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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1532, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118316

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (CRC) is recognized, the majority of the germline predisposition factors remain unidentified, and many high-risk CRC pedigrees remain unexplained by known risk variants. Fanconi Anemia genes have been recognized to be associated with cancer risk. Notably, FANCM (OMIM 609644) variants have been reported to confer risk for CRC and breast cancer. METHODS: Exome sequencing of CRC-affected cousins in a set of 47 independent extended high-risk CRC pedigrees identified a candidate set of rare, shared variants. Variants were tested for association with risk in 744 Utah CRC cases and 1525 controls, and for segregation with CRC in affected relatives. RESULTS: A FANCM stopgain variant was observed in two CRC-affected cousin pairs, each from an independent Utah high-risk pedigree, and yielded a nonsignificant, but elevated OR = 2.05 in a set of Utah cases and controls. Segregation of the variant to other related CRC-affected cases was observed in the two extended pedigrees. CONCLUSION: A rare stopgain variant in FANCM (rs144567652) that is recognized as a breast cancer predisposition variant, and that has previously been proposed, but not confirmed, as a CRC predisposition variant, is validated here as a risk factor for familial CRC.

2.
Front Genet ; 11: 798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849802

RESUMO

Functional assays that assess mRNA splicing can be used in interpretation of the clinical significance of sequence variants, including the Lynch syndrome-associated mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of splicing assay data to the classification of MMR gene sequence variants. We assayed mRNA splicing for 24 sequence variants in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, including 12 missense variants that were also assessed using a cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Multifactorial likelihood analysis was conducted for each variant, combining CIMRA outputs and clinical data where available. We collated these results with existing public data to provide a dataset of splicing assay results for a total of 671 MMR gene sequence variants (328 missense/in-frame indel), and published and unpublished repair activity measurements for 154 of these variants. There were 241 variants for which a splicing aberration was detected: 92 complete impact, 33 incomplete impact, and 116 where it was not possible to determine complete versus incomplete splicing impact. Splicing results mostly aided in the interpretation of intronic (72%) and silent (92%) variants and were the least useful for missense substitutions/in-frame indels (10%). MMR protein functional activity assays were more useful in the analysis of these exonic variants but by design they were not able to detect clinically important splicing aberrations identified by parallel mRNA assays. The development of high throughput assays that can quantitatively assess impact on mRNA transcript expression and protein function in parallel will streamline classification of MMR gene sequence variants.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635641

RESUMO

The causal mechanism for cancer predisposition in Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) remains unknown. Our aim was to elucidate the constitutional basis of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in LLS patients throughout a comprehensive (epi)genetic analysis. One hundred and fifteen LLS patients harboring MMR-deficient tumors and no germline MMR mutations were included. Mutational analysis of 26 colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes was performed. Pathogenicity of MMR variants was assessed by splicing and multifactorial likelihood analyses. Genome-wide methylome analysis was performed by the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead Chip. The multigene panel analysis revealed the presence of two MMR gene truncating mutations not previously found. Of a total of 15 additional MMR variants identified, five -present in 6 unrelated individuals- were reclassified as pathogenic. In addition, 13 predicted deleterious variants in other CRC-predisposing genes were found in 12 probands. Methylome analysis detected one constitutional MLH1 epimutation, but no additional differentially methylated regions were identified in LLS compared to LS patients or cancer-free individuals. In conclusion, the use of an ad-hoc designed gene panel combined with pathogenicity assessment of variants allowed the identification of deleterious MMR mutations as well as new LLS candidate causal genes. Constitutional epimutations in non-LS-associated genes are not responsible for LLS.

4.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1883-1886, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606442

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure the prevalence of medically actionable pathogenic variants (PVs) among a population of healthy elderly individuals. METHODS: We used targeted sequencing to detect pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 55 genes associated with autosomal dominant medically actionable conditions, among a population of 13,131 individuals aged 70 or older (mean age 75 years) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial. Participants had no previous diagnosis or current symptoms of cardiovascular disease, physical disability or dementia, and no current diagnosis of life-threatening cancer. Variant curation followed American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) standards. RESULTS: One in 75 (1.3%) healthy elderly individuals carried a PV. This was lower than rates reported from population-based studies, which have ranged from 1.8% to 3.4%. We detected 20 PV carriers for Lynch syndrome (MSH6/MLH1/MSH2/PMS2) and 13 for familial hypercholesterolemia (LDLR/APOB/PCSK9). Among 7056 female participants, we detected 15 BRCA1/BRCA2 PV carriers (1 in 470 females). We detected 86 carriers of PVs in lower-penetrance genes associated with inherited cardiac disorders. CONCLUSION: Medically actionable PVs are carried in a healthy elderly population. Our findings raise questions about the actionability of lower-penetrance genes, especially when PVs are detected in the absence of symptoms and/or family history of disease.

5.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 93, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600459

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves. Although heterozygous mutations in OPA1 represent the most common genetic cause of ADOA, a significant number of cases remain undiagnosed.Here, we describe a family with a strong ADOA history with most family members spanning three generation having childhood onset of visual symptoms. The proband, in addition to optic atrophy, had neurological symptoms consistent with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Clinical exome analysis detected a novel mutation in the AFG3L2 gene (NM_006796.2:c.1010G > A; p.G337E), which segregated with optic atrophy in family members. AFG3L2 is a metalloprotease of the AAA subfamily which exerts quality control in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Interestingly, the identified mutation localizes close to the AAA domain of AFG3L2, while those localized in the proteolytic domain cause dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28) or recessive spastic ataxia with epilepsy (SPAX5). Functional studies in patient fibroblasts demonstrate that the p.G337E AFG3L2 mutation strongly destabilizes the long isoforms of OPA1 via OMA hyper-activation and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation, thus explaining the family phenotype. This study widens the clinical spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases caused by AFG3L2 mutations, which shall be considered as genetic cause of ADOA.

7.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 847-856, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene MSH6, identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome, are difficult to classify owing to the low cancer penetrance of defects in that gene. This not only obfuscates personalized health care but also the development of a rapid and reliable classification procedure that does not require clinical data. METHODS: The complete in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay was calibrated against clinically classified MSH6 variants and, employing Bayes' rule, integrated with computational predictions of pathogenicity. To enable the validation of this two-component classification procedure we have employed a genetic screen to generate a large set of inactivating Msh6 variants, as proxies for pathogenic variants. RESULTS: The genetic screen-derived variants established that the two-component classification procedure displays high sensitivities and specificities. Moreover, these inactivating variants enabled the direct reclassification of human variants of uncertain significance (VUS) as (likely) pathogenic. CONCLUSION: The two-component classification procedure and the genetic screens provide complementary approaches to rapidly and cost-effectively classify the large majority of human MSH6 variants. The approach followed here provides a template for the classification of variants in other disease-predisposing genes, facilitating the translation of personalized genomics into personalized health care.

8.
J Med Genet ; 57(1): 62-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) increase risk for Lynch syndrome and related cancers. We quantified tumour characteristics to assess variant pathogenicity for germline MMR genes. METHODS: Among 4740 patients with cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemical (IHC) results, we tested MMR pathogenic variant association with MSI/IHC status, and estimated likelihood ratios which we used to compute a tumour characteristic likelihood ratio (TCLR) for each variant. Predictive performance of TCLR in combination with in silico predictors, and a multifactorial variant prediction (MVP) model that included allele frequency, co-occurrence, co-segregation, and clinical and family history information was assessed. RESULTS: Compared with non-carriers, carriers of germline pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were more likely to have abnormal MSI/IHC status (p<0.0001). Among 150 classified missense variants, 73.3% were accurately predicted with TCLR alone. Models leveraging in silico scores as prior probabilities accurately classified >76.7% variants. Adding TCLR as quantitative evidence in an MVP model (MVP +TCLR Pred) increased the proportion of accurately classified variants from 88.0% (MVP alone) to 98.0% and generated optimal performance statistics among all models tested. Importantly, MVP +TCLR Pred resulted in the high yield of predicted classifications for missense variants of unknown significance (VUS); among 193 VUS, 62.7% were predicted as P/PL or benign/likely benign (B/LB) when assessed according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that when used separately or in conjunction with other evidence, tumour characteristics provide evidence for germline MMR missense variant assessment, which may have important implications for genetic testing and clinical management.


Assuntos
Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo
9.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1507-1516, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene-disease associations implicated in hereditary colorectal cancer and polyposis susceptibility were evaluated using the ClinGen Clinical Validity framework. METHODS: Forty-two gene-disease pairs were assessed for strength of evidence supporting an association with hereditary colorectal cancer and/or polyposis. Genetic and experimental evidence supporting each gene-disease relationship was curated independently by two trained biocurators. Evidence was reviewed with experts and assigned a final clinical validity classification. RESULTS: Of all gene-disease pairs evaluated, 14/42 (33.3%) were Definitive, 1/42 (2.4%) were Strong, 6/42 (14.3%) were Moderate, 18/42 (42.9%) were Limited, and 3/42 (7.1%) were either No Reported Evidence, Disputed, or Refuted. Of panels in the National Institutes of Health Genetic Testing Registry, 4/26 (~15.4%) contain genes with Limited clinical evidence. CONCLUSION: Clinicians and laboratory diagnosticians should note that <60% of the genes on clinically available panels have Strong or Definitive evidence of association with hereditary colon cancer or polyposis, and >40% have only Moderate, Limited, Disputed, or Refuted evidence. Continuing to expand the structured assessment of the clinical relevance of genes listed on hereditary cancer testing panels will help clinicians and diagnostic laboratories focus the communication of genetic testing results on clinically significant genes.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Medição de Risco
10.
Bioinformatics ; 35(13): 2315-2317, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475984

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Assessing the pathogenicity of genetic variants can be a complex and challenging task. Spliceogenic variants, which alter mRNA splicing, may yield mature transcripts that encode non-functional protein products, an important predictor of Mendelian disease risk. However, most variant annotation tools do not adequately assess spliceogenicity outside the native splice site and thus the disease-causing potential of variants in other intronic and exonic regions is often overlooked. Here, we present a plugin for the Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor that packages MaxEntScan and extends its functionality to provide splice site predictions using a maximum entropy model. The plugin incorporates a sliding window algorithm to predict splice site loss or gain for any variant that overlaps a transcript feature. We also demonstrate the utility of the plugin by comparing our predictions to two mRNA splicing datasets containing several cancer-susceptibility genes. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Source code is freely available under the Apache License, Version 2.0: https://github.com/Ensembl/VEP_plugins. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Processamento de RNA , Software , Algoritmos , Éxons , Íntrons
11.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1486-1496, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance classification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, we developed the cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Here, we calibrate and validate the assay, enabling its integration with in silico and clinical data. METHODS: Two sets of previously classified MLH1 and MSH2 variants were selected from a curated MMR gene database, and their biochemical activity determined by the CIMRA assay. The assay was calibrated by regression analysis followed by symmetric cross-validation and Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity. CIMRA assay reproducibility was assessed in four laboratories. RESULTS: Concordance between the training runs met our prespecified validation criterion. The CIMRA assay alone correctly classified 65% of variants, with only 3% discordant classification. Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity increased the proportion of correctly classified variants to 87%, without changing the discordance rate. Interlaboratory results were highly reproducible. CONCLUSION: The CIMRA assay accurately predicts pathogenic and benign MMR gene variants. Quantitative combination of assay results with in silico analysis correctly classified the majority of variants. Using this calibration, CIMRA assay results can be integrated into the diagnostic algorithm for MMR gene variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Técnicas Genéticas , Células 3T3 , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 697, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition have been shown to play a role in pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Growing evidence suggests that pancreatic cancer may be useful as a sentinel cancer to identify families that could benefit from HBOC or CRC surveillance, but to date pancreatic cancer is only considered an indication for genetic testing in the context of additional family history. METHODS: Preliminary data generated at the Huntsman Cancer Hospital (HCH) included variants identified on a custom 34-gene panel or 59-gene panel including both known HBOC and CRC genes for respective sets of 66 and 147 pancreatic cancer cases, unselected for family history. Given the strength of preliminary data and corresponding literature, 61 sequential pancreatic cancer cases underwent a custom 14-gene clinical panel. Sequencing data from HCH pancreatic cancer cases, pancreatic cancer cases of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and an unselected pancreatic cancer screen from the Mayo Clinic were combined in a meta-analysis to estimate the proportion of carriers with pathogenic and high probability of pathogenic variants of uncertain significance (HiP-VUS). RESULTS: Approximately 8.6% of unselected pancreatic cancer cases at the HCH carried a variant with potential HBOC or CRC screening recommendations. A meta-analysis of unselected pancreatic cancer cases revealed that approximately 11.5% carry a pathogenic variant or HiP-VUS. CONCLUSION: With the inclusion of both HBOC and CRC susceptibility genes in a panel test, unselected pancreatic cancer cases act as a useful sentinel cancer to identify asymptomatic at-risk relatives who could benefit from relevant HBOC and CRC surveillance measures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 166(3): 937-949, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28840378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The main aim of this study was to screen epigenetic modifier genes and known breast cancer driver genes for germline mutations in non-BRCA1/2 (BRCAx) breast cancer families in order to identify novel susceptibility genes of moderate-high penetrance. METHODS: We screened 264 candidate susceptibility genes in 656 index cases from non-BRCA1/2 families. Potentially pathogenic candidate mutations were then genotyped in all available family members for the assessment of co-segregation of the variant with disease in the family in order to estimate the breast cancer risks associated with these mutations. For 11 of the candidate susceptibility genes, we screened an additional 800 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 787 controls. RESULTS: Only two genes, CHD8 and USH2A showed any evidence of an increased risk of breast cancer (RR = 2.40 (95% CI 1.0-7.32) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.11-6.67), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found no convincing evidence that epigenetic modifier and known breast cancer driver genes carry germline mutations that increase breast cancer risk. USH2A is no longer regarded as a breast cancer driver gene and seems an implausible candidate given its association with Usher syndrome. However, somatic mutations in CHD8 have been recently reported, making it an even more promising candidate, but further analysis of CHD8 in very large cohorts of families or case-control studies would be required to determine if it is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndromes de Usher/genética , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Síndromes de Usher/patologia
14.
Int J Cancer ; 141(7): 1365-1380, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577310

RESUMO

In a proportion of patients presenting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, no germline MMR mutations are identified, the so-called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Recently, MMR-deficient tumors have been associated with germline mutations in POLE and MUTYH or double somatic MMR events. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient LS-suspected cases using a comprehensive analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes at germline and somatic level. Fifty-eight probands harboring MSH2-deficient tumors were included. Germline mutational analysis of MSH2 (including EPCAM deletions) and MSH6 was performed. Pathogenicity of MSH2 variants was assessed by RNA analysis and multifactorial likelihood calculations. MSH2 cDNA and methylation of MSH2 and MSH6 promoters were studied. Matched blood and tumor DNA were analyzed using a customized next generation sequencing panel. Thirty-five individuals were carriers of pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants in MSH2 and EPCAM. Five patients harbored 4 different MSH2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) and one had 2 novel MSH6 promoter VUS. Pathogenicity assessment allowed the reclassification of the 4 MSH2 VUS and 6 probably pathogenic variants as pathogenic mutations, enabling a total of 40 LS diagnostics. Predicted pathogenic germline variants in BUB1, SETD2, FAN1 and MUTYH were identified in 5 cases. Three patients had double somatic hits in MSH2 or MSH6, and another 2 had somatic alterations in other MMR genes and/or proofreading polymerases. In conclusion, our comprehensive strategy combining germline and somatic mutational status of CRC-associated genes by means of a subexome panel allows the elucidation of up to 86% of MSH2-deficient suspected LS tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/deficiência , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Endodesoxirribonucleases , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Enzimas Multifuncionais , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
15.
Fam Cancer ; 16(4): 501-507, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365877

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene variants continues increasing, encompassing Lynch syndrome, Constitutional MMR Deficiency (CMMRD), and the recently reported MSH3-associated polyposis. Genetic diagnosis of these hereditary cancer syndromes is often hampered by the presence of variants of unknown significance (VUS) and overlapping phenotypes. Two PMS2 VUS, c.2149G>A (p.V717M) and c.2444C>T (p.S815L), were identified in trans in one individual diagnosed with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) who belonged to a family fulfilling clinical criteria for hereditary cancer. Clinico-pathological data, multifactorial likelihood calculations and functional analyses were used to refine their clinical significance. Likelihood analysis based on cosegregation and tumor data classified the c.2444C>T variant as pathogenic, which was supported by impaired MMR activity associated with diminished protein expression in functional assays. Conversely, the c.2149G>A variant displayed MMR proficiency and protein stability. These results, in addition to the conserved PMS2 expression in normal tissues and the absence of germline microsatellite instability (gMSI) in the biallelic carrier ruled out a CMMRD diagnosis. The use of comprehensive strategies, including functional and clinico-pathological information, is mandatory to improve the clinical interpretation of naturally occurring MMR variants. This is critical for appropriate clinical management of cancer syndromes associated to MMR gene mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Linhagem
16.
Hum Mutat ; 38(1): 64-77, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629256

RESUMO

Pathogenicity assessment of DNA variants in disease genes to explain their clinical consequences is an integral component of diagnostic molecular testing. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSiGHT) has developed specific criteria for the interpretation of mismatch repair (MMR) gene variants. Here, we performed a systematic investigation of 24 MLH1 and MSH2 variants. The assessments were done by analyzing population frequency, segregation, tumor molecular characteristics, RNA effects, protein expression levels, and in vitro MMR activity. Classifications were confirmed for 15 variants and changed for three, and for the first time determined for six novel variants. Overall, based on our results, we propose the introduction of some refinements to the InSiGHT classification rules. The proposed changes have the advantage of homogenizing the InSIGHT interpretation criteria with those set out by the Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium for the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes. We also observed that the addition of only few clinical data was sufficient to obtain a more stable classification for variants considered as "likely pathogenic" or "likely nonpathogenic." This shows the importance of obtaining as many as possible points of evidence for variant interpretation, especially from the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Frequência do Gene , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Repetições de Microssatélites , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
17.
Hum Mutat ; 37(5): 417-26, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888055

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is the most common familial cancer condition that mainly predisposes to tumors of the colon and endometrium. Cancer susceptibility is caused by the autosomal dominant inheritance of a loss-of-function mutation or epimutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Cancer risk assessment is often possible with nonsynonymous coding region mutations, but in many cases patients present with DNA sequence changes within noncoding regions, including the promoters, of MMR genes. The pathogenic role of promoter variants, and hence clinical significance, is unclear and this hinders the clinical management of carriers. In this review, we provide an overview of the classification of MMR gene variants, outline the laboratory assays and online resources that can be used to assess the causality of promoter variants in Lynch syndrome, and highlight some of the practical challenges of demonstrating the pathogenicity of these variants. In conclusion, we propose a guide that could be integrated into the current InSiGHT classification scheme to help determine if a MMR gene promoter variant is pathogenic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Variação Genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 6(2): 150-62, 2015 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25831438

RESUMO

Inherited mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR) can cause MMR deficiency and increased susceptibility to colorectal and endometrial cancer. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the defining molecular signature of MMR deficiency. The clinical classification of identified MMR gene sequence variants has a direct impact on the management of patients and their families. For a significant proportion of cases sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance (also known as unclassified variants) are identified, constituting a challenge for genetic counselling and clinical management of families. The effect on protein function of these variants is difficult to interpret. The presence or absence of MSI in tumours can aid in determining the pathogenicity of associated unclassified MMR gene variants. However, there are some considerations that need to be taken into account when using MSI for variant interpretation. The use of MSI and other tumour characteristics in MMR gene sequence variant classification will be explored in this review.

19.
Hum Mutat ; 36(7): 712-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25871441

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing in clinical diagnostics is providing valuable genomic variant data, which can be used to support healthcare decisions. In silico tools to predict pathogenicity are crucial to assess such variants and we have evaluated a new tool, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD), and its classification of gene variants in Lynch syndrome by using a set of 2,210 DNA mismatch repair gene variants. These had already been classified by experts from InSiGHT's Variant Interpretation Committee. Overall, we found CADD scores do predict pathogenicity (Spearman's ρ = 0.595, P < 0.001). However, we discovered 31 major discrepancies between the InSiGHT classification and the CADD scores; these were explained in favor of the expert classification using population allele frequencies, cosegregation analyses, disease association studies, or a second-tier test. Of 751 variants that could not be clinically classified by InSiGHT, CADD indicated that 47 variants were worth further study to confirm their putative pathogenicity. We demonstrate CADD is valuable in prioritizing variants in clinically relevant genes for further assessment by expert classification teams.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Variação Genética , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Software
20.
Mol Carcinog ; 54(7): 513-22, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24302565

RESUMO

Variants that disrupt the translation initiation sequences in cancer predisposition genes are generally assumed to be deleterious. However, few studies have validated these assumptions with functional and clinical data. Two cancer syndrome gene variants likely to affect native translation initiation were identified by clinical genetic testing: MLH1:c.1A>G p.(Met1?) and BRCA2:c.67+3A>G. In vitro GFP-reporter assays were conducted to assess the consequences of translation initiation disruption on alternative downstream initiation codon usage. Analysis of MLH1:c.1A>G p.(Met1?) showed that translation was mostly initiated at an in-frame position 103 nucleotides downstream, but also at two ATG sequences downstream. The protein product encoded by the in-frame transcript initiating from position c.103 showed loss of in vitro mismatch repair activity comparable to known pathogenic mutations. BRCA2:c.67+3A>G was shown by mRNA analysis to result in an aberrantly spliced transcript deleting exon 2 and the consensus ATG site. In the absence of exon 2, translation initiated mostly at an out-of-frame ATG 323 nucleotides downstream, and to a lesser extent at an in-frame ATG 370 nucleotides downstream. Initiation from any of the downstream alternative sites tested in both genes would lead to loss of protein function, but further clinical data is required to confirm if these variants are associated with a high cancer risk. Importantly, our results highlight the need for caution in interpreting the functional and clinical consequences of variation that leads to disruption of the initiation codon, since translation may not necessarily occur from the first downstream alternative start site, or from a single alternative start site.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Códon de Iniciação , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Éxons , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
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