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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, the addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide maintenance post- autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) in 64 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients was evaluated based on the observed benefit of lenalidomide-only maintenance in prior studies. METHODS: Patients were started on maintenance therapy with lenalidomide and ixazomib within 60-180 days of stem cell infusion. RESULTS: Response rates deepened over time from baseline post-ASCT for 39 patients. The complete response (CR)/stringent CR rate was 43% and median overall survival was not reached with a median follow-up of 62 months (range 25-82 months). Median PFS (mPFS) for all patients was 73 months and has not been reached for those with ISS stage 1 disease. mPFS in 9 patients who had ISS stage 3 disease and 14 patients who had high-risk cytogenetics was 34 and 25 months, respectively. Twenty-two patients had progressive disease, while 19 patients continue to receive dual maintenance. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events included neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lung infections, diarrhea, and maculopapular rash. Second primary malignancies occurred in 9 patients. Toxicity led to dose reductions in ixazomib and lenalidomide in 20 and 31 patients, respectively. Discontinuation of ixazomib due to toxicity occurred in 4 patients. Grade 1/2 neuropathy occurred in 22 patients and led to reduction or discontinuation of ixazomib in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of ixazomib to lenalidomide maintenance demonstrated a better than expected PFS compared with historical data using lenalidomide alone and was safe and tolerable.

2.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686083

RESUMO

Standard-of-care for newly-diagnosed, autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT)-eligible, multiple myeloma (MM) patients includes bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD) induction followed by melphalan 200 mg/m2 (Mel200)-conditioned auto-HCT and lenalidomide maintenance. We completed a retrospective case series assessing outcomes of 187 MM patients who received this regimen at our institution. The 100-day non-relapse mortality incidence was zero. Before auto-HCT, 9.6 and 52.9% of patients achieved a complete response (CR) or ≥ very good partial response (VGPR), respectively. At day-100 post-transplant, 29.4 and 74.9% had achieved a CR/stringent-CR (sCR) or ≥ VGPR, respectively. At the last evaluation, 57.2% of patients had CR/sCR and 87.1% had ≥ VGPR. Median follow-up, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 63.2, 50, and 101.7 months, respectively. The 5-year PFS and OS were 43.1 and 79%. High-risk cytogenetics was associated with worse outcomes. This study illustrates that VRD induction, Mel200-conditioned auto-HCT, and lenalidomide maintenance are associated with good outcomes in MM.

5.
Neoplasia ; 23(4): 361-374, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735664

RESUMO

Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct type of indolent lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) with a high frequency of MYD88L265P mutation. Treatment for WM/LPL is highly variable in clinic and ibrutinib (a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BTKi) has become a new treatment option for WM. To investigate the clinical impact of genetic alterations in WM, we assembled a large cohort of 219 WMs and 12 LPLs dividing into two subcohorts: a training cohort, patients sequenced by a same targeted 29-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, and a validation cohort, patients sequenced by allele specific-PCR or other targeted NGS panels. In both training and validation subcohorts, MYD88L265P and TP53 mutations showed favorable and adverse prognostic effects, respectively. CXCR4 nonsense/missense mutations (CXCR4NS/MS), cytogenetic complex karyotypes, and a family history of lymphoma/leukemia in first-degree relatives were associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes only or more in the validation subcohort. We further investigated the efficacy of various treatments and interaction with genetic factors in the entire cohort. Upfront dexamethasone usage was associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients who received non-proteasome-containing chemotherapy as first-line treatment independent of genetic factors. Maintenance rituximab was associated with better survival. Ibrutinib/BTKi showed potential benefit in relapsed/refractory patients and patients without CXCR4NS/MS including those with TP53 mutations. In conclusion, genetic testing for MYD88L265P, TP53, and CXCR4 mutations and cytogenetic analysis provide important information for prognosis prediction and therapy selection. The findings in these study are valuable for improving treatment decisions on therapies available for WM/LPL patients with integration of NGS in clinic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adenina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980578

RESUMO

Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. It is defined by having ≥ 10% bone marrow infiltration with lymphoplasmacytic cells and/or an immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of ≥3g/dL. Risk factors include a personal history of IgM MGUS, and a family history of WM or a related disorder. Race, sex, and chronic antigen stimulation also appear to influence risk. Between 93 to 97% of patients with WM have a somatic mutation of the MYD88 gene. Of these, approximately 30% also have a mutation of CXCR4. The presence of a MYD88 mutation is associated with higher 10-year overall survival (90% vs. 73%; P < .001), while CXCR4 mutation status does not appear to have a similar effect. Based on consensus guidelines, WM patients with a disease-related hemoglobin level of less than 10g/dL, a platelet count of less than 100×10 9/L, bulky adenopathy or organomegaly, symptomatic hyperviscosity, severe neuropathy, amyloidosis, cryoglobulinemia, cold agglutinin disease, or evidence of disease transformation, should be considered for immediate therapy. Patients not meeting these criteria may be observed, with monitoring at 3 to 6 month intervals. When treatment is warranted, combinations of rituximab with alkylating agents and proteasome inhibitors are often effective, as are Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors and BCL-2 inhibitors. Selection among available regimens should take patients' gene mutation profile, disease-related features, and co-morbid conditions into account. Promising novel therapies in development include non-covalent BTK inhibitors, CXCR4 antagonists, BCL 2 inhibitors, bi-specific antibodies, radioimmunoconjugates, and CD19- and CD20-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cells.

12.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(2): e112-e121, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoimmunotherapy is typically the standard of care for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia; however, infectious and hematologic toxic effects are problematic. Acalabrutinib is a selective, potent Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the activity and safety of acalabrutinib in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. METHODS: This single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial was done in 19 European academic centres in France, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, and the UK, and eight academic centres in the USA. Eligible patients were 18 years or older and had treatment naive (declined or not eligible for chemoimmunotherapy) or relapsed or refractory (at least one previous therapy) Waldenström macroglobulinemia that required treatment, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and received no previous Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy. Patients received 100 mg oral acalabrutinib twice per day in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response (at least a minor response) according to the 6th International Workshop for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (IWWM) and the modified 3rd IWWM workshop criteria. The primary outcome and safety were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02180724, and is ongoing, but no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Sept 8, 2014, and Dec 24, 2015, 122 patients were assessed for eligibility, of which 106 (87%) patients were given acalabrutinib (14 were treatment naive and 92 had relapsed or refractory disease). With a median follow-up of 27·4 months (IQR 26·0-29·7), 13 (93% [95% CI 66-100]) of 14 treatment naive patients achieved an overall response and 86 (93% [86-98]) of 92 relapsed or refractory patients per both the modified 3rd and 6th IWWM criteria. Seven (50%) of 14 treatment naive patients and 23 (25%) of 92 relapsed or refractory patients discontinued treatment on study. Grade 3-4 adverse events occurring in more than 5% of patients were neutropenia (17 [16%] of 106 patients) and pneumonia (7 [7%]). Grade 3-4 atrial fibrillation occurred in one (1%) patient and grade 3-4 bleeding occurred in three (3%) patients. The most common serious adverse events were lower respiratory tract infection (n=7 [7%]), pneumonia (n=7 [7%]), pyrexia (n=4 [4%]), cellulitis (n=3 [3%]), fall (n=3 [3%]), and sepsis (n=3 [3%]). Pneumonia (n=5 [5%]) and lower respiratory tract infection (n=4 [4%]) were considered treatment related. One treatment-related death was reported (intracranial hematoma). INTERPRETATION: This study provides evidence that acalabrutinib is active as single-agent therapy with a manageable safety profile in patients with treatment-naive, or relapse or refractory Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Further studies are needed to establish its efficacy against current standard treatments and to investigate whether outcomes can be improved with combination therapies. FUNDING: Acerta Pharma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/tratamento farmacológico , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Terapia de Salvação , Resultado do Tratamento , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/enzimologia , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética
13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(6): 1077-1083, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786242

RESUMO

In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated the impact of age on the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma who received an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) at our institution. A total of 1128 patients were divided into the older (>70 years; 182 [16%]) and the younger (≤70 years; 946 [84%]) groups. Compared with the younger cohort, older patients had a higher International Staging System (ISS) stage (ISS-II, 57 [31%] versus 215 [23%]; ISS-III, 52 [28%] versus 211 [22%]; P = .01), higher use of reduced-dose melphalan as a conditioning regimen (140 mg/m², 59 [32%] versus 29 [3%]; P < .001), and a higher comorbidity index (median, 3 versus 2; P = .01). Nonrelapse mortality at 1 year after auto-HCT was significantly higher in older patients (7 [4%] versus 9 [1%]; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; P = .005). Complete remission rates after auto-HCT for the older and the younger groups were 41% and 46%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17% to 32%) and 37% (95% CI, 33% to 40%) in the older and younger groups, respectively (HR, 1.3; P = .02). Five-year OS for the older and younger groups was 56% (95% CI, 47% to 64%) and 73% (95% CI, 70% to 76%; P < .001), respectively. Older age emerged as one of the predictors of shorter OS but not PFS in the multivariate classification and regression tree analysis. In conclusion, age ≥70 years was associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with multiple myeloma who underwent an auto-HCT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(4): 665-671, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881283

RESUMO

The gain/amplification CKS1B gene at chromosome region 1q21 (1q+) is one of the most common genetic aberrations in multiple myeloma (MM). Amplification of CKS1B is frequently associated with the deletion of the CDKN2C gene at chromosome region 1p32 (1p-), which is also associated with inferior outcomes. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the outcomes of patients with 1q+ and/or 1p- after high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). From January 2006 to December 2015, 1491 newly diagnosed patients with MM underwent upfront high-dose therapy and auto-HCT at our institution. Of those, 899 had the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) data available. FISH was performed at diagnosis and before the start of induction in 686 (76%) patients and after the initiation of induction therapy in 213 (24%) patients. We identified 100 patients with 1q+ and/or 1p- by FISH from the cohort of 899 patients. A control group (n = 287) with diploid cytogenetics and normal FISH panel was selected from the same cohort. From the above 2 cohorts, using a propensity score matched analysis, we identified matched controls for 85 of the 100 patients with 1q+/1p-. Patients were matched for age at auto-HCT, sex, International Staging System stage, induction regimen, creatinine level, disease status at auto-HCT, conditioning regimen, and maintenance therapy. Sixty-seven (79%), 4 (5%), and 14 (16%) patients had 1q+, 1p-, or both 1q+ and 1p-, respectively. There was no significant difference in induction therapy, preparative regimen, or maintenance therapy between the 1q+/1p- and the control group. The median follow-up time for all patients was 29.2 months (range, 0.29 to 84.96). The cumulative incidence of 100-day nonrelapse mortality was 1.2% and 0% for the 1q+/1p- and the control group, respectively. Forty-two patients (50%) in the 1q+/1p- group achieved complete response compared with 40 patients (47%) in the control group. The estimated 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 41% and 79% for the 1q+/1p- group and 56% and 86% for the control group. Patients in the 1q+/1p- group were at significantly increased risk of progression or death compared to the control group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 4.16; P = .014). No significant association between OS in the 2 groups was observed. The outcome of the 1q+/1p- alone (with no additional high-risk cytogenetics) and the propensity score matched control groups was also compared. Median PFS for the 1q+/1p- alone subgroup was 26.6 months, compared with 38.8 months for the control group (HR, 1.9; CI, 0.9 to 4.08; P = .09). The median OS had not been reached for the 1q+/1p- alone subgroup and was 81.1 months for the control group (HR, 1.25; CI, 0.3 to 4.6; P= .73). 1q+/1p- abnormalities with amplification of CKS1B and deletion ofCDKN2Cgenes were associated with shorter PFS compared with a propensity score matched group of patients with diploid cytogenetics and normal a FISH panel. The outcomes of 1q+/1p- patients with MM have improved with the use of more effective induction, conditioning, and maintenance therapy compared with historical controls, but we still need more effective therapeutic approaches to fully overcome the negative impact of 1q+/1p-.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo , Cromossomos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(22): 6781-6787, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481508

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with multiple myeloma with t(11;14) have been considered to have standard-risk disease. However, several recent reports have shown contradictory results. We identified 95 patients with multiple myeloma with t(11;14) on FISH studies, who underwent upfront autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (auto-HCT) at our center. We compared their outcome with a group of standard-risk patients with multiple myeloma who had diploid cytogenetics by both conventional cytogenetics (CC) and FISH (n = 287). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To reduce the bias between the groups, we performed a 1:1 propensity score matching technique for analysis. A total of 160 patients, 80 in each group, were identified. Patients in the 2 groups were matched for age, International staging system stage at diagnosis, serum creatinine at presentation, disease status at auto-HCT, type of preparative regimens, dose of melphalan used for conditioning, and induction and maintenance regimens. RESULTS: Patients in t(11;14) group had a post auto-HCT overall response rate (ORR) of 97.5% (78/80), compared with 100% (80/80) in the standard-risk control group (P = 0.50). Complete response rate in the t(11;14) group was 35% (28/80), compared with 45% (36/80) in the standard-risk control group (P = 0.26). The 4-year PFS rates were 40.8% (95% CI, 29.6%-56.1%) and 51.1% (95% CI, 39.4%-66.3%) in the t(11;14) and standard-risk control groups, respectively (P = 0.14). The 4-year OS rates were 74.9% (95% CI, 63.3%-88.7%) and 88.3% (95% CI, 80.4%-97.0%) in the t(11;14) and standard-risk control groups, respectively (P = 0.17). Also, patients with t(11;14) with concurrent cytogenetics had significantly poor PFS and OS compared with a propensity matched standard-risk control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that t(11;14) multiple myeloma undergoing upfront autologous transplantation had similar outcomes as patients with multiple myeloma with normal cytogenetic and FISH studies. Existence of additional genomic aberrations by CC or FISH was associated with a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Translocação Genética , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(9): 560-569, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) usually follows a clinical course leading to refractoriness and limited treatment options in advanced stages, which might need bridge therapies to either autologous stem cell transplantation or novel therapies. We report our experience with the high-dose chemotherapy mCBAD (modified cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) regimen in newly diagnosed MM (NDMM), relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM), and plasma cell leukemia (PCL) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched our electronic records database for MM patients who received mCBAD from 2010 to 2016 for 28-day cycles of cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2 intravenously (I.V.) twice daily with mesna 400 mg/m2 I.V. daily (days 1-4), bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 subcutaneously/I.V. (days 1, 4, 8, 11), doxorubicin 9 mg/m2 daily continuous infusion (days 1-4), dexamethasone 40 mg orally daily (on days 1-4, 9-12, 17-20). International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria were used for response assessment and diagnosis. Descriptive statistics, Fisher exact test, χ2, Wilcoxon rank sum, and Kaplan-Meier were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: One hundred forty patients met the inclusion criteria. A median of 2 cycles of therapy was administered. The overall response rate was 85% in patients with RRMM (n = 116) and 100% in NDMM (n = 13) and PCL (n = 11) patients. Respective median progression-free survival (mPFS) for NDMM, PCL, and RRMM were 19.61 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.26 to not applicable [NA]), 7.56 months (95% CI, 4.7 to NA), and 4.64 months (95% CI, 3.75-6.73). Patients with RRMM who used mCBAD as a bridge to autologous transplant (36.2%) had mPFS (11.48 months; 95% CI, 7.52-15.9 months) compared with those who did not (mPFS: 3.19 months; 95% CI, 2.4-3.75 months). Cytopenias occurred in more than 90% of patients, and febrile neutropenia was noted in 26%. All cases of treatment-related mortality (8%) occurred in patients with RRMM, except for 1 patient with PCL. CONCLUSION: mCBAD results in high response rates in myeloma and PCL, however, with high treatment-related mortality. Its use in RRMM should be limited to patients who have immediate need for therapy without other treatment options and who have good performance status (score of 0-1) or NDMM if novel agents are not available depending on practice setting. mCBAD can be a treatment option for patients with PCL.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Plasmocitária/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Plasmocitária/diagnóstico , Leucemia Plasmocitária/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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