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1.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.

2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(7): 1518-1523, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850872

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using (18F)-2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide [PEG3-E{c(RGDyk)}2] (18F-FPPRGD2) in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) has not been evaluated; therefore, we were prompted to conduct this pilot study. METHODS: Seven patients with mRCC were enrolled in this prospective study. 18F-FPPRGD2 and 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT images were evaluated in a per-lesion analysis. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and tumor-to-background ratio (T/B) were measured for all detected lesions, both before and after starting antiangiogenic therapy. RESULTS: Sixty lesions in total were detected in this cohort. SUVmax from 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT was lower than that from 18F-FDG PET/CT (4.4 ± 2.9 vs 7.8 ± 5.6, P < 0.001). Both SUVmax and T/B from 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT decreased after starting antiangiogenic therapy (SUVmax, 4.2 ± 3.2 vs 2.6 ± 1.4, P = 0.003; T/B, 3.7 ± 3.2 vs 1.5 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Average changes in SUVmax and T/B were - 29.3 ± 23.6% and - 48.1 ± 28.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT may be an useful tool for monitoring early response to antiangiogenic therapy in patients with mRCC. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in larger cohorts.

3.
J Pharm Pract ; : 897190018819412, 2019 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636511

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this retrospective descriptive study was to quantify clinical activities performed by pharmacists in an advanced pharmacy practice model in the emergency department (ED). METHODS:: Data from January 2015 to August 2017 extracted from the department of pharmacy's electronic documentation system and the hospital's electronic medical record were collected and reviewed. Cost savings was derived from the system with adaptation from the previous literature and had been validated by our institution's administration as an acceptable reflection of the impact for activity. RESULTS:: The ED pharmacy team participated in a total of 4106 clinical activities that resulted in a cumulative cost avoidance of $5 387 679. Overall, the most common clinical activities that the pharmacy team provided included pharmacotherapy consult (63.3%) and response to medical emergencies (20.7%). A total of 16 219 medication orders placed by ED clinicians were prospectively reviewed and 379 interventions were accepted by ED clinicians. Turnaround times for medication verification in median (interquartile range [IQR]) for 2015, 2016, and 2017 were 2 minutes (1-6 minutes), 3 minutes (1-6 minutes), and 2 minutes (1-5 minutes), respectively. A total of 14 peer-reviewed publications, primarily based on pharmacy practice or use of pharmacotherapy for acute pain, were published by a research program led by the ED pharmacotherapist. CONCLUSION:: We created and implemented an advanced practice model tailored to our institution's needs. The model maximized opportunities for pharmacists to provide direct patient care, practice at the top of their license, and encouraged the safe and effective use of medications.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0194768, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719004

RESUMO

A number of publishers and funders, including PLOS, have recently adopted policies requiring researchers to share the data underlying their results and publications. Such policies help increase the reproducibility of the published literature, as well as make a larger body of data available for reuse and re-analysis. In this study, we evaluate the extent to which authors have complied with this policy by analyzing Data Availability Statements from 47,593 papers published in PLOS ONE between March 2014 (when the policy went into effect) and May 2016. Our analysis shows that compliance with the policy has increased, with a significant decline over time in papers that did not include a Data Availability Statement. However, only about 20% of statements indicate that data are deposited in a repository, which the PLOS policy states is the preferred method. More commonly, authors state that their data are in the paper itself or in the supplemental information, though it is unclear whether these data meet the level of sharing required in the PLOS policy. These findings suggest that additional review of Data Availability Statements or more stringent policies may be needed to increase data sharing.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação , Publicações , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 37(1): 97-104, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327993

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) library instruction program provides training services to staff, clinicians, and researchers across NIH and several Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) operating divisions. The audience, training needs, and training topics are diverse and constantly changing. The NIH library has developed several new services and class topics to meet the needs of its NIH and HHS communities. Context, strategies, and future directions for the NIH library instruction program are described.


Assuntos
Capacitação de Usuário de Computador , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Bibliotecas Médicas , Bibliometria , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
7.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 94(5): 978-92, 2016 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026304

RESUMO

Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT."


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/efeitos adversos , Craniofaringioma/radioterapia , Feminino , Marcadores Fiduciais , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Masculino , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/prevenção & controle , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Rabdomiossarcoma Embrionário/radioterapia , Risco , Espalhamento de Radiação
8.
Clin Nucl Med ; 41(7): e323-6, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914563

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As quantitative F-FDG PET numbers and pooling of results from different PET/CT scanners become more influential in the management of patients, it becomes imperative that we fully interrogate differences between scanners to fully understand the degree of scanner bias on the statistical power of studies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants with body mass index (BMI) greater than 25, scheduled on a time-of-flight (TOF)-capable PET/CT scanner, had a consecutive scan on a non-TOF-capable PET/CT scanner and vice versa. SUVmean in various tissues and SUVmax of malignant lesions were measured from both scans, matched to each subject. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model, and statistical significance was determined using equivalence testing, with P < 0.05 being significant. RESULTS: Equivalence was established in all baseline organs, except the cerebellum, matched per patient between scanner types. Mixed-effects method analysis of lesions, repeated between scan types and matched per patient, demonstrated good concordance between scanner types. CONCLUSIONS: Patients could be scanned on either a TOF or non-TOF-capable PET/CT scanner without clinical compromise to quantitative SUV measurements.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 33(2): 157-66, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24735265

RESUMO

With nearly all library resources and services delivered digitally, librarians working for the New York University Health Sciences Library struggled with maintaining awareness of changing user needs, understanding barriers faced in using library resources and services, and determining knowledge management challenges across the organization. A liaison program was created to provide opportunities for librarians to meaningfully engage with users. The program was directed toward a subset of high-priority user groups to provide focused engagement with these users. Responsibility for providing routine reference service was reduced for liaison librarians to provide maximum time to engage with their assigned user communities.


Assuntos
Bibliotecários , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Papel Profissional , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Informática Médica , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Objetivos Organizacionais , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
12.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 22(2): 253-61, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23016814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical and radiographic signs, endoscopic findings, treatment, and outcome for dogs that present with esophageal foreign bodies (EFBs), and to identify factors associated with the severity of secondary esophagitis and length of hospitalization (LOH). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Private referral veterinary center. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Medical records for 34 client-owned dogs with EFBs that had esophageal radiographs and that had undergone esophagoscopy were evaluated retrospectively. Information regarding clinical history, radiographic signs, findings at esophagoscopy, and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: The most common EFBs were bone (29.7%) and rawhides (29.7%). The median duration of clinical signs prior to initial presentation was 2.75 hours. Radiographically, EFBs were identified definitively in 30 dogs and questionably in 1. The most common location was in the caudal esophagus (59.3%). Esophagitis was not identified in 6 dogs; and was assessed as mild in 14, moderate in 9, and severe in 4. In 1 dog the degree of esophagitis could not be determined due to the presence of contrast agent. Dogs with longer duration of clinical signs and longer anesthesia times were more likely to have moderate or severe esophagitis. Median LOH was 19 hours. Dogs with longer duration of clinical signs, EFBs located in the caudal esophagus, and moderate or severe esophagitis had longer hospital stays. No dogs experienced long-term complications. Complication rate was 82.5% with 8 patients having more than 1 complication. CONCLUSIONS: While long-term prognosis is excellent, early intervention helps reduce short-term esophagitis and LOH.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Esofagite/etiologia , Esofagite/veterinária , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/patologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Adolesc ; 33(5): 767-73, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20056516

RESUMO

Self-injury without conscious suicidal intent is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon particularly among adolescent populations. This pilot study examined the extent and correlates of self-injurious behaviour in a school population sample of 393 adolescents (aged 13-18 years) using a self-report questionnaire. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether personality was related to self-injury and whether this relationship was moderated by emotion regulation or coping strategies. Few personality and coping variables were directly related to self-injury after controlling for age and psychopathology. However the relationship between personality and self-injury was moderated by coping skills and emotion regulation. We suggest future research explore these relationships in order to determine the role of coping skills and emotional regulation training in prevention of self-injury.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Caráter , Emoções , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Controles Informais da Sociedade , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Projetos Piloto , Queensland , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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