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Microsyst Nanoeng ; 9: 47, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37064166


We show three-dimensional reconstructions of a region of an integrated circuit from a 130 nm copper process. The reconstructions employ x-ray computed tomography, measured with a new and innovative high-magnification x-ray microscope. The instrument uses a focused electron beam to generate x-rays in a 100 nm spot and energy-resolving x-ray detectors that minimize backgrounds and hold promise for the identification of materials within the sample. The x-ray generation target, a layer of platinum, is fabricated on the circuit wafer itself. A region of interest is imaged from a limited range of angles and without physically removing the region from the larger circuit. The reconstruction is consistent with the circuit's design file.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529769


Feature sizes in integrated circuits have decreased substantially over time, and it has become increasingly difficult to three-dimensionally image these complex circuits after fabrication. This can be important for process development, defect analysis, and detection of unexpected structures in externally sourced chips, among other applications. Here, we report on a non-destructive, tabletop approach that addresses this imaging problem through x-ray tomography, which we uniquely realize with an instrument that combines a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a transition-edge sensor (TES) x-ray spectrometer. Our approach uses the highly focused SEM electron beam to generate a small x-ray generation region in a carefully designed target layer that is placed over the sample being tested. With the high collection efficiency and resolving power of a TES spectrometer, we can isolate x-rays generated in the target from background and trace their paths through regions of interest in the sample layers, providing information about the various materials along the x-ray paths through their attenuation functions. We have recently demonstrated our approach using a 240 Mo/Cu bilayer TES prototype instrument on a simplified test sample containing features with sizes of ∼ 1 µm. Currently, we are designing and building a 3000 Mo/Au bilayer TES spectrometer upgrade, which is expected to improve the imaging speed by factor of up to 60 through a combination of increased detector number and detector speed.

J Strength Cond Res ; 28(2): 540-5, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24476745


Session ratings of perceived exertion (SRPE) during resistance training may be influenced by specific exercise parameters. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of work rate (total work per unit time) and recording time on SRPE. Participants performed 3 exercise bouts of bench press, lat pull-down, overhead press, upright row, triceps extension, and biceps curl at 60% of predetermined 1 repetition maximum according to these protocols: (a) 3 sets × 8 repetitions (reps) × 1.5 minutes of recovery, (b) 3 sets × 8 reps × 3 minutes of recovery, and (c) 2 sets × 12 reps × 3 minutes of recovery. Session ratings of perceived exertion for the 3 × 8 × 1.5-minute recovery (5.3 ± 1.8) and 2 × 12 × 3-minute recovery trials (6.2 ± 1.7) were significantly greater vs. 3 × 8 × 3-minute recovery trial (4.2 ± 1.8). The difference approached significance between work rate-matched protocols (p = 0.08). No difference was observed between SRPE at 15 minutes (5.1 ± 1.8) vs. 30 minutes (5.2 ± 1.9) post exercise. Post-set in-task ratings of perceived exertion were higher for the 2 × 12 × 3-minute recovery trial (5.9 ± 1.4) vs. 3 × 8 × 1.5-minute recovery trial (4.8 ± 1.2) and 3 × 8 × 3-minute recovery trial (4.0 ± 1.6). The difference approached significance (p = 0.07) for the 3 × 8 × 3-minute recovery trial vs. 3 × 8 × 1.5-minute recovery trial. Session ratings of perceived exertion responded to changes in work rate with no significant difference at matched work rates, indicating that SRPE is responsive to training load. Results indicated that more proximal monitoring (15 minutes post exercise) yielded reliable estimates of SRPE increasing the practical utility of the measure.

Esforço Físico , Treinamento de Força , Levantamento de Peso/psicologia , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem