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1.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 46(2): 505-517, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28703413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. The absence of more effective interventions in the chronic stage-that most patients stand to benefit from-reflects uncertainty surrounding mechanisms that govern recovery. The present work investigated the effects of a novel treatment (selective cyclooxygenase-1, COX-1, inhibition) in a model of focal ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FR122047 (COX-1 inhibitor) was given beginning 7 days following stroke (cortical microinjection of endothelin-1) in 23 adult male rats. Longitudinal continuous-arterial-spin-labeling was performed prior to treatment (7 days), and repeated following treatment (21 days) on a 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to estimate resting perfusion and reactivity to hypercapnia. These in vivo measurements were buttressed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Stroke caused an increase in perilesional resting perfusion (peri-/contralesional perfusion ratio of 170 ± 10%) and perfusion responses to hypercapnia (180 ± 10%) at 7 days. At 21 days, placebo-administered rats showed normalized perilesional perfusion (100 ± 20%) but persistent hyperreactivity (190 ± 20%). Treated animals exhibited sustained perilesional hyperperfusion (180 ± 10%). Further, reactivity lateralization did not persist following treatment (peri- vs. contralesional reactivity: P = 0.002 at 7 vs. P = 0.2 at 21 days). Hemodynamic changes were accompanied by neuronal loss, increased endothelial density, and widespread microglial and astrocytic activation. Moreover, relative to controls, treated rats showed increased perilesional neuronal survival (22 ± 1% vs. 14.9 ± 0.8%, P = 0.02) and decreased microglia/macrophage recruitment (17 ± 1% vs. 20 ± 1%, P = 0.05). Finally, perilesional perfusion was correlated with neuronal survival (slope = 0.14 ± 0.05; R2 = 0.7, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: These findings shed light on the role of COX-1 in chronic ischemic injury and suggest that delayed selective COX-1 inhibition exerts multiple beneficial effects on the neurogliovascular unit. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 4 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:505-517.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotelina-1/química , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Microglia/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Perfusão , Piperazinas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Marcadores de Spin , Tiazóis/química
2.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 37(3): 1046-1059, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683451

RESUMO

Aerobic activity has been shown highly beneficial to brain health, yet much uncertainty still surrounds the effects of exercise on the functioning of cerebral microvasculature. This study used two-photon fluorescence microscopy to examine cerebral hemodynamic alterations as well as accompanying geometric changes in the cortical microvascular network following five weeks of voluntary exercise in transgenic mice endogenously expressing tdTomato in vascular endothelial cells to allow visualization of microvessels irrespective of their perfusion levels. We found a diminished microvascular response to a hypercapnic challenge (10% FiCO2) in running mice when compared to that in nonrunning controls despite commensurate increases in transcutaneous CO2 tension. The flow increase to hypercapnia in runners was 70% lower than that in nonrunners (p = 0.0070) and the runners' arteriolar red blood cell speed changed by only half the amount seen in nonrunners (p = 0.0085). No changes were seen in resting hemodynamics or in the systemic physiological parameters measured. Although a few unperfused new vessels were observed on visual inspection, running did not produce significant morphological differences in the microvascular morphometric parameters, quantified following semiautomated tracking of the microvascular networks. We propose that voluntary running led to increased cortical microvascular efficiency and desensitization to CO2 elevation.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/irrigação sanguínea , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Hemodinâmica , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia
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