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1.
Updates Surg ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727341

RESUMO

We conducted this study to evaluate the ability of indocyanine green (ICG) and near infra-red fluorescence (NIRF) camera to aid in the identification and assessment of viability of parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. A prospective observational study was conducted between May and October 2020 among 50 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy at a single institution. Parathyroid glands were identified under white light during thyroidectomy following which reconstituted ICG was injected through a peripheral vein and the location of parathyroid glands was confirmed. The perfusion to the parathyroid gland was assessed by documenting the fluorescence intensity score (FIS) and the parathyroid angiogram score (PAS). There was no difference in the number of parathyroid glands seen on visual inspection 147 (73.5%) when compared to under NIRF camera, 146 (73%). Though the rate of postoperative hypoparathyroidism was lower in the cohort with FIS 3 (14.2%) compared to score 2 and 1 (28.5% and 100%, respectively), this was not significant (p = 0.35). A significant correlation was noted between a delayed flow on PAS and the development of post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism (p = 0.01). PAS had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 88.6%, NPV of 100% and PPV of 55.6% to predict the development of post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism. In this study, there was no additional benefit of ICG and NIRF camera in the identification of parathyroid glands. However, ICG angiogram seems to be a good adjunct for the intraoperative assessment of the viability of the parathyroid glands and accurately predicts the development of postoperative hypoparathyroidism.

2.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0013021, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378980

RESUMO

Understanding the effectiveness and potential mechanism of action of agricultural biological products under different soil profiles and crops will allow more precise product recommendations based on local conditions and will ultimately result in increased crop yield. This study aimed to use bulk soil and rhizosphere microbial composition and structure to evaluate the potential effect of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inoculant (strain QST713) on potatoes and to explore its relationship with crop yield. We implemented next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics approaches to assess the bacterial and fungal biodiversity in 185 soil samples, distributed over four different time points-from planting to harvest-from three different geographical locations in the United States. In addition to location and sampling time (which includes the difference between bulk soil and rhizosphere) as the main variables defining the microbiome composition, the microbial inoculant applied as a treatment also had a small but significant effect in fungal communities and a marginally significant effect in bacterial communities. However, treatment preserved the native communities without causing a detectable long-lasting effect on the alpha- and beta-diversity patterns after harvest. Using information about the application of the microbial inoculant and considering microbiome composition and structure data, we were able to train a Random Forest model to estimate if a bulk soil or rhizosphere sample came from a low- or high-yield block with relatively high accuracy (84.6%), concluding that the structure of fungal communities gives us more information as an estimator of potato yield than the structure of bacterial communities. IMPORTANCE Our results reinforce the notion that each cultivar on each location recruits a unique microbial community and that these communities are modulated by the vegetative growth stage of the plant. Moreover, inoculation of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain QST713-based product on potatoes also changed the abundance of specific taxonomic groups and the structure of local networks in those locations where the product caused an increase in the yield. The data obtained, from in-field assays, allowed training a predictive model to estimate the yield of a certain block, identifying microbiome variables-especially those related to microbial community structure-even with a higher predictive power than the geographical location of the block (that is, the principal determinant of microbial beta-diversity). The methods described here can be replicated to fit new models in any other crop and to evaluate the effect of any agricultural input in the composition and structure of the soil microbiome.

3.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 288-298, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994711

RESUMO

Background: Etiology of and outcomes following idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) vary geographically. We conducted a prospective study of DILI in India, from 2013 to 2018 and summarize the causes, clinical features, outcomes and predictors of mortality. Methods: We enrolled patients with DILI using international DILI expert working group criteria and Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method. Follow-up was up to 3 months from onset of DILI or until death. Multivariate logistics regression was carried out to determine predictors of non-survival. Results: Among 1288 patients with idiosyncratic DILI, 51.4% were male, 68% developed jaundice, 68% required hospitalization and 8.2% had co-existing HIV infection. Concomitant features of skin reaction, ascites, and encephalopathy (HE) were seen in 19.5%, 16.4%, and 10% respectively. 32.4% had severe disease. Mean MELD score at presentation was 18.8 ± 8.8. Overall mortality was 12.3%; 65% in those with HE, 17.6% in patients who fulfilled Hy's law, and 16.6% in those that developed jaundice. Combination anti-TB drugs (ATD) 46.4%, complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) 13.9%, anti-epileptic drugs (AED) 8.1%, non-ATD antimicrobials 6.5%, anti-metabolites 3.8%, anti-retroviral drugs (ART)3.5%, NSAID2.6%, hormones 2.5%, and statins 1.4% were the top 9 causes. Univariate analysis identified, ascites, HE, serum albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, INR, MELD score (p < 0.001), transaminases (p < 0.04), and anti-TB drugs (p = 0.02) as predictors of non-survival. Only serum creatinine (p = 0.017), INR (p < 0.001), HE (p < 0.001), and ascites (p = 0.008), were significantly associated with mortality on multivariate analysis. ROC yielded a C-statistic of 0.811 for MELD and 0.892 for combination of serum creatinine, INR, ascites and HE. More than 50 different agents were associated with DILI. Mortality varied by drug class: 15% with ATD, 13.6% with CAM, 15.5% with AED, 5.8% with antibiotics. Conclusion: In India, ATD, CAM, AED, anti-metabolites and ART account for the majority of cases of DILI. The 3-month mortality was approximately 12%. Hy's law, presence of jaundice or MELD were predictors of mortality.

4.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 12(1): 210-217, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814855

RESUMO

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is done by different techniques in clinically node-negative patients with early breast cancer. In this study, we aim to estimate the identification rates, positivity rates, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes for patients who underwent sentinel node biopsy using methylene blue dye alone. This was a retrospective review of 172 patients with early breast cancer (cT1-3, N0) who underwent SLNB using methylene blue dye alone between January 2014 and December 2018 including their follow-up details until December 2019. The mean age was 51 ± 10.3 (range: 28 to 76) years. There were 63 (36.6%) patients with cT1 tumor, 108 (62.7%) with cT2, and only 1 patient with cT3 tumor. Breast conservation surgery was performed in 62 (36%) while the remaining 110 (64%) underwent simple mastectomy. Sentinel nodes were successfully identified in 165 (95.9%) with a positivity rate of 23.6%. There was no dye-related adverse reactions intra-operatively. The mean duration of follow-up was 26.68 ± 15.9 months (range: 1-60). Chronic arm pain was present in 7 (4%) while none of the patients had lymphedema or restriction of shoulder joint motion. There were no documented axillary nodal recurrences in this cohort. Eight (4.65%) patients were detected to have systemic metastasis. One patient died of brain metastasis from bilateral breast cancer. The mean disease-free survival was 57 months (95% CI: 55-59). Sentinel lymph node biopsy using methylene dye alone is a safe, simple, and cost-effective alternative to isosulfan blue or radio isotope technique in surgical centers with resource constraints.

5.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(2): 163-170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746440

RESUMO

Introduction: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of acute liver failure with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of DILI varies widely according to the drug implicated and the type of liver injury. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of liver injury, knowledge on clinical course and prognosis of DILI is limited. We had undertaken this study to determine the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in patients with DILI. Materials and methods: This prospective study was conducted from January 2015 through December 2018. We analyzed the drugs implicated, clinical course, and the outcome. Causality assessment was performed by using Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scoring. Patients were followed for 6 months until recovery/death or liver transplantation. Results: There were 133 cases with DILI. The mean age was 47.6 years, and 51.9% of them were men. Drugs causing DILI were antitubercular drugs (37.5%) followed by neuropsychiatric drugs (16.5%), antibiotics/antifungals (12%), complementary and alternative medicine (10.5%), immunomodulatory/chemotherapeutic drugs (10.5%), and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (7.5%). Eighty-two (61.6%) patients were classified as hepatocellular, 30 (22.5%) as mixed and 21 (15.7%) as cholestatic type of injury. There was no significant difference in the mortality and morbidity between the three types of liver injury. There were 18 deaths (13.5%), of which antitubercular drugs constituted the majority (55.5%) followed by neuropsychiatric drugs (27.7%) and complementary and alternative medicine (16.6%). Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >28, mean international normalized ratio (INR) >1.97, mean bilirubin level >15.6 mg/dl, and creatinine level >1.35 mg/dl were associated with mortality. Conclusion: Although DILI is uncommon, it has significant morbidity and mortality. Antitubercular drugs were the most common cause for DILI and DILI-related mortality in our study. Variables such as MELD, INR, bilirubin, albumin, and creatinine help in predicting severity of liver injury and may help in triaging the patient for referral for liver transplantation.

6.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 6(1): e000654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718614

RESUMO

Background/aim: To determine willingness to pay for children's spectacles, and barriers to purchasing children's spectacles in Cambodia. Methods: We conducted vision screenings, and eye examinations as indicated, for all consenting children at 21 randomly selected secondary schools. We invited parents/guardians of children found to have refractive problems to complete a willingness to pay for spectacles survey, using a binary-with-follow-up technique. Results: We conducted vision screenings on 12 128 secondary schoolchildren, and willingness to pay for spectacles surveys with 491 parents/guardians (n=491) from Kandal and Phnom Penh provinces in Cambodia. We found 519 children with refractive error, 7 who had pre-existing spectacles and 14 recommended spectacles for lower ametropias. About half (53.2%; 95% CI 44.0% to 62.1%) of parents/guardians were willing to pay KHR70 000 (US$17.5; average market price) or more for spectacles. Mean willingness-to-pay price was KHR74 595 (US$18.6; 95% CI KHR64 505 to 86 262; 95% CI US$16.1 to US$21.6) in Phnom Penh and KHR55 651 (US$13.9; 95% CI KHR48 021 to 64 494; 95% CI US$12.0 to US$16.1) in Kandal province. Logistic regression suggested parents/guardians with college education (OR 6.8; p<0.001), higher household incomes (OR 8.0; p=0.006) and those wearing spectacles (OR 2.2; p=0.01) were more likely to be willing to pay ≥US$17.5. The most common reasons for being unwilling to pay US$17.5 were related to cost (58.8%). The most common barrier to spectacle wear was fear that spectacles weaken children's eyes (36.0%). Conclusions: With almost half of parents/guardians unwilling to pay for spectacles at the current average market price, financial support through a subsidised spectacle scheme might be required for children to access spectacles in Cambodia.

7.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 11(4): 565-572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070638

RESUMO

India's medical heritage across its two streams of experiential knowledge viz. the classical (codified) and folk (oral) reveals an incredible range and depth of knowledge of medicinal plants. In the classical stream of Ayurveda, across the period from 1500 BCE to 1900 CE, there is information of more than 12,000 distinct Sanskrit plant names with overlaps across texts. This information is captured in more than 200 texts viz. 6 samhitas, 57 nighantus and 140 vyakhyas. The information about plants has three major dimensions in codified literature viz. morphological description (rupa gnana), pharmacology (dravya guna shastra) and pharmacy (bhaishajya kalpana). The morphological information is however sketchy and wholly inadequate for establishing botanical identity. Thus despite the huge corpus of plant names backed by sophisticated understanding of pharmacology and pharmacy there is the fact of controversial identities of medicinal plants. Why is this the case? The author believes that the gap in morphological detailing is due to the 'experiential' pedagogy of India's health tradition. While knowledge transmission of plants included theoretical propositions and sophisticated logic related to pharmacology, it also assumed an oral, practical and experiential system of learning about the identity of plants through field work. The purpose of this research is to understand the range and depth at which we have understood the problem of controversial identities of medicinal plants, to analyze work done in the field and to propose a Trans disciplinary approach to solve the problem of controversial identities of medicinal plants in Ayurveda.

8.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(4): 283-290, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907859

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports that subjective vision ratings are better indicators of willingness to purchase simultaneous-image contact lenses than visual acuities and are more valuable in evaluating contact lens performance. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual acuities, subjective vision ratings, and willingness to purchase simultaneous-image contact lenses in presbyopes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of visual acuities, subjective vision ratings, and willingness to purchase from final visits of two masked, crossover clinical trials of nine prototype and four commercially available simultaneous-image contact lenses in 141 presbyopes was performed. Pearson correlation and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve determined correlations between variables. RESULTS: Most subjective vision ratings were weakly correlated (r < 0.3) with visual acuity at all distances and illumination. Moderate correlations (r, 95% confidence intervals) were found between overall vision satisfaction ratings with visual acuity at 40 (-0.34, -0.28 to -0.40) and 50 cm (-0.33, -0.27 to -0.39), near-vision ratings (daytime) with visual acuity at 40 (-0.48, -0.43 to -0.53) and 50 cm (-0.46; -0.41 to -0.51), and intermediate-vision ratings (daytime) with visual acuity at 40 (-0.39, -0.33 to -0.45) and 50 cm (-0.41, -0.35 to -0.46). Highest discrimination for willingness to purchase was with overall vision satisfaction (area under curve, 0.93) and vision stability (daytime; area under curve, 0.77). Ratings from 4 to 9 for vision satisfaction showed a linear increase in willingness to purchase: a 1-unit increase in vision satisfaction increased willingness to purchase by 20%. Ratings lower than 4 had 0% willingness to purchase. Other subjective ratings showed similar relationships, albeit only 10 to 15% increase in willingness to purchase per unit increase for ratings higher than 4. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective vision ratings are a better indicator of simultaneous-image contact lens performance than visual acuity. Overall vision satisfaction and vision stability are key predictors of willingness to purchase. Subjective vision ratings should be used to evaluate performance rather than visual acuity alone.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Presbiopia/terapia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Presbiopia/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eye Contact Lens ; 45(4): 260-270, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess two prototype contact lenses (CLs) that extend depth of focus through deliberate manipulation of multiple spherical aberration terms (extended depth-of-focus [EDOF]) for visual performance, accommodative and binocular function, and objective static near refraction against a single-vision (SV) CL. METHOD: This was a prospective, randomized, cross-over, single-masked (participant) clinical trial in which 16 myopic children wore 2 prototype CLs (EDOFL/EDOFH) designed for presbyopes and a SV CL, each for one week. Measurements comprised monocular and binocular high-contrast visual acuity (HCVA: 6 m, 40 cm), binocular low-contrast visual acuity (LCVA: 6 m), contrast sensitivity (CS: 6 m), phorias (3 m, 33 cm), monocular-accommodative facility (33 cm), and objective static refraction (spherical equivalent M) at zero, -3, and -5 D vergences. Measurements were taken 10 min after lens insertion. Subjective response was assessed using take-home questionnaires comprising vision clarity (distance/intermediate/near), vision quality (haloes at night/ghosting), vision stability when moving (playing sport/using stairs), and comfort. RESULTS: Single vision was significantly better than both EDOF CLs for monocular HCVA, LCVA, and CS (6 m); vision clarity (distance), ghosting (P≤0.040), and EDOFL for binocular HCVA (6 m, P=0.047). M was significantly closer to the ideal objective static refraction at -3 and -5 D vergences (P≤0.004) with both EDOF compared with SV CLs. There were no differences between CLs for any other variable (P≥0.169). CONCLUSION: Extended depth-of-focus CLs caused minimal disruption to the accommodative and binocular system compared with SV CLs when worn by myopic children. Future EDOF designs for children should reduce the difference between SV for distance vision and vision quality while maintaining the same performance for intermediate and near.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Lentes de Contato , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Presbiopia/terapia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ajuste de Prótese , Método Simples-Cego
10.
Optom Vis Sci ; 95(12): 1096-1104, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451806

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The present study highlights the differences between modern daily-disposable multifocal soft contact lenses to assist eye care practitioners in fitting presbyopic contact lens wearers. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare visual performance of three daily-disposable multifocal contact lenses. METHODS: Presbyopes (n = 72) wore 1-Day Acuvue Moist Multifocal, BioTrue ONEday for Presbyopia, and Dailies AquaComfort Plus Multifocal for 1 week in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial. After 1 week, high- and low-contrast visual acuities (HCVA, LCVA) were measured between 6 m and 40 cm and stereopsis at 40 cm. Subjective performance was assessed with 1- to 10-point rating scales for clarity, ghosting, driving vision, vision stability, ease of focusing, overall vision satisfaction, and ocular comfort. Willingness to purchase was reported with categorical responses. Linear mixed models and χ tests were used for analysis, and level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: BioTrue provided better HCVA and LCVA at distance than did Acuvue Moist (P ≤ .03). Subjectively, Acuvue Moist was rated lowest for distance clarity, distance ghosting, and driving vision (P ≤ .05). Acuvue Moist provided better HCVA at 70 to 40 cm and LCVA at 1 m to 40 cm than did BioTrue (P ≤ .01) and better LCVA at 1 m to 50 cm than did AquaComfort Plus (P ≤ .02). AquaComfort Plus also provided better HCVA and LCVA at 50 and 40 cm than did BioTrue (P ≤ .03). Acuvue Moist provided better stereopsis than did BioTrue (P = .02). Subjectively, BioTrue was rated lowest for near clarity (P ≤ .007) and lower than Acuvue Moist for intermediate clarity and near ghosting (P ≤ .04). No other differences were found between lenses (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: BioTrue had better distance performance compared with near, whereas Acuvue Moist performed conversely. AquaComfort Plus performed reasonably overall.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Presbiopia/terapia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Condução de Veículo , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Presbiopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ajuste de Prótese
11.
Clin Optom (Auckl) ; 10: 75-86, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319298

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the visual performance of soft contact lenses reported to reduce myopia progression. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial, 30 non-presbyopic myopes wore MiSight™, center-distance Proclear® Multifocal (+2.00 D add), and two prototype lenses for 1 week each. High- and low-contrast visual acuities at 6 m, and 70 and 40 cm; stereopsis at 40 cm; accommodative facility at 33 cm; and horizontal phoria at 3 m and 33 cm were measured after 1 week. Subjective performance was assessed on a numeric rating scale for vision clarity, lack of ghosting, vision stability, haloes, overall vision satisfaction, and ocular comfort. Frequency of eye-strain symptoms and willingness to purchase lenses were also reported with categorical responses. Participants reported wearing times (total and visually acceptable). Linear mixed models and chi-square tests were employed in analysis with level of significance set at 5%. Theoretical optical performance of all lenses was assessed with schematic myopic model eyes (-1.00, -3.00, and -6.00 D) by comparing the slope of the edge spread function (ESF), an indicator for optical performance/resolution and the blur patch size of the line spread function, an indicator for contrast, between the lenses. Results: Proclear Multifocal and MiSight provided the best distance acuities. However, the prototype lenses were rated significantly higher for many subjective variables, and there were no subjective variables where commercial lenses were rated significantly higher than the prototypes. Theoretical optical performance showed steeper slopes of the ESF and greater blur patch sizes of the LSP with commercial lenses, supporting the clinical findings of better visual acuities but reduced subjective performance. Participants wore prototypes longer and reported their vision acceptable for longer each day compared to MiSight. Both prototypes had the highest willingness-to-purchase rate. Conclusions: The prototypes were better tolerated by myopes compared to the commercial soft contact lenses currently used for slowing myopia progression.

12.
Clin Optom (Auckl) ; 10: 9-17, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214337

RESUMO

Objective: The study aimed to compare the visual performance of contact lenses with and without negative spherical aberration (SA) over 5 days of wear. Methods: At baseline, 32 myopic participants (aged 18-33 years) were fitted in a randomized order with two lenses (test lens with minimal or no SA and 1-Day Acuvue Moist designed with negative SA) for 5 days (minimum 6 hours wear/day). Participants returned for a follow-up visit. This consisted of on-axis SA measurements; high- and low-contrast visual acuities at 6 m; high-contrast acuities at 70 and 40 cm; low-illumination, low-contrast acuity at 6 m; stereopsis at 40 cm; horizontal phorias at 3 m and 33 cm; and ±2.00 D monocular accommodative facility at 33 cm. Participants also rated (1-10 scale) vision quality (clarity and lack of ghosting for distance, intermediate, near, driving vision and vision stability during day- and night-time), overall vision satisfaction, ocular comfort, and willingness to purchase (yes/no response). Results: 1-Day Acuvue Moist induced significantly (p<0.05) more negative SA at distance (Δ=0.078 µm) and near (Δ=0.064 µm) compared to the test lens, for a 6 mm pupil. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in acuity, binocular vision, and all subjective metrics except vision stability between lenses where the test lens was rated to provide more stable vision (p<0.05). Conclusion: Contrary to expectations, incorporating negative SA in single vision soft contact lenses did not improve visual performance in non-presbyopic adult myopes.

13.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 8(1): 58-80, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743798

RESUMO

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditure in India. There are no Indian consensus guidelines on prevention, diagnosis and management of HBV infection. The Indian National Association for Study of the Liver (INASL) set up a taskforce on HBV in 2016, with a mandate to develop consensus guidelines for diagnosis and management of HBV infection, relevant to disease patterns and clinical practices in India. The taskforce first identified contentious issues on various aspects of HBV management, which were allotted to individual members of the taskforce who reviewed them in detail. A 2-day round table discussion was held on 11th and 12th February 2017 at Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, to discuss, debate, and finalize the consensus statements. The members of the taskforce reviewed and discussed the existing literature threadbare at this meeting and formulated the 'INASL position statements' on each of the issues. The evidence and recommendations in these guidelines have been graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system with minor modifications. The strength of recommendations (strong: 1, weak: 2) thus reflects the quality (grade) of underlying evidence (A, B, C, D). We present here the INASL position statements on prevention, diagnosis and management of HBV in India.

14.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 11(1): 21-32, ene.-mar. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169366

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the visual performance of prototype contact lenses designed via deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend-depth-of-focus with two commercial multifocals, after 1 week of lens wear. Methods: In a prospective, participant-masked, cross-over, randomized, 1-week dispensing clinical-trial, 43 presbyopes [age: 42-63 years] each wore AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS for presbyopia (AOP) and extended-depth-of-focus prototypes (EDOF) appropriate to their add requirements. Measurements comprised high-contrast-visual-acuity (HCVA) at 6 m, 70 cm, 50 cm and 40 cm; low-contrast-visual-acuity (LCVA) and contrast-sensitivity (CS) at 6 m and stereopsis at 40 cm. A self-administered questionnaire on a numeric-rating-scale (1-10) assessed subjective visual performance comprising clarity-of-vision and lack-of-ghosting at various distances during day/night-viewing conditions and overall-vision-satisfaction. Results: EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for HCVA averaged across distances (p ≤ 0.038); significantly worse than AOMF for LCVA (p = 0.021) and significantly worse than AOMF for CS in medium and high add-groups (p = 0.006). None of these differences were clinically significant (≤2 letters). EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for mean stereoacuity (36 and 13 seconds-of-arc, respectively: p ≤ 0.05). For clarity-of-vision, EDOF was significantly better than AOP at all distances and AOMF at intermediate and near (p ≤ 0.028). For lackof-ghosting averaged across distances, EDOF was significantly better than AOP (p < 0.001) but not AOMF (p = 0.186). EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for overall-vision satisfaction (p ≤ 0.024). Conclusions: EDOF provides better intermediate and near vision performance than either AOMF or AOP with no difference for distance vision after 1 week of lens wear (AU)


Objetivo: Comparar el rendimiento visual de un prototipo de lentes de contacto diseñadas mediante manipulación deliberada de aberraciones esféricas de alto orden, para ampliar la profundidad de campo con dos lentes multifocales comerciales, tras una semana de uso. Métodos: En un ensayo clínico prospectivo, ciego para los participantes, transversal, aleatorizado, con uso de lentes durante una semana, 43 présbitas [Edad: 42-63 años] utilizaron lentes AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS para presbicia (AOP) y de profundidad de foco extendido (EDOF) adecuados a sus requisitos de adición. Las mediciones incluyeron agudeza visual de alto contraste (HCVA) a 6 m, 70 cm, 50 cm y 40 cm, agudeza visual de bajo contraste (LCVA), sensibilidad de contraste (CS) a 6 m, y estereopsis a 40 cm. Un cuestionario auto-administrado sobre una escala de evaluación numérica (1-10) valoró el rendimiento visual subjetivo incluyendo la nitidez de visión y la ausencia de imágenes fantasma a diversas distancias en condiciones de visión diurna/nocturna, así como la satisfacción sobre la visión general. Resultados: EDOF fue considerablemente mejor que AOMF y AOP para la media de las distancias HCVA (p ≤ 0,038); considerablemente peor que AOMF para LCVA (p = 0,021) y considerablemente peor que AOMF para CS en los grupos de adición media y elevada (p = 0,006). Ninguna de estas diferencias fueron clínicamente significativas (≤ 2 letras). EDOF fue considerablemente mejor que AOMF y AOP para la estereoagudeza media (36 y 13 segundos de arco, respectivamente: p ≤ 0,05). Para la claridad de visión, EDOF fue considerablemente mejor que AOP en todas las distancias, y AOMF para las distancias intermedia y cercana (p ≤ 0,028). Para la falta de imágenes fantasma promediada a las diferentes distancias, EDOF fue considerablemente mejor que AOP (p < 0,001) pero no así AOMF (p = 0,186). EDOF fue considerablemente mejor que AOMF y AOP en cuanto a satisfacción sobre la visión general (p ≤ 0,024). Conclusiones: EDOF aporta un mejor desempeño de visión intermedia y cercana que AOMF o AOP, sin diferencia de visión lejana tras una semana de uso de lentes de contacto multifocales (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lentes de Contato/classificação , Lentes de Contato , Lentes de Contato de Uso Prolongado , Presbiopia/terapia , Miopia , Testes de Campo Visual/métodos , Testes de Campo Visual , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise Estatística , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0193119, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447287

RESUMO

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 and B. firmus I-1582 are bacterial strains which are used as active ingredients of commercially-available soil application and seed treatment products Serenade® and VOTiVO®, respectively. These bacteria colonize plant roots promoting plant growth and offering protection against pathogens/pests. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR protocol to quantitate the dynamics of root colonization by these two strains under field conditions. Primers and TaqMan® probes were designed based on genome comparisons of the two strains with publicly-available and unpublished bacterial genomes of the same species. An optimized qPCR protocol was developed to quantify bacterial colonization of corn roots after seed treatment. Treated corn seeds were planted in non-sterile soil in the greenhouse and grown for 28 days. Specific detection of bacteria was quantified weekly, and showed stable colonization between ~104-105 CFU/g during the experimental period for both bacteria, and the protocol detected as low as 103 CFU/g bacteria on roots. In a separate experiment, streptomycin-resistant QST713 and rifampicin-resistant I-1582 strains were used to compare dilution-plating on TSA with the newly developed qPCR method. Results also indicated that the presence of natural microflora and another inoculated strain does not affect root colonization of either one of these strains. The same qPCR protocol was used to quantitate root colonization by QST713 and I-1582 in two corn and two soybean varieties grown in the field. Both bacteria were quantitated up to two weeks after seeds were planted in the field and there were no significant differences in root colonization in either bacteria strain among varieties. Results presented here confirm that the developed qPCR protocol can be successfully used to understand dynamics of root colonization by these bacteria in plants growing in growth chamber, greenhouse and the field.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , Bacillus firmus , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Zea mays/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Eye Contact Lens ; 44 Suppl 1: S30-S37, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27341089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether adaptation of accommodative responses occurred in non-presbyopic myopes fitted with four multifocal contact lens (MFCL) designs. METHODS: Prospective, subject-masked clinical investigation comprising 40 experienced myopic lens wearers (18-25 years) fitted bilaterally with single-vision (SV) control lens (Air Optix Aqua [Alcon, Fort Worth, TX]) and randomized to two of four test MFCL (Proclear MFCL [Distance and Near] [CooperVision, Pleasanton, CA], Air Optix Aqua MFCL, Purevision MFCL [Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY]). Lenses were dispensed on a daily wear basis and worn for a minimum of 8 (maximum 14) days over three assessment visits, with a 1-week wash out between stages. Paraxial curvature matched spherical equivalent (M) was measured with lenses on eye using the BHVI-EyeMapper with an internal movable fixation target positioned at target vergences of +1.00 diopter (D) (fogging) and -2.00 to -5.00 in 1.00 D steps (accommodative stimuli). Accommodative facility was assessed by several flips of ±2.00 D/min (cycles/min) at 33 cm and horizontal phoria with a Howell phoria card at distance (3 m) and near (33 cm). RESULTS: For center-distance MFCL (Proclear D), the spherical equivalent (M) at all near vergences became significantly more negative at the follow-up visits compared with the dispensing visit (P<0.029). For all center-near MFCLs and SV lens, M remained invariant during the adaptation period, however (P≥0.267). At distance, M became significantly less minus with Air Optix Aqua MFCL over time (P=0.049). Accommodative facility increased over the three assessment visits for participants wearing Air Optix Aqua SV, Air Optix Aqua MFCL, and PureVision MFCL (P=0.003). Distance and near horizontal phoria remained stable over the three assessment visits for all lens types (P≥0.181). CONCLUSIONS: Adaptation differences were not consistently found for static accommodative measures gauged by M, as measured with lenses on eye, and phoria but were found in dynamic measures (facility), perhaps indicating some learning effects. Accommodative adaptation seems unlikely to occur with long-term MFCL in non-presbyopes.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Miopia/reabilitação , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Optom ; 11(1): 21-32, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619486

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the visual performance of prototype contact lenses designed via deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend-depth-of-focus with two commercial multifocals, after 1 week of lens wear. METHODS: In a prospective, participant-masked, cross-over, randomized, 1-week dispensing clinical-trial, 43 presbyopes [age: 42-63 years] each wore AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS for presbyopia (AOP) and extended-depth-of-focus prototypes (EDOF) appropriate to their add requirements. Measurements comprised high-contrast-visual-acuity (HCVA) at 6m, 70cm, 50cm and 40cm; low-contrast-visual-acuity (LCVA) and contrast-sensitivity (CS) at 6m and stereopsis at 40cm. A self-administered questionnaire on a numeric-rating-scale (1-10) assessed subjective visual performance comprising clarity-of-vision and lack-of-ghosting at various distances during day/night-viewing conditions and overall-vision-satisfaction. RESULTS: EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for HCVA averaged across distances (p≤0.038); significantly worse than AOMF for LCVA (p=0.021) and significantly worse than AOMF for CS in medium and high add-groups (p=0.006). None of these differences were clinically significant (≤2 letters). EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for mean stereoacuity (36 and 13 seconds-of-arc, respectively: p≤0.05). For clarity-of-vision, EDOF was significantly better than AOP at all distances and AOMF at intermediate and near (p≤0.028). For lack-of-ghosting averaged across distances, EDOF was significantly better than AOP (p<0.001) but not AOMF (p=0.186). EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for overall-vision-satisfaction (p≤0.024). CONCLUSIONS: EDOF provides better intermediate and near vision performance than either AOMF or AOP with no difference for distance vision after 1 week of lens wear.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Presbiopia/terapia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Estudos Cross-Over , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Presbiopia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Eye Contact Lens ; 44 Suppl 2: S157-S163, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29023311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare visual performance of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) prototypes with a new, center-near, commercial, multifocal contact lens. METHODS: Presbyopic participants (n=57) wore 1-Day ACUVUE MOIST MULTIFOCAL (1DAMM) and an EDOF prototype for one week in a double-masked, prospective, cross-over, randomized clinical trial. Manufacturers' guide was used to select the first pair of lens to be fit based on subjective distance refraction and near addition. After one week, high- and low-contrast visual acuities were measured at distance (6 m), intermediate (70 cm) and near (50 and 40 cm), and stereopsis at 40 cm. Subjective performance was assessed on a 1 to 10 numeric rating scale for vision clarity and lack of ghosting at distance, intermediate and near, vision stability, haloes at night time, overall vision satisfaction, and ocular comfort. Linear mixed models were used for analysis and the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: 1DAMM was not significantly different from EDOF for high- or low-contrast visual acuity at any distance, or for stereopsis. Subjectively, EDOF was significantly better than 1DAMM for vision clarity at intermediate (P=0.033) and near (P<0.001), overall lack of ghosting (P=0.012), vision stability (P=0.004), and overall vision satisfaction (P=0.005). For all other subjective variables, there were no differences between EDOF and 1DAMM (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EDOF prototype lenses offer improvements over the newly marketed 1DAMM lenses for several subjective variables.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato de Uso Prolongado/normas , Presbiopia/reabilitação , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
19.
Eye Contact Lens ; 44 Suppl 1: S167-S172, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare subjective, objective and safety performance of silicone hydrogel (SiHy) daily disposable (DD) with hydrogel (Hy) DD contact lenses. METHOD: Retrospective analysis on approximately 40 participants (Px) each in 5 trials. Lenses grouped into SiHy (delefilcon A, somofilcon A, narafilcon A) and Hy (omafilcon A, nelfilcon A). Participants attended follow-up visits at baseline, 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months. Subjective ratings (1-10 scale), adverse events (percentage of Px), physiological variables (0-4 scale), and wearing time were collected at each visit and compared between groups. RESULT: Trials enrolled 201 Px totally. No differences in age, sex, and lens wear experience were found between SiHy and Hy groups (P≥0.09). There was greater increase in limbal redness from baseline in Hy group (0.18±0.38 vs. 0.02±0.47, P<0.001), whereas conjunctival staining and indentation were less in Hy group (P<0.001). No differences in comfortable wearing time were found between groups (P=0.41), and comfort at insertion, during day, and end of day was also no different (P≥0.71). Incidence of corneal infiltrative events (SiHy vs. Hy: 6.7% vs. 2.5%; P=0.32) and mechanical adverse events (SiHy vs. Hy: 0.0% vs. 0.0%; P=1.00) were no different. CONCLUSION: Though some statistical significance was found between the groups, these differences were within measurement error. Neither material types showed superiority in comfort, and adverse event rates were low with both material types. These findings suggest that choice of material is a patient and practitioner preference; however, for patients at risk of hypoxia-related complications, SiHy materials should be considered.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Doenças da Córnea/terapia , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Hidrogéis , Satisfação do Paciente , Silicones , Adulto , Doenças da Córnea/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lágrimas , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eye Contact Lens ; 44(5): 308-315, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether initial assessment of contact lenses prescribed for myopia control (MC) predicts short-term visual performance. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of 43 participants in a double-masked, randomized, cross-over trial wearing at least one lens: single-vision (SV) lens (1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST) or MC lenses (MiSight or Proclear Multifocal-Distance +2.00D). Participants completed questionnaires at the fitting visit, a take-home questionnaire (THQ) 3 days after fitting and finally at the assessment visit (≥5 days after fitting). Questions comprised vision clarity and lack of ghosting (distance, intermediate, near at day/night time); vision stability; driving vision; overall vision satisfaction and comfort (1-10 scale, 1-point steps); and willingness to purchase based on vision and MC benefit of lens (yes/no response). Visual acuity was measured at fitting and assessment visits. RESULTS: Vision clarity (intermediate and near) was significantly worse at assessment compared with fitting while wearing MC lenses (P<0.001), as was overall vision satisfaction (P<0.001), comfort (P<0.001), and vision stability (P=0.001) while wearing either SV or MC lenses. Participants willing to purchase at assessment visit was 84% with SV and 36% with MC lenses, increasing to 88% (SV, P=1.00) and 61% (MC, P<0.001) if the lenses slowed myopia progression. Visual acuity was no different with either MC or SV lenses at fitting or assessment (P≥0.251). CONCLUSION: Initial performance at fitting did not predict short-term performance for SV or MC lenses. A significant increase in willingness to purchase if lenses slowed myopia progression was observed while wearing MC lenses. Educating patients on the benefits might increase acceptability of MC lenses.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Miopia/terapia , Procedimentos Ortoceratológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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