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1.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239524

RESUMO

AIM: To examine differences in the prevalence of risk factors for sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous infants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of SUDI in Queensland during 2010-2014 examined exposure to SUDI risk factors, to identify factors accounting for higher SUDI mortality among Indigenous infants. A multistage algorithm was applied to linked data to determine Indigenous status. RESULTS: There were 228 SUDI, of which Indigenous infants comprised 26.8%. The Indigenous SUDI rate was 2.13/1000 live births compared to 0.72/1000 for non-Indigenous. The disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous SUDI was accounted for by surface sharing (OR = 2.93 95% CI = 1.41, 6.07), smoking (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.13, 5.52), and a combination of background antenatal and sociodemographic factors (inadequate antenatal care [OR = 6.93, 95% CI = 2.20, 21.86], young maternal age at first birth [OR = 4.02, 95% CI = 1.49, 10.80] and outer regional [OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.37, 6.72] and remote locations [OR = 11.31, 95% CI = 3.47, 36.83]). CONCLUSION: Culturally responsive prevention efforts, including wrap-around maternity care and strategies that reduce maternal smoking and promote safer yet culturally acceptable ways of surface sharing, may reduce Indigenous SUDI mortality.

2.
Clin Anat ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Supine positioning during late pregnancy causes dramatic compression of maternal abdominal vasculature and is a risk factor for stillbirth. The azygos vein has been shown to provide collateral circulation in this scenario. There are many well-known anatomical differences in abdominal vasculature between the left and right sides of the body. However, the effect of left and right positioning in pregnancy has not been well studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining ethics approval, 10 women with uncomplicated pregnancies between 34 and 38 weeks gestation underwent magnetic resonance imaging in the left and right lateral positions. Phase contrast images were evaluated to measure blood flow through the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, and azygos vein. RESULTS: No significant differences between left and right lateral positions were found in blood flow through the IVC at its formation (mean difference -0.15 L/min [CI -0.47, 0.18], p = .34) or through the azygos vein (mean difference 0.02 L/min [CI -0.22, 0.26], p = .87). Blood flow through the IVC just above the level of the renal veins was found to be reduced by 35% in the right lateral position when compared to the left (mean difference 1.01 L/min [CI 0.25, 1.43], p = .03). There were no significant differences in cardiac output or blood flow through the abdominal aorta. CONCLUSIONS: While it was noted that blood flow through the IVC immediately above the level of the renal veins was reduced in the right lateral position, this did not appear to impact significantly on maternal cardiac output or blood flow through the azygos vein.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) affects up to one third of women during late pregnancy and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including hypertension, diabetes, impaired fetal growth, and preterm birth. However, it is unclear if SDB is associated with late stillbirth (≥28 weeks' gestation). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of SDB and late stillbirth. METHODS: Data were obtained from five case-control studies (cases 851, controls 2257) from New Zealand (2 studies), Australia, the United Kingdom, and an international study. This was a secondary analysis of an individual participant data meta-analysis that investigated maternal going-to-sleep position and late stillbirth, with a one-stage approach stratified by study and site. Inclusion criteria: singleton, non-anomalous pregnancy, ≥28 weeks' gestation. Sleep data ('any' snoring, habitual snoring ≥3 nights per week, the Berlin Questionnaire [BQ], sleep quality, sleep duration, restless sleep, daytime sleepiness, and daytime naps) were collected by self-report for the month before stillbirth. Multivariable analysis adjusted for known major risk factors for stillbirth, including maternal age, body mass index (BMI kg/m2), ethnicity, parity, education, marital status, pre-existing hypertension and diabetes, smoking, recreational drug use, baby birthweight centile, fetal movement, supine going-to-sleep position, getting up to use the toilet, measures of SDB and maternal sleep patterns significant in univariable analysis (habitual snoring, the BQ, sleep duration, restless sleep, and daytime naps). Registration number: PROSPERO, CRD42017047703. RESULTS: In the last month, a positive BQ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.04), sleep duration >9 hours (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90), daily daytime naps (aOR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02-2.28) and restless sleep greater than average (aOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.88) were independently related to the odds of late stillbirth. 'Any' snoring, habitual snoring, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and a positive BQ excluding the BMI criterion, were not associated. CONCLUSION: A positive BQ, long sleep duration >9 hours, and daily daytime naps last month were associated with increased odds of late stillbirth, while sleep that is more restless than average was associated with reduced odds. Pregnant women may be reassured that the commonly reported restless sleep of late pregnancy may be physiological and associated with a reduced risk of late stillbirth.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921363, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074288

RESUMO

Importance: Despite improvements in antenatal care and increasing cesarean delivery rates, birth asphyxia leading to neonatal encephalopathy (NE) continues to contribute to neonatal death and long-term neurodevelopmental disability. Cardiotocography (CTG) has been used in labor for several decades to detect a stressed fetus so that delivery can be expedited and NE avoided. Objective: To investigate whether experienced clinicians can detect and respond to abnormal readings from CTGs during the penultimate hour before birth in infants with moderate to severe NE but no acute peripartum event. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study included 10 practicing obstetricians and midwives at maternity hospitals in New Zealand. Participants, who were masked to the perinatal outcome, were asked to assess CTG tracings from 35 neonates with NE and evidence of birth hypoxia (ie, cases) and 105 neonates without NE or birth hypoxia (ie, controls), all of whom were born in 2010 to 2011. Data analysis was conducted from May to December 2017. Exposures: Brief clinical details and 1 hour of CTG tracings from the penultimate hour before birth were provided for each baby. Clinicians assessed the CTG tracings and recommended a plan. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intra-assessor and interassessor agreement on CTG findings and action plans as well as sensitivity (ie, detection of NE) and specificity (ie, ruling out those without NE) for the assessment of abnormal CTG readings leading to immediate action (ie, fetal blood sample or immediate delivery) were reported. Results: A total of 35 infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 40 [1.4] weeks; 16 [45.7%] cesarean deliveries) were designated cases, and 105 infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 39.4 [1.2] weeks; 22 [21.0%] cesarean deliveries) were designated controls. No infants had congenital anomalies. The mean (range) sensitivity for detection of abnormal CTG results and for recommending immediate action for all assessors was 75% (63%-91%) and 41% (23%-57%), respectively, with a mean (range) specificity of 67% (53%-77%) and 87% (65%-99%), respectively. A sensitivity analysis including only assessors with 80% or more interassessor agreement only differed from the main analysis by 6% or less (mean [range] sensitivity for detection, 76% [63%-91%]; sensitivity for action plan, 36% [25%-49%]; specificity for detection, 71% [53%-77%]; and specificity for action plan, 93% [88%-99%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Experienced clinicians detected 3 of 4 infants who were subsequently diagnosed with NE. Action to expedite delivery was recommended for more than 40% of infants with NE. These results indicate that CTG does not identify all infants at risk of NE, and that there is a need for further investment in new approaches to fetal surveillance in labor.

5.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 41(3): 187-194, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional data indicate that physical activity, longer sleep duration, and normal body weight are associated with better mental health in childhood. It is less clear whether these factors protect against future emotional and behavioral problems. We investigated whether physical activity, sleep duration, and body mass index (BMI) at the age of 7 years are associated with emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 11 years. METHODS: Children born to European mothers enrolled in the prospective longitudinal Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study (N = 871) were assessed at birth and ages 7 and 11 years. Physical activity and sleep duration were measured using accelerometer. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurement. Outcome variables assessed at the age of 11 years were parent and child self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and parent and teacher Conners' Rating Scale scores. RESULTS: Physical activity, sleep duration, and BMI at the age of 7 years were not significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 11 years. In cross-sectional analysis at the age of 11 years, there was no significant association between physical activity or sleep duration and emotional and behavioral problems. Children with a BMI in the overweight or obese range were significantly more likely to have teacher-rated behavior problems and parent-rated emotional or behavioral problems after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Although physical activity and sleep have physical health benefits, they may not be protective against future emotional and behavioral problems in childhood in the general population. BMI in the obese or overweight range was significantly associated with current emotional and behavioral problems at the age of 11 years.

6.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-21, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098635

RESUMO

Dietary patterns describe the quantity, variety, or combination of different foods and beverages in a diet and the frequency of habitual consumption. Better understanding of childhood dietary patterns and antenatal influences could inform intervention strategies to prevent childhood obesity. We derived empirical dietary patterns in 1142 children (average age 6.0 (0.2) years) in Auckland, New Zealand whose mothers had participated in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study and explored associations with measures of body composition. Participants (Children of SCOPE) had their diet assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and empirical dietary patterns were extracted using factor analysis. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified; 'Healthy', 'Traditional' and 'Junk'. Associations between dietary patterns and measures of childhood body composition (waist, hip, arm circumferences, body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) derived body fat percentage, and sum of skinfold thicknesses (SST)) were assessed by linear regression, with adjustment for maternal influences. Children who had higher 'Junk' dietary pattern scores had 0.24cm greater arm (0.08 SD (95%CI 0.04, 0.13)) and 0.44cm hip (0.05 SD (95% CI 0.01, 0.10)) circumferences, 1.13cm greater SST (0.07 SD (95%CI 0.03, 0.12)) and were more likely to be obese (OR=1.74 (95%CI 1.07, 2.82)); those with higher 'Healthy' pattern scores were less likely to be obese (OR=0.62 (95%CI 0.39, 1.00)). In a large mother-child cohort, a dietary pattern characterised by high sugar and fat foods was associated with greater adiposity and obesity risk in children aged 6 years, while a 'Healthy' dietary pattern offered some protection against obesity. Targeting unhealthy dietary patterns could inform public health strategies to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.

7.
Trials ; 21(1): 190, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately one in four pregnant women undergo an induction of labour. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness for mothers and babies of two methods of cervical ripening - inpatient care for women starting induction with vaginal prostaglandin E2 hormones, or allowing women to go home for 18 to 24 h after starting induction with a single-balloon catheter. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in New Zealand. Eligible pregnant women, with a live singleton baby in a cephalic presentation who undergo a planned induction of labour at term, will be randomised to outpatient balloon-catheter induction or in-hospital prostaglandin induction. The primary outcome is caesarean section rate. To detect a 24% relative risk reduction in caesarean rate from a baseline of 24.8%, with 80% power and 5% type 1 error, will require 1552 participants in a one to one ratio. DISCUSSION: If outpatient balloon-catheter induction reduces caesarean section rates, has additional clinical benefits, and is safe, cost-effective, and acceptable to women and clinicians, we anticipate change in induction of labour practice around the world. We think that home-based balloon-catheter induction will be welcomed as part of a patient-centred labour-induction care package for pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ACTRN: 12616000739415. Registered on 6 June 2016.

8.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 27, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the incidence of sleep-related infant mortality declined dramatically following the first public health campaigns seen internationally in the 1990s to reduce the risks of sudden infant death. However, Australian Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) rates have plateaued with little change in incidence since 2004 despite two further public health safe sleep campaigns. This study aims to describe contemporary infant care practices employed by families related to the current public health SUDI prevention program. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 3341 Queensland primary caregivers with infants approximately 3-months of age was conducted using the Queensland Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages as a sampling frame. Surveys were returned either via reply-paid mail or online. Questionnaires explored prevalence of infant care practices and awareness of safe sleep recommendations. Univariable analysis was used to generate descriptive statistics for key variables. RESULTS: Overall, only 13% of families routinely practised all six 'Safe Sleeping' program messages. More than one third (1118, 34%) of infants had slept in a non-supine sleep position at some time. Potentially hazardous sleep environments were common, with 38% of infants sleeping with soft items or bulky bedding, or on soft surfaces. Nearly half, for either day- or night-time sleeps, were routinely placed in a sleep environment that was not designed or recommended for safe infant sleep (i.e. a bouncer, pram, beanbag). Most babies (84%) were reportedly smoke free before and after birth. Sleeping in the same room as their caregiver for night-time sleeps was usual practice for 75% of babies. Half (1600, 50%) of all babies shared a sleep surface in the last two-weeks. At 8-weeks, 17% of infants were no longer receiving any breastmilk. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rates of infant care practices among this Australian population demonstrate many families continue to employ suboptimal practices despite Australia's current safe sleep campaign. Strategic approaches together with informed decisions about pertinent messages to feature within future public health campaigns and government policies are required so targeted support can be provided to families with young infants to aid the translation of safe sleep evidence into safe sleeping practices.

9.
Women Birth ; 33(2): 153-160, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prioritisation of stillbirth research in high-income countries is required to address preventable stillbirth. However, concern is raised by ethics committees, maternity providers and families, when pregnant and bereaved women are approached to participate. Our aim was to 1) assess factors influencing recruitment in a multicentre case-control stillbirth study and 2) gain insight into how women felt about their participation. METHODS: Eligible women were contacted through maternity providers from seven New Zealand health regions in 2011-2015. Cases had a recent singleton non-anomalous late stillbirth (≥28 weeks' gestation). Controls were randomly selected and matched for region and gestation. Participants were interviewed by a research midwife and given a feedback form asking their views about participation. Feedback was evaluated using thematic analysis. RESULTS: 169 (66.5%) of 254 eligible cases and 569 (62.2%) of 915 eligible controls were recruited. Non-participants consisted of 263 (22.5% of eligible) women who declined, 108 (9.2% of eligible) uncontactable women, and 60 (5.1% of eligible) women declined by the maternity provider, with no significant differences between the proportion of non-participating cases and controls in each of these three categories. The majority (63.2%) of women did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Written feedback was provided by 111 participants (cases 15.3%, controls 14.9%) and all described their involvement positively. Feedback themes identified were 'motivation to participate,' 'ease of participation,' and 'post-participation positivity.' CONCLUSION: Identification of recruitment barriers and our reassuring participant feedback may assist women's participation in future research and support progress towards stillbirth prevention.

10.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 48(1): 42-48, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dental caries experience of New Zealand children born with orofacial cleft (OFC), to compare this to age-specific national population-based data and to investigate any differences by demographic characteristics, cleft type and exposure to community water fluoridation. METHODS: Nationwide retrospective study of 554 dental records from 478 children born after 1 January 2000 with OFC were assessed at aged 5 (n = 333) and 12 years (n = 221), with 76 children (15.9%) having records at both ages. Community Oral Health Service records were analysed to determine dental caries experience (dmft/DMFT). Logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of having experienced dental caries (d3 mft/D3 MFT ≥ 1) and multivariable models for variables including demographic characteristics, cleft type and exposure to community water fluoridation. RESULTS: A higher (49.6%) caries prevalence (dmft ≥ 1) and mean dmft at 5 years old (2.3; SD 3.6) were found in children with OFC than 5-year-olds in the general population (prevalence 40.4% and mean dmft 1.8). The 12-year-old (37.6%) caries prevalence (DMFT ≥ 1) and mean DMFT 0.8 (SD 1.4) were similar to population-based data (caries prevalence 37.3% and mean DMFT 0.9). Children with caries (dmf/DMF ≥ 1) had means of 4.8 (SD 3.8) at age 5 and 2.1 (SD 1.4) at age 12 years. Greater caries experience was associated Pacific and Maori ethnicity, and not receiving community water fluoridation. No differences were detected by sex or cleft type. CONCLUSION: The dental caries experience for 5-year-old children with OFC was poor in relation to population-based data and similar for 12-year-olds. Preventive guidelines for children with OFC from an early age should be a priority, along with the extension of community water fluoridation coverage.

11.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 99(5): 631-636, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856296

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Supine positioning during late pregnancy causes the gravid uterus to compress the inferior vena cava, resulting in dramatic hemodynamic changes. The maintenance of placental perfusion requires maternal circulatory and autonomic adaptations. Women with supine hypotensive syndrome (defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure of anything between 15 and 30 mmHg or an increase in heart rate of 20 bpm, with or without symptoms) may have reduced ability to compensate for the effects of supine positioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no symptoms of supine hypotension (normal) and 10 women with uncomplicated pregnancies who reported symptoms of supine hypotension between 34 and 38 weeks' gestation underwent magnetic resonance imaging in the supine and left lateral positions. Phase contrast images were evaluated to measure blood flow through the aorta, inferior vena cava, superior vena cava and azygos vein. RESULTS: Women with symptoms of supine hypotension showed significant reductions in azygos venous flow rate compared with the normal group (-0.15 (-0.30 to -0.01) L/min). Those with symptoms showed no statistically significant compensatory changes in heart rate compared with the normal group (heart rate change 4.5 (-3.1 to 12.1) bpm). Hemodynamic changes in response to positioning were similar across both groups including: a reduction in inferior vena cava blood flow, reduction in cardiac output and an increase in azygos blood flow. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal hemodynamic adaptations were found to be consistent across groups irrespective of whether the women had symptoms of supine hypotension. In both groups a reduction in blood flow through the inferior vena cava occurred in the supine position with a subsequent reduction in cardiac output. Both groups showed a compensatory increase in blood flow through the azygos vein in order to partially compensate for this. Taking into account the effect of maternal position, women with symptoms were found to have reduced azygos flow compared with asymptomatic women. There was a significant increase in heart rate when the women were supine than when they were in the left lateral position.

12.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 570-576, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the under-identification of Indigenous∗ infants in death records and examine the impact of a multi-stage algorithm on disparities in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI). METHODS: Data on SUDI in Queensland between 2010 and 2014 were linked to birth and death registrations, health data, and child protection and coronial records. An algorithm was applied to cases of SUDI and population data to derive Indigenous status. Numbers, proportions and rates of SUDI were compared. RESULTS: Using multiple sources of Indigenous status resulted in a 64.9% increase in the number of infants identified as Indigenous. The Indigenous SUDI rate increased by 54.3%, from 1.38 to 2.13 per 1,000 live births after applying the algorithm to SUDI and live births data. CONCLUSIONS: Applying an algorithm to both numerator and denominator data reduced numerator-denominator incompatibility, to more accurately report rates of Indigenous SUDI and measure the gap in Indigenous infant mortality. Implications for public health: Estimation of the true magnitude of the disparity is restricted by under-identification of Indigenous status in death records. Data linkage improved the reporting of Indigenous infant mortality. Accuracy in reporting of measures is integral to determining genuine progress towards Closing the Gap.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Algoritmos , Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Documentação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Masculino , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912614, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577362

RESUMO

Importance: Supine maternal position in the third trimester is associated with reduced uterine blood flow and increased risk of late stillbirth. As reduced uterine blood flow is also associated with fetal growth restriction, this study explored the association between the position in which pregnant women went to sleep and infant birth weight. Objective: To examine the association between supine position when going to sleep in women after 28 weeks of pregnancy and lower birth weight and birth weight centiles. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified subgroup analysis using data from controls in an individual participant data meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies investigating sleep and stillbirth in New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Participants were women with ongoing pregnancies at 28 weeks' gestation or more at interview. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was adjusted mean difference (aMD) in birth weight. Secondary outcomes were birth weight centiles (INTERGROWTH-21st and customized) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for birth weight less than 50th and less than 10th centile (small for gestational age) for supine vs nonsupine going-to-sleep position in the last 1 to 4 weeks, adjusted for variables known to be associated with birth size. Results: Of 1760 women (mean [SD] age, 30.25 [5.46] years), 57 (3.2%) reported they usually went to sleep supine during the previous 1 to 4 weeks. Adjusted mean (SE) birth weight was 3410 (112) g among women who reported supine position and 3554 (98) g among women who reported nonsupine position (aMD, 144 g; 95% CI, -253 to -36 g; P = .009), representing an approximate 10-percentile reduction in adjusted mean INTERGROWTH-21st (48.5 vs 58.6; aMD, -10.1; 95% CI, -17.1 to -3.1) and customized (40.7 vs 49.7; aMD, -9.0; 95% CI, -16.6 to -1.4) centiles. There was a nonsignificant increase in birth weight at less than the 50th INTERGROWTH-21st centile (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.83-4.34) and a 2-fold increase in birth weight at less than the 50th customized centile (aOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.20-3.76). Going to sleep supine was associated with a 3-fold increase in small for gestational age birth weight by INTERGROWTH-21st standards (aOR, 3.23; 95% CI, 1.37-7.59) and a nonsignificant increase in small for gestational age birth weight customized standards (aOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.77-3.44). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that going to sleep in a supine position in late pregnancy was independently associated with reduced birth weight and birth weight centile. This novel association is biologically plausible and likely modifiable. Public health campaigns that encourage women in the third trimester of pregnancy to settle to sleep on their side have potential to optimize birth weight.

14.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(4): 629-630, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444701

RESUMO

Problems often arise in cases of lethal inflicted injury in infants and children in determining the chronology of events. However, on occasion it may be assumed that a parent's statement that the child appeared normal at a particular time is correct. It is then inferred that the lethal injury occurred after this time. In a study of infants from Queensland, Australia a significant number of cases occurred where a parent/carer did not actually recognise that an infant was deceased or in extremis despite handling of the infants, some of whom had established rigor mortis. Assessment of their infant's health status was quite flawed, presumably due to inattention, fatigue, or confirmatory bias (seeing what is expected). This could also apply to infants with head injuries who may manifest quite non-specific signs such as lethargy, somnolence or alteration in conscious state, manifestations that could easily be confused with normal drowsiness or sleep. Thus, the evaluation of parent/carer statements must be tempered by the knowledge that their opinions may not always (for completely understandable reasons) be reliable, and should not be uncritically accepted as a basis for deciding the time course for a lethal process.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Nível de Saúde , Pais , Viés , Fadiga/complicações , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente
15.
Br J Nutr ; 122(8): 910-918, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340869

RESUMO

Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended in the periconceptional period, for the prevention of neural tube defects. Limited data are available on the folate status of New Zealand (NZ) pregnant women and its association with FA supplementation intake. Objectives were to examine the relationship between plasma folate (PF) and reported FA supplement use at 15 weeks' gestation and to explore socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with PF. We used data and blood samples from NZ participants of the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints cohort study. Healthy nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy (n 1921) were interviewed and blood samples collected. PF was analysed via microbiological assay. Of the participants, 73 % reported taking an FA supplement at 15 weeks' gestation - of these, 79 % were taking FA as part of/alongside a multivitamin supplement. Of FA supplement users, 56 % reported consuming a daily dose of ≥800 µg; 39 % reported taking less than 400 µg/d. Mean PF was significantly higher in women reporting FA supplementation (54·6 (se 1·5) nmol/l) v. no FA supplementation (35·1 (se 1·6) nmol/l) (P<0·0001). Reported daily FA supplement dose and PF were significantly positively correlated (r 0·41; P<0·05). Younger maternal age, Pacific and Maori ethnicity and obesity were negatively associated with PF levels; vegetarianism was positively associated with PF. Reported FA supplement dose was significantly associated with PF after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle confounders and multivitamin intake. The relationship observed between FA supplementation and PF demonstrates that self-reported intake is a reliable proxy for FA supplement use in this study population.

16.
Int J Legal Med ; 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317315

RESUMO

Despite being widely used, few studies have assessed the utility of the San Diego definition of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate pathologists' application of the San Diego definition in all cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) that occurred in Queensland, Australia, between 2010 and 2014. Key coronial documents of 228 cases of SUDI were reviewed independently by three reviewers and classified according to the San Diego definition. Clear guidance regarding the evidentiary threshold for classification and interpretation of the San Diego definition was provided. All reviewers classified cases identically in 202 cases (88.6%). Consensus was achieved on the classification of the remaining 26 deaths following case discussion. After review, 79 cases were classified as SIDS, a one third reduction compared with the original classification, mainly due to a high probability of accidental asphyxia. The number of cases classified as undetermined (USID) almost doubled (75/228, 32.9%), and there was more than a fivefold increase in cases classified as asphyxia (43/228, 18.9%). Natural conditions decreased by approximately one third (21/228, 9.2%). This study demonstrates that with clear guidelines for interpretation, the San Diego definition can be applied reliably, with discrepancies resolved through a process of peer review.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9815, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285538

RESUMO

We investigated fetal movement quality and pattern and association with late stillbirth in this multicentre case-control study. Cases (n = 164) had experienced a non-anomalous singleton late stillbirth. Controls (n = 569) were at a similar gestation with non-anomalous singleton ongoing pregnancy. Data on perceived fetal movements were collected via interviewer-administered questionnaire. We compared categorical fetal movement variables between cases and controls using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounders. In multivariable analysis, maternal perception of the following fetal movement variables was associated with decreased risk of late stillbirth; multiple instances of 'more vigorous than usual' fetal movement (aOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.82), daily perception of fetal hiccups (aOR 0.28, 95%CI 0.15-0.52), and perception of increased length of fetal movement clusters or 'busy times' (aOR 0.23, 95%CI 0.11-0.47). Conversely, the following maternally perceived fetal movement variables were associated with increased risk of late stillbirth; decreased frequency of fetal movements (aOR 2.29, 95%CI 1.31-4.0), and perception of 'quiet or light' fetal movement in the evening (aOR 3.82, 95%CI 1.57-9.31). In conclusion, women with stillbirth were more likely than controls to have experienced alterations in fetal movement, including decreased strength, frequency and in particular a fetus that was 'quiet' in the evening.

18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 10: 49-57, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193832

RESUMO

Background: Maternal supine going-to-sleep position has been associated with increased risk of late stillbirth (≥ 28 weeks), but it is unknown if the risk differs between right and left side, and if some pregnancies are more vulnerable. Methods: Systematic searches were undertaken for an individual-level participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of case-control studies, prospective cohort studies and randomised trials undertaken up until 26 Jan, 2018, that reported data on maternal going-to-sleep position and stillbirth. Participant inclusion criteria included gestation ≥ 28 weeks', non-anomalous, singleton pregnancies. The primary outcome was stillbirth. A one-stage approach stratified by study and site was used for the meta-analysis. The interaction between supine going-to-sleep position and fetal vulnerability was assessed by bi-variable regression. The multivariable model was adjusted for a priori confounders. Registration number: PROSPERO, CRD42017047703. Findings: Six case-control studies were identified, with data obtained from five (cases, n = 851; controls, n = 2257). No data was provided by a sixth study (cases, n = 100; controls, n = 200). Supine going-to-sleep position was associated with increased odds of late stillbirth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.63, 95% CI 1.72-4.04, p < 0.0001) compared with left side. Right side had similar odds to left (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31, p = 0.75). There were no significant interactions between supine going-to-sleep position and assessed indicators of fetal vulnerability, including small-for-gestational-age infants (p = 0.32), maternal obesity (p = 0.08), and smoking (p = 0.86). The population attributable risk for supine going-to-sleep position was 5.8% (3.2-9.2). Interpretation: This IPD meta-analysis confirms that supine going-to-sleep position is independently associated with late stillbirth. Going-to-sleep on left or right side appears equally safe. No significant interactions with our assessed indicators of fetal vulnerability were identified, therefore, supine going-to-sleep position can be considered a contributing factor for late stillbirth in all pregnancies. This finding could reduce late stillbirth by 5.8% if every pregnant woman ≥ 28 weeks' gestation settled to sleep on her side.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217583, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Encouraging awareness of fetal movements is a common strategy used to prevent stillbirths. Information provided to pregnant women about fetal movements is inconsistent perhaps due to limited knowledge about normal fetal movement patterns in healthy pregnancies. We aimed to describe maternally perceived fetal movement strength, frequency, and pattern in late pregnancy in women with subsequent normal outcomes. METHODS: Participants were ≥28 weeks' gestation, with a non-anomalous, singleton pregnancy who had been randomly selected from hospital booking lists and had consented to participate. Fetal movement data was gathered during pregnancy via a questionnaire administered face-to-face by research midwives. Participants remained eligible for the study if they subsequently gave birth to a live, appropriate-for-gestational-age baby at ≥37 weeks. RESULTS: Participants were 274 women, with normal pregnancy outcomes. The majority (59.3%, n = 162) of women reported during antenatal interview that the strength of fetal movements had increased in the preceding two weeks. Strong fetal movements were felt by most women in the evening (72.8%, n = 195) and at night-time including bedtime (74.5%, n = 199). The perception of fetal hiccups was also reported by most women (78.8%). Women were more likely to perceive moderate or strong fetal movements when sitting quietly compared with other activities such as having a cold drink or eating. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support informing women in the third trimester that as pregnancy advances it is normal to perceive increasingly strong movement, episodes of movements that are more vigorous than usual, fetal hiccups, and a diurnal pattern involving strong fetal movement in the evening. This information may help pregnant women to better characterise normal fetal movement and appropriately seek review when concerned about fetal movements. Care providers should be responsive to concerns about decreased fetal movements in the evening, as this is unusual.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Movimento Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Fisiológico de Modelo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(10): e12537, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity has been implicated in the origins of childhood obesity through a suboptimal environment in-utero. OBJECTIVE: We examined relationships of maternal early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), overweight/obesity, and plasma biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, and placental function with measures of childhood BMI and adiposity. METHODS: BMI z-score, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SST), body fat percentage (BFP, by bioelectrical impedance), and waist, arm, and hip circumferences were measured in 1173 6-year-old children of nulliparous pregnant women in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study, New Zealand. Relationships of maternal early pregnancy (15 weeks' gestation) BMI and biomarkers with these childhood anthropometric measures were assessed by linear regression, with appropriate adjustment. RESULTS: 28.1% of mothers were classified as overweight and 10.1% with obesity; compared with normal weight mothers, the BFP of their children were 5.3% higher (0.16 SD [95% CI, 0.04-0.29] p = .01) and 7.8% higher (0.27 [0.08-0.47] p = .006) with comparable values for BMI z-score and arm, waist, and hip circumferences. Early pregnancy maternal BMI and plasma placental growth factor (PlGF) were associated with higher child's SST, BMI z-score, hip circumference, and BFP. None of the metabolic or inflammatory maternal biomarkers were associated with childhood obesity. CONCLUSION: In this contemporary large prospective cohort study with extensive maternal/childhood phenotyping and a high prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity, we found independent relationships of maternal early pregnancy BMI with childhood BMI and adiposity; similar associations were observed with PlGF, which may imply a role for placenta function in the developmental programming of childhood obesity risk.

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