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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144121, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360127

RESUMO

Groundwater supplies drinking water for over one-third of all Americans. However, with aquifers stressed by overdraft, contamination from land use, and the hydrologic impacts of climate change, identifying reliable sources for new wells is increasingly challenging. Well forecasting is a process in which potential groundwater resources are evaluated for a location of interest. While this process forecasts the depth of each aquifer for a given location, it takes historical groundwater well data from nearby locations into account. Conventionally, well forecasting is done by geological survey professionals by manually analyzing the well data and, that makes the process both time and resource-intensive. This study presents a novel web application that performs well forecasting for any location within the state of Iowa in a matter of seconds utilizing client-side computing instead of expensive professional labor. The web application generates well forecasts by triangulating millions of combinations of historical aquifer depth data of nearby wells stored in a state-level database. The proposed web system also provides water quality information for arsenic, nitrate, and bacteria (total c and fecal coliform) on the same interface with forecasts. The system is open to the public and is aimed to provide a go-to tool for homeowners, well drillers and, authorities to help inform decision-making regarding groundwater well development and water quality monitoring efforts.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Internet , Iowa , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poços de Água
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(12): 2725-2736, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341765

RESUMO

Across the Midwestern United States, Public Water Systems (PWSs) struggle with high levels of nitrate in source waters from intense agricultural activity. Leveraging a sensor network deployed across Iowa surface waters, we evaluated the potential of the Hach Nitratax SC Plus, which uses UV-light absorption to quantify dissolved nitrate-nitrite (NOx-N) down to 0.1 mg-N L-1, for real-time monitoring of NOx-N in drinking water. For six different PWSs over multiple years, we compare NOx-N levels in source waters (surface and groundwater under surface influence) to those measured via traditional methods (e.g., ion chromatography (IC)) for US EPA compliance monitoring. At one large PWS, we also evaluated sensor performance when applied to near-finished drinking water (filter effluent). We find good agreement between traditional analytical methods and in situ sensors. For example, for 771 filter effluent samples from 2006-2011, IC analysis averaged NOx-N of 5.8 mg L-1 while corresponding sensor measurements averaged 5.7 mg L-1 with a mean absolute error of 0.23 (5.6%). We identify several benefits of using real-time sensors in PWSs, including improved frequency to capture elevated NOx-N levels and as decision-support tools for NOx-N management.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(6): 1315-1346, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267911

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in both urban and agricultural settings around the world. Historically, neonicotinoid insecticides have been viewed as ideal replacements for more toxic compounds, like organophosphates, due in part to their perceived limited potential to affect the environment and human health. This critical review investigates the environmental fate and toxicity of neonicotinoids and their metabolites and the potential risks associated with exposure. Neonicotinoids are found to be ubiquitous in the environment, drinking water, and food, with low-level exposure commonly documented below acceptable daily intake standards. Available toxicological data from animal studies indicate possible genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, impaired immune function, and reduced growth and reproductive success at low concentrations, while limited data from ecological or cross-sectional epidemiological studies have identified acute and chronic health effects ranging from acute respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms to oxidative genetic damage and birth defects. Due to the heavy use of neonicotinoids and potential for cumulative chronic exposure, these insecticides represent novel risks and necessitate further study to fully understand their risks to humans.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Agricultura , Animais , Anormalidades Congênitas , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade
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