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1.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 3, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcomes yet evidence to guide intraoperative goals and treatment modalities during non-cardiac surgery are lacking. End-stage liver disease is associated with altered glucose homeostasis; patients undergoing liver transplantation display huge fluctuations in blood glucose (BG) and represent a population of great interest. Here, we conduct a randomized trial to compare the effects of strict versus conventional glycemic control during orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). METHODS: Following approval by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Michigan Medical School and informed consent, 100 adult patients undergoing OLT were recruited. Patients were randomized to either strict (target BG 80-120 mg/dL) or conventional (target BG 180-200 mg/dL) BG control with block randomization for diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The primary outcomes measured were 1-year patient and graft survival assessed on an intention to treat basis. Graft survival is defined as death or needing re-transplant (www.unos.org). Three and 5-year patient and graft survival, infectious and biliary complications were measured as secondary outcomes. Data were examined using univariate methods and Kaplan-Meir survival analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to compare patients with a mean BG of ≤120 mg/dL and those > 120 mg/dL regardless of treatment group. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in patient survival between conventional and strict control respectively;1 year, 88% vs 88% (p-0.99), 3 years, 86% vs 84% (p- 0.77), 5 years, 82% vs 78. % (p-0.36). Graft survival was not different between conventional and strict control groups at 1 year, 88% vs 84% (p-0.56), 3 years 82% vs 76% (p-0.46), 5 years 78% vs 70% (p-0.362). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in patient or graft survival between intraoperative strict and conventional glycemic control during OLT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial number and registry: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00780026. This trial was retrospectively registered on 10/22/2008.

2.
Anesthesiology ; 131(6): 1264-1275, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative controlled substance diversion and tracking have received increased regulatory focus throughout the United States. The authors' institution developed and implemented an automated web-based software application for perioperative controlled substance management. The authors hypothesized that implementation of such a system reduces errors as measured by missing controlled substance medications, missing controlled substance kits (a package of multiple controlled substance medications), and missing witness signatures during kit return. METHODS: From December 1, 2014 to March 31, 2017, the authors obtained missing controlled substance medication, controlled substance kit, and witness return signature data during the preimplementation, implementation, and study period of the controlled substance management application at a single university hospital. This before and after study was based on a QI project at the authors' institution. The authors included all cases requiring anesthesia services. The primary outcome of this study was the rate of missing controlled substance medications. Secondary outcomes included rates for kits not returned to pharmacy and missing kit return witness signatures. RESULTS: There were 54,302 cases during the preimplementation period, 57,670 cases during the implementation period, and 65,911 cases during the study period. The number of missing controlled substance medication (difference 0.7 per 1,000 cases; 95% CI, 0.38-1.02; P < 0.001) and kit return errors (difference 0.45 per 1,000 cases; 95% CI, 0.24-0.66, P < 0.001) declined after implementation of the application. There was no difference in the number of missing witness return signatures (difference 0.09 per 1,000 cases; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.26, P = 0.350). A user survey with 206 of 485 (42%) response rate demonstrated that providers believed the new application managed controlled substances better than the previous system. CONCLUSIONS: A software application that tracks perioperative controlled substance kits with deep integration into the electronic health record and pharmacy systems is associated with a decrease in management errors.


Assuntos
Substâncias Controladas/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/prevenção & controle , Software/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Substâncias Controladas/efeitos adversos , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Erros de Medicação/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/tendências , Software/tendências
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test whether postoperative electroencephalographic (EEG) biomarkers, parietal alpha power and frontal-parietal connectivity, were associated with measures of clinical recovery in adult surgical patients. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study that analyzed intraoperative connectivity patterns in adult surgical patients (N=53). Wireless, whole-scalp EEG data were collected in the postanesthesia care unit and assessed for relevance to clinical and neurocognitive recovery. Parietal alpha power and frontal-parietal connectivity (estimated by weighted phase lag index) were tested for associations with postanesthesia care unit discharge readiness and University of Michigan Sedation Scale scores upon postoperative admission. Bivariable correlation and regression models were constructed to test for unadjusted associations, then multivariable regression models were constructed to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Postoperative EEG patterns were characterized by a predominance of alpha parietal power and frontal-parietal connectivity. Neither relative parietal alpha power (% alpha, -0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.41 to 0.90; P=0.657) nor alpha frontal-parietal connectivity (weighted phase lag index, -82; 95% CI, -237 to 73; P=0.287) were associated with time until postanesthesia discharge criteria were met. Furthermore, neither alpha power (-0.03; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.01; P=0.206) nor alpha frontal-parietal connectivity (-4.2; 95% CI, -11 to 2.6; P=0.226) were associated with sedation scores upon initial assessment. CONCLUSIONS: In a pragmatic study investigating clinically relevant endpoints of postoperative recovery, we found no correlation with surrogate measures of brain neurodynamics. These data contribute to the overall impetus of developing anesthetic-invariant and generalizable markers of brain recovery.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 129(4): 1118-1123, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unconscious racial bias in anesthesia care has been shown to exist. We hypothesized that black children may undergo inhalation induction less often, receive less support from child life, have fewer opportunities to have a family member present for induction, and receive premedication with oral midazolam less often. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on those <18 years of age from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2018 including age, sex, race, height, weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, surgical service, and deidentified anesthesiology attending physician. Outcome data included mask versus intravenous induction, midazolam premedication, child life consultation, and family member presence. Racial differences between all outcomes were assessed in the cohort using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 33,717 Caucasian and 3901 black children were eligible for the study. For the primary outcome, black children 10-14 years were 1.3 times more likely than Caucasian children to receive mask induction (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.6; P = .001). Child life consultation was poorly documented (<0.5%) and not analyzed. Black children <15 years of age were at least 31% less likely than Caucasians to have a family member present for induction (AOR range, 0.4-0.6; 95% CI range, 0.31-0.84; P < .010). Black children <5 years of age were 13% less likely than Caucasians to have midazolam given preoperatively (AOR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that disparities in strategies for mitigating anxiety in the peri-induction period exist and adultification may be 1 cause for this bias. Black children 10 to 14 years of age are 1.3 times as likely as their Caucasian peers to be offered inhalation induction to reduce anxiety. However, black children are less likely to receive premedication with midazolam in the perioperative period or to have family members present at induction. The cause of this difference is unclear, and further prospective studies are needed to fully understand this difference.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Anestesia Geral , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/psicologia , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pré-Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia
5.
Front Neurol ; 10: 560, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231299

RESUMO

Background: Stroke is a devastating perioperative complication without effective methods for prevention or diagnosis. The objective of this study was to analyze evidence-based strategies for detecting cerebrovascular vulnerability and injury in a high-risk cohort of non-cardiac surgery patients. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study. Fifty patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery were recruited -25 with known cerebrovascular disease and 25 matched controls. Neurologic vulnerability was measured with intraoperative cerebral oximetry as the primary outcome. Perioperative neurocognitive testing and serum biomarker analysis (S-100ß, neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acid protein, and matrix metalloproteinase-9) were measured as secondary outcomes. Results: Cerebral desaturation events (an oximetry decrease ≥20% from baseline or <50% absolute value for ≥3 min) occurred in 7/24 (29%) cerebrovascular disease patients and 2/24 (8.3%) controls (relative risk 3.5, 95% CI 0.81-15.2; P = 0.094). Cognitive function trends were similar in both groups, though overall scores (range: 1,500-7,197) were ~1 standard deviation lower in cerebrovascular patients across the entire perioperative period (-1,049 [95% CI -1,662, -436], P < 0.001). No significant serum biomarker differences were found between groups over time. One control patient experienced intraoperative hypoxic-ischemic injury, but no robust biomarker or oximetry changes were observed. Conclusions: Cerebrovascular disease patients did not demonstrate dramatic differences in cerebral oximetry, cognitive trajectory, or molecular biomarkers compared to controls. Moreover, a catastrophic hypoxic-ischemic event was neither predicted nor detected by any strategy tested. These findings support the need for novel research into cerebrovascular risk and vulnerability.

6.
Anesth Analg ; 128(6): 1225-1233, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children recovering from anesthesia experience pain that is severe enough to warrant intravenous (IV) opioid treatment within moments of admission to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Postoperative pain has several negative consequences; therefore, preventing significant PACU pain in children is both a major clinical goal and a moral/ethical imperative. This requires identifying patient-level and perioperative factors that may be used to predict PACU IV opioid requirement. This should allow for the development of personalized care protocols to prevent clinically significant PACU pain in children. Our objective was to develop prediction models enabling practitioners to identify children at risk for PACU IV opioid requirement after various painful ambulatory surgical procedures. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, clinical, demographic, and anthropometric data were prospectively collected on 1256 children 4-17 years of age scheduled for painful ambulatory surgery (defined as intraoperative administration of analgesia or local anesthetic infiltration). Three multivariable logistic regression models to determine possible predictors of PACU IV opioid requirement were constructed based on (1) preoperative history; (2) history + intraoperative variables; and (3) history + intraoperative variables + PACU variables. Candidate predictors were chosen from readily obtainable parameters routinely collected during the surgical visit. Predictive performance of each model was assessed by calculating the area under the respective receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Overall, 29.5% of patients required a PACU IV opioid, while total PACU analgesia requirement (oral or IV) was 41.1%. Independent predictors using history alone were female sex, decreasing age, surgical history, and non-Caucasian ethnicity (model area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.59 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.55-0.63]). Adding a few intraoperative variables improved the discriminant ability of the model (AUROC for the history + intraoperative variables model, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.67-0.74]). Addition of first-documented PACU pain score produced a substantially improved model (AUROC, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.82-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain requiring PACU IV opioid in children may be determined using a small set of easily obtainable perioperative variables. Our models require validation in other settings to determine their clinical usefulness.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Local/métodos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pediatria/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sala de Recuperação , Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Anesth Analg ; 128(5): 944-952, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is an important public health concern without effective prevention strategies. This study tested the hypothesis that perioperative epidural use would be associated with decreased risk of delirium through postoperative day 3. METHODS: This was a secondary, observational, nonrandomized analysis of data from The Prevention of Delirium and Complications Associated With Surgical Treatments Trial (PODCAST; NCT01690988). The primary outcome of the current study was the incidence of delirium (ie, any positive delirium screen, postanesthesia care unit through postoperative day 3) in surgical patients (gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary-pancreatic, gynecologic, and urologic) receiving postoperative epidural analgesia compared to those without an epidural. As a secondary outcome, all delirium assessments were then longitudinally analyzed in relation to epidural use throughout the follow-up period. Given the potential relevance to delirium, postoperative pain, opioid consumption, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression were also analyzed as secondary outcomes. A semiparsimonious multivariable logistic regression model was used to test the association between postoperative epidural use and delirium incidence, and generalized estimating equations were used to test associations with secondary outcomes described. Models included relevant covariates to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: In total, 263 patients were included for analysis. Epidural use was not independently associated with reduced delirium incidence (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.32-1.35]; P = .247). However, when analyzing all assessments over the follow-up period, epidural patients were 64% less likely to experience an episode of delirium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.17-0.78]; P = .009). Adjusted pain scores (visual analog scale, 0-100 mm) were significantly lower in the epidural group on postoperative day 1 (morning, -16 [95% CI, -26 to -7], P < .001; afternoon, -15 [95% CI, -25 to -5], P < .01) and postoperative day 3 (morning, -13 [95% CI, -20 to -5], P < .01). Adjusted mean oral and IV morphine equivalents were also significantly lower on postoperative day 1 in the epidural group (74% lower [95% CI, 55%-85%]; P < .0001). Finally, postoperative epidural use was not significantly associated with new sleep disturbances or changes in depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative epidural use was not associated with a reduced overall incidence of delirium. However, longitudinal analysis revealed reduced adjusted odds of experiencing an episode of delirium in the epidural group. Epidural use was also associated with reduced postoperative pain and opioid consumption. An appropriately designed follow-up study is warranted to further analyze the relationship among epidural use, postoperative delirium, and related outcomes.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Delírio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(6): 2348-2357, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739222

RESUMO

We analyzed CBCL/1½-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems (DSM-PDP) scores in 3- to 5-year-olds from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case control study, with the objective to discriminate children with ASD (N = 656) from children with Developmental Delay (DD) (N = 646), children with Developmental Delay (DD) plus ASD features (DD-AF) (N = 284), and population controls (POP) (N = 827). ASD diagnosis was confirmed with the ADOS and ADI-R. With a cut-point of T ≥ 65, sensitivity was 80% for ASD, with specificity varying across groups: POP (0.93), DD-noAF (0.85), and DD-AF (0.50). One-way ANOVA yielded a large group effect (η2 = 0.50). Our results support the CBCL/1½-5's as a time-efficient ASD screener for identifying preschoolers needing further evaluation.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Anesth Analg ; 129(2): e52-e54, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303865

RESUMO

External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially fatal event that presents several management challenges. This retrospective observational case series conducted at a level-1 trauma center over a 12-year period consists of 62 cases of acute external laryngeal trauma. Patient demographics, mode and mechanisms of injury, presenting signs and symptoms, initial imaging results, airway management, time to surgical management, and 6-month outcomes including airway status, deglutition status, and voice quality were investigated. No difference was found in mortality or 6-month outcomes between patients requiring surgical repair and/or tracheostomy versus patients with less severe injuries managed conservatively.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Laringe/lesões , Lesões do Pescoço/terapia , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/mortalidade , Tratamento Conservador , Deglutição , Feminino , Humanos , Laringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Laringe/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/diagnóstico , Lesões do Pescoço/mortalidade , Lesões do Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia , Resultado do Tratamento , Qualidade da Voz
11.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(2): 149-160, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430440

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite growing evidence supporting the potential benefits of higher end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels in surgical patients, there is still insufficient data to formulate guidelines for ideal intraoperative ETCO2 targets. As it is unclear which intraoperative ETCO2 levels are currently used and whether these levels have changed over time, we investigated the practice pattern using the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group database. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, multicentre study included 317,445 adult patients who received general anesthesia for non-cardiothoracic procedures between January 2008 and September 2016. The primary outcome was a time-weighted average area-under-the-curve (TWA-AUC) for four ETCO2 thresholds (< 28, < 35, < 45, and > 45 mmHg). Additionally, a median ETCO2 was studied. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyse differences between years. Random-effect multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to study variability. RESULTS: Both TWA-AUC and median ETCO2 showed a minimal increase in ETCO2 over time, with a median [interquartile range] ETCO2 of 33 [31.0-35.0] mmHg in 2008 and 35 [33.0-38.0] mmHg in 2016 (P <0.001). A large inter-hospital and inter-provider variability in ETCO2 were observed after adjustment for patient characteristics, ventilation parameters, and intraoperative blood pressure (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Between 2008 and 2016, intraoperative ETCO2 values did not change in a clinically important manner. Interestingly, we found a large inter-hospital and inter-provider variability in ETCO2 throughout the study period, possibly indicating a broad range of tolerance for ETCO2, or a lack of evidence to support a specific targeted range. Clinical outcomes were not assessed in this study and they should be the focus of future research.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Capnografia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos
12.
J Pediatr ; 205: 202-209, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess contributing factors to increased obesity risk, by comparing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delays/disorders, and general population controls in weight status, and to examine associations between weight status and presence of co-occurring medical, behavioral, developmental, or psychiatric conditions across groups and ASD severity among children with ASD. STUDY DESIGN: The Study to Explore Early Development is a multisite cross-sectional study of children, 2-5 years of age, classified as children with ASD (n = 668), children with developmental delays/disorders (n = 914), or general population controls (n = 884). Using an observational cohort design, we compared the 3 groups. Children's heights and weights were measured during a clinical visit. Co-occurring conditions (medical, behavioral, developmental/psychiatric) were derived from medical records, interviews, and questionnaires. ASD severity was measured by the Ohio State University Global Severity Scale for Autism. RESULTS: The odds of overweight/obesity were 1.57 times (95% CI 1.24-2.00) higher in children with ASD than general population controls and 1.38 times (95% CI 1.10-1.72) higher in children with developmental delays/disorders than general population controls. The aORs were elevated for children with ASD after controlling for child co-occurring conditions (ASD vs general population controls: aOR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.14-2.00). Among children with ASD, those with severe ASD symptoms were 1.7 times (95% CI 1.1-2.8) more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared with children with mild ASD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of excess weight gain in children with ASD, especially those with severe symptoms, and in children with developmental delays/disorders represents an important target for intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Vigilância da População/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Autism ; 23(4): 954-962, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102071

RESUMO

We examined associations between child body mass index at 2-5 years and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and rapid weight gain during infancy in children with autism spectrum disorder, developmental delays, or population controls. The Study to Explore Early Development is a multi-site case-control study of children, aged 2-5 years, classified as autism spectrum disorder ( n = 668), developmental delays ( n = 914), or population controls ( n = 884). Maternal gestational weight gain was compared to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Rapid weight gain was a change in weight-for-age z-scores from birth to 6 months > 0.67 standard deviations. After adjusting for case status, mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity were 2.38 times (95% confidence interval: 1.96-2.90) more likely, and mothers who exceeded gestational weight gain recommendations were 1.48 times (95% confidence interval: 1.17-1.87) more likely, to have an overweight/obese child than other mothers ( P < 0.001). Children with autism spectrum disorder showed the highest frequency of rapid weight gain (44%) and were 3.47 times (95% confidence interval: 1.85-6.51) more likely to be overweight/obese as children with autism spectrum disorder without rapid weight gain ( P < 0.001). Helping mothers achieve a healthy pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain represent important targets for all children. Healthy infant growth patterns carry special importance for children at increased risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

14.
AANA J ; 86(2): 147-154, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573486

RESUMO

Drug shortages negatively affect patient care and outcomes. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be mitigated using risk assessment and prophylaxis. A 2012 propofol shortage provided an opportunity to study the impact of using prophylactic antiemetics and changing the technique from a propofol infusion to inhaled agents in an ambulatory surgery setting. We retrospectively collected data for 2,090 patients regarding PONV risk factors, anesthetic management, and PONV outcomes for periods before, during, and after the shortage. Patients during the propofol shortage experienced a higher incidence of PONV (11% vs 5% before the shortage), greater need for rescue antiemetics (3% vs 1%), and longer duration of stay (mean [SD] = 124 [115] minutes vs 118 [108] minutes). More patients in this group reported PONV at home (14% vs 7%), and 2 required unplanned admission or return to the hospital. During the shortage, patients had a 2-fold increase in the odds of PONV when adjusted for all risk factors. Antiemetics moderated the association between gender and PONV but did not change the effect of the shortage. Findings suggest that despite mitigation efforts, the inability to use propofol infusion was associated with worse PONV outcomes.

15.
Anesth Analg ; 127(3): 744-752, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of neither transfusion guidelines nor decision support tools on intraoperative transfusion has been previously evaluated. The University of Michigan introduced a transfusion guideline in 2009, and in 2011, the Department of Anesthesiology developed a transfusion decision support tool. The primary aim of this study was to assess the associations of the transfusion guideline and the optional use of the software transfusion tool with intraoperative behaviors; pretransfusion hematocrit assessment (whether or not a hematocrit was checked before each red cell unit) and restrictive red cell use (withholding transfusion unless the hematocrit was ≤21%). METHODS: This was a before-after retrospective study without a concurrent control group of patients transfused 1-3 units of red cells intraoperatively. Three phases were studied to provide data both before and after the implementation of the transfusion guideline and the intraoperative software tool. Within each phase, trends of checking hematocrits before transfusion and restrictive transfusion were charted against time. F tests were used to measure differences of slopes. The difference between means of each phase was measured using Mann-Whitney U tests. Independent associations were measured using mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression. A secondary outcome analysis was conducted for 30-day mortality, myocardial infarction, renal injury, and their combination. RESULTS: The transfusion guideline was associated with increased pretransfusion hematocrit evaluation (67.4%, standard deviation [SD] 3.9 vs 76.5%, SD 2.7; P < .001) and restrictive transfusion practice (14.0%, SD 7.4 vs 33.3%, SD 4.4; P = .001). After adjustment for confounders, the guideline phase was independently associated with increased hematocrit checking (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.03; P < .001) and restrictive red cell transfusion (odds ratio, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 2.46-3.54; P < .001). The software tool was not associated with either transfusion behavior. There was no significant change in the rate of renal injury (16.06%), myocardial injury (4.93%), 30-day mortality (5.47%), or a composite (21.90%). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of a transfusion guideline was independently associated with increased intraoperative pretransfusion hematocrit assessment and restrictive transfusion. The use of a software tool did not further influence either behavior.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos/normas , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Software/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Feminino , Hematócrito/métodos , Hematócrito/normas , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Spec Pediatr Nurs ; 23(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240304

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be highly demanding and can put significant strain on caregivers. To date, little is known about the extent to which caregivers of children with ASD experience increased levels of stress which may adversely affect health outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to compare caregivers of children with ASD and caregivers of typically developing children (TDC) in weight status, diet quality, perceived stress related to the parenting role, and functional health and well-being. DESIGN AND METHODS: Caregivers of 25 children with ASD and 30 TDC completed the 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, the 36-item Short Form of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI/SF), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and had their heights and weights measured during an onsite visit. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 and its dietary components and conformance to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. RESULTS: ASD caregivers did not differ significantly from TDC caregivers in body mass index or overweight/obesity prevalence (p ≥ .28), even when controlling for covariates. In univariate analyses, ASD caregivers consumed significantly fewer empty calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars than TDC caregivers (p = .03), but they did not differ significantly in any other dietary outcomes including nutrient adequacy (p ≥ .10) and mean total HEI scores (p = .20). ASD caregivers, when compared to TDC caregivers, reported significantly greater parenting stress for the subscales difficult child and parent-child dysfunctional interaction as well as total stress (p < .001). In addition, 56% of ASD caregivers compared with 6.7% of TDC caregivers showed clinically significant levels of stress (p < .0001); a finding which remained statistically significant when controlling for covariates. ASD and TDC caregivers did not differ significantly in any SF-36 health domains related to functional health and well-being (p ≥ .10). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Despite higher reported levels of stress, ASD caregivers did not differ significantly from TDC caregivers in diet- and health-related outcomes. Nurses and other health professionals should use comprehensive screening tools to assess overall caregiver stress and levels of resilience.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/enfermagem , Cuidadores/psicologia , Dieta , Nível de Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Projetos Piloto , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Urology ; 111: 189-196, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28923410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report survival for patients who undergo urinary diversion for benign indications and to identify risk factors for morbidity at 90 days. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of consecutive urinary diversions with or without cystectomy for non-oncological indications at a single institution. The indication for diversion was intractable incontinence, upper tract deterioration, urinary fistula, and unmanageable bladder pain. Patients were categorized according to their most severe complication within 90 days of surgery, using the Clavien-Dindo system. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with high-grade complications. Survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2014, 141 patients underwent urinary diversion for non-oncological indications. The postoperative rate of high-grade adverse events (class III or greater) was 28%. Risk factors for class III or greater complications at 90 days included prolonged intraoperative mean arterial pressure below 75% of baseline, operative duration greater than 343 minutes, and postoperative vasopressor requirement. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a 1- and 5-year survival of 88.4% and 77.2%, respectively. The long-term survival of patients who experienced higher-grade complications was not statistically different from the survival of the rest of the group. The study was limited by a retrospective design and sample size in identifying additional variables associated with increased risk of long-term mortality. CONCLUSION: Urinary diversion for non-oncological conditions has a good 5-year survival in this cohort. Extended case duration and hemodynamic instability during or immediately after urinary diversion are associated with a high-grade complication within 90 days of the procedure.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Doenças Urológicas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anesth Analg ; 125(1): 272-279, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition that is associated with early postoperative respiratory complications (PRCs). As the majority of patients with OSA are undiagnosed, preoperative screening remains the most efficient method to identify suspected OSA. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on patients undergoing anesthesia in a single academic medical center. We assigned OSA risk class retrospectively to all patients in the study by using the Perioperative Sleep Apnea Prediction (PSAP) score. We evaluated the relationship between PSAP categories and early postoperative invasive airway placement after adjusting for several preoperative and intraoperative factors (including surgical risk) previously associated with PRC occurrence. RESULTS: A total of 108,479 patients were included in the final analysis with an incidence of PRC was 0.3% (n = 280). High PSAP score was associated with postoperative intubation (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.7). Several risk factors reflecting anesthetic agents, neuromuscular blocking agents, and opioids were also independently associated with early PRC. CONCLUSIONS: We report that suspected OSA based on the PSAP score is independently associated with increased risk of early PRC. Specific anesthetic agents are independently associated with early PRC, pointing to the potential for examining risk modification through these exposures in future studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueadores Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0175408, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical importance of postoperative episodic hypoxemia is still unclear, and therefore largely under-studied. As a result, there is limited understanding of its relationship with early postoperative respiratory complications (PRC, defined as intubation within three days of surgery) and hospital resource utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single center study was performed using a retrospective observational design. We described population based definitions of desaturation from continuous SpO2 monitoring data captured in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU), namely median SpO2 in PACU, duration of desaturation below median, nadir desaturation, and length of oxygen therapy relative to PACU duration. These measures were evaluated against the occurrence of early PRC in logistic regression models. Measures that were independently associated with early PRC were accepted as the primary study exposures. Stratified logistic regression models were planned if significant interaction occurred with high risk surgical procedures. Models were adjusted by including several patient conditions, procedural, and anesthesia risk factors. Propensity matching on desaturation occurrence was planned to evaluate the relationship with postoperative resource utilization. RESULTS: Among 125,740 patients included in the univariate analyses, 351 patients (0.3%) developed early PRC. Nadir desaturation <89% [14.3% of patients; adjusted odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.52, 2.68; p<0.001] and PACU oxygen therapy requirements greater than 60 min [adjusted odds ratio 1.92 (>60 min) to 3.04 (>90 min); p<0.001] were identified as independent predictors of early PRC occurrence. A modest interaction was observed between desaturation and higher surgical risk. Propensity matching for postoperative oxygen requirement was performed in 37,354 matched patients. Matched analysis demonstrated significant increase in day of surgery charges, respiratory charges, total charges, hospital length of stay, reintubation and use of invasive or non-invasive ventilatory support. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we report that prolonged PACU oxygen therapy and nadir desaturation <89% in PACU as captured in a retrospective database are independently associated with early PRC. This study describes resource implications of PACU desaturation in a large academic medical center in North America.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Masculino , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Laryngoscope ; 127(7): 1496-1505, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Local anesthetic with epinephrine is commonly injected into the nasal mucosa during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Systemic absorption of epinephrine following local injection may occur, resulting in a mild sympathetic response. This study seeks to determine whether an exaggerated sympathetic response to epinephrine is demonstrated in patients undergoing FESS treated preoperatively with established pharmacologic beta (ß) adrenoceptor blockade. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of adult patients undergoing FESS at a tertiary care university hospital. METHODS: The primary outcome was the occurrence of an exaggerated hypertensive response within the first hour of surgical time defined by a relative increase (>20%) in the first measured intraoperative systolic blood pressure (SBP) prior to induction of anesthesia, or a single SBP value above 200 mm Hg. A mixed effects logistic regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of an exaggerated hypertensive response and describe the variance in the outcome attributable to the surgeon and anesthesiologist. RESULTS: There were 2,051 patients identified. Independent predictors of an exaggerated intraoperative hypertensive event included: preoperative ß-blocker use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.33), female gender (AOR: 1.92), body mass index (AOR: 1.03), lower baseline SBP (AOR: 0.93), and advanced age (AOR: 1.03). The C statistic for the model was 0.8881. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative ß-blocker use is an independent predictor of an exaggerated hypertensive response within the first hour of operative time. An exaggerated hypertensive effect should be anticipated in patients presenting for FESS with established pharmacologic ß-blockade, and caution should be applied to use of epinephrine-containing solutions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1496-1505, 2017.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Sinusite/cirurgia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Lidocaína , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oximetazolina/administração & dosagem , Oximetazolina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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