturates to polyunsaturates, and unsaturation index. None of these changes persisted into late entrance or torpor, nor did they correlate with mitochondrial respiration. We conclude that mitochondrial metabolic suppression during entrance into a torpor bout occurs very early and is likely related to acute regulation of electron transport chain enzymes rather than changes in membrane phospholipid composition.


Assuntos
Hibernação/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Respiração Celular , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Sciuridae/fisiologia
14.
J Neurochem ; 113(2): 515-29, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20405543

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated intraventricular infusions of propionic acid (PPA) a dietary and enteric short-chain fatty acid can produce brain and behavioral changes similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The effects of PPA were further evaluated to determine if there are any alterations in brain lipids associated with the ASD-like behavioral changes observed following intermittent intraventricular infusions of PPA, the related enteric metabolite butyric acid (BUT) or phosphate-buffered saline vehicle. Both PPA and BUT produced significant increases (p < 0.001) in locomotor activity (total distance travelled and stereotypy). PPA and to a lesser extent BUT infusions decreased the levels of total monounsaturates, total omega6 fatty acids, total phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogens, the ratio of omega6 : omega3 and elevated the levels of total saturates in separated phospholipid species. In addition, total acylcarnitines, total longchain (C12-C24) acylcarnitines, total short-chain (C2 to C9) acylcarnitines, and the ratio of bound to free carnitine were increased following infusions with PPA and BUT. These results provide evidence of a relationship between changes in brain lipid profiles and the occurrence of ASD-like behaviors using the autism rodent model. We propose that altered brain fatty acid metabolism may contribute to ASD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Propionatos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carnitina/metabolismo , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Injeções Intraventriculares/métodos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Comportamento Estereotipado/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia
15.
Phytopathology ; 98(11): 1179-89, 2008 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18943406

RESUMO

Phytophthora sojae is the causal agent of root and stem rot of soybean (Glycine max). Various cultivars with partial resistance to the pathogen have been developed to mitigate this damage. Herein, two contrasting genotypes, the cultivar Conrad (with strong partial resistance) and the line OX760-6 (with weak partial resistance), were compared regarding their amounts of preformed and induced suberin components, and to early events during the P. sojae infection process. To colonize the root, hyphae grew through the suberized middle lamellae between epidermal cells. This took 2 to 3 h longer in Conrad than in OX760-6, giving Conrad plants more time to establish their chemical defenses. Subsequent growth of hyphae through the endodermis was also delayed in Conrad. This cultivar had more preformed aliphatic suberin than the line OX760-6 and was induced to form more aliphatic suberin several days prior to that of OX760-6. However, the induced suberin was formed subsequent to the initial infection process. Eventually, the amount of induced suberin (measured 8 days postinoculation) was the same in both genotypes. Preformed root epidermal suberin provides a target for selection and development of new soybean cultivars with higher levels of expression of partial resistance to P. sojae.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Imunidade Inata , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
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