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1.
J Affect Disord ; 299: 393-407, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed. METHODS: . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/regions, endorsed by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT is a multi-wave, on-line anonymous, cross-sectional survey [wave 1: 04/2020 until the end of the pandemic, 12 months waves 2/3 starting 6/24 months threreafter] for adults, adolescents (14-17), and children (6-13), utilizing non-probability/snowball and representative sampling. COH-FIT aims to identify non-modifiable/modifiable risk factors/treatment targets to inform prevention/intervention programs to improve social/health outcomes in the general population/vulnerable subgrous during/after COVID-19. In adults, co-primary outcomes are change from pre-COVID-19 to intra-COVID-19 in well-being (WHO-5) and a composite psychopathology P-Score. Key secondary outcomes are a P-extended score, global mental and physical health. Secondary outcomes include health-service utilization/functioning, treatment adherence, functioning, symptoms/behaviors/emotions, substance use, violence, among others. RESULTS: . Starting 04/26/2020, up to 14/07/2021 >151,000 people from 155 countries/territories/regions and six continents have participated. Representative samples of ≥1,000 adults have been collected in 15 countries. Overall, 43.0% had prior physical disorders, 16.3% had prior mental disorders, 26.5% were health care workers, 8.2% were aged ≥65 years, 19.3% were exposed to someone infected with COVID-19, 76.1% had been in quarantine, and 2.1% had been COVID 19-positive. LIMITATIONS: . Cross-sectional survey, preponderance of non-representative participants. CONCLUSIONS: . Results from COH-FIT will comprehensively quantify the impact of COVID-19, seeking to identify high-risk groups in need for acute and long-term intervention, and inform evidence-based health policies/strategies during this/future pandemics.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958144

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions can impact mental health. To quantify the mental health burden of COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, searching World Health Organization COVID-19/PsycInfo/PubMed databases (09/29/2020), including observational studies reporting on mental health outcomes in any population affected by COVID-19. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of anxiety, depression, stress, sleep problems, posttraumatic symptoms. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on severe mental health problems, in high-quality studies, and in representative samples. Subgroup analyses were conducted stratified by age, sex, country income level, and COVID-19 infection status. One-hundred-seventy-three studies from February to July 2020 were included (n = 502,261, median sample = 948, age = 34.4 years, females = 63%). Ninety-one percent were cross-sectional studies, and 18.5%/57.2% were of high/moderate quality. The highest prevalence emerged for posttraumatic symptoms in COVID-19 infected people (94%), followed by behavioral problems in those with prior mental disorders (77%), fear in healthcare workers (71%), anxiety in caregivers/family members of people with COVID-19 (42%), general health/social contact/passive coping style in the general population (38%), depression in those with prior somatic disorders (37%), and fear in other-than-healthcare workers (29%). Females and people with COVID-19 infection had higher rates of almost all outcomes; college students/young adults of anxiety, depression, sleep problems, suicidal ideation; adults of fear and posttraumatic symptoms. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were more prevalent in low-/middle-income countries, sleep problems in high-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic adversely impacts mental health in a unique manner across population subgroups. Our results inform tailored preventive strategies and interventions to mitigate current, future, and transgenerational adverse mental health of the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Autism Res ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939353

RESUMO

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently diagnosed with co-occurring medical conditions including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To investigate the association, we conducted a systematic review registered in PROSPERO (ID:CRD42021236263) with a random-effects meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo (last search on January 25, 2021), and manually searched relevant publications. We included observational studies measuring the association between ASD and IBD. The primary outcome was the association (odds ratio, OR) between ASD and later development of IBD. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by quality, confounding adjustment, and study design. We performed meta-regression analyses and assessed heterogeneity, publication bias, and quality of studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Overall, we included six studies consisting of eight datasets, including over 11 million participants. We found that ASD was significantly associated with subsequent incident IBD (any IBD, OR = 1.66, 95% confidence interval[CI] = 1.25-2.21, p < 0.001; ulcerative colitis, OR = 1.91, 95%CI = 1.41-2.6, p < 0.001; Crohn's disease, OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.15-1.88, p = 0.002). ASD and IBD were also associated regardless of temporal sequence of diagnosis (any IBD, OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.28-1.93, p < 0.001; ulcerative colitis, OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.36-2.12, p < 0.001; Crohn's disease, OR = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.12-1.69, p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the findings of the main analysis. Meta-regression did not identify any significant moderators. Publication bias was not detected. Quality was high in four datasets and medium in four. In conclusion, our findings highlight the need to screen for IBD in individuals with ASD, and future research should identify who, among those with ASD, has the highest risk of IBD, and elucidate the shared biological mechanisms between ASD and IBD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines have recommended tailored chemotherapy for stage III high-risk (T4 and/or N2) and low-risk (T1-T3 and N1) colon cancer since 2018. Studies have investigated the effect of relative dose intensity (RDI) of FOLFOX on stage III colon cancer survival, however, none has performed a stratified analysis by risk profiles. This study aims to identify the FOLFOX optimal RDI for high-risk and low-risk stage III colon cancer patients. METHODS: Data on 407 eligible patients, diagnosed with stage III colon cancer in 2011 who received FOLFOX, were collected by 8 population-based cancer registries. Multivariable Cox model and Fine-Gray competing risks model were employed to explore Optimal RDI defined as the lowest RDI administered without significant differences in either overall or cause-specific death. RESULTS: Among the 168 high-risk patients, the optimal RDI cut-off was 70% (HR = 1.59 with 95% CI: 0.69-3.66 in overall mortality; HR = 1.24 with 95% CI: 0.42-3.64 in cause-specific mortality when RDI < 70% vs. RDI ≥ 70%). Among the 239 low-risk patients, none of the evaluated cut-offs were associated with significant differences in risk of death between comparison groups. The lowest assessed RDI was 45%, HR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.24 to 2.73 for overall mortality and HR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.06 to 4.95 for cause-specific mortality, when RDI <45% versus RDI ≥45%. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant harm on the risk of death when reducing RDI by <30% for high-risk patients. For the low-risk patients, we found that RDI as low as 45% did not significantly affect the risk of death.

5.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof. RESULTS: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1ß, are associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 39: 101080, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611615

RESUMO

Background: Although tinnitus has a prevalence between 20 and 42.8%, the currently recommended management for tinnitus, such as tinnitus support and psychologic therapies, are relatively time-consuming and expensive. Several new pharmacologic treatments designed for tinnitus patients without specific origin had been developed but their efficacy remains unclear. Methods: The current Network Meta-Analysis (NMA) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different pharmacologic treatments for tinnitus management in tinnitus patients without specific or treatable origin (i.e. primary tinnitus). Databases were searched from inception to April 5th, 2021. All network meta-analytic procedures were conducted under the frequentist model. We calculated the effect size of outcomes with different rating scales with standardized mean difference. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020177742. Findings: Overall, 36 RCTs were included with 2,761 participants. The main results revealed that pharmacologic interventions with brain-acting effect (for example, amitriptyline, acamprosate, and gabapentin) and those with anti-inflammation/anti-oxidant effect (for example, intra-tympanic dexamethasone injection plus oral melatonin) were associated with superior improvement in tinnitus severity and response rate compared to placebo/control. Oral amitriptyline were associated with the highest improvement in tinnitus severity and the fourth highest response rate. None of the investigated interventions was associated with different changes in quality of life compared to placebo/control. All the investigated treatments were associated with similar drop-out rate to placebo/control. Interpretation: The current NMA suggests a potential role for treatments with brain-acting effect (for example, amitriptyline, acamprosate, and gabapentin) or anti-inflammation/anti-oxidant effect (for example, intra-tympanic dexamethasone injection plus oral melatonin) as the preferable effective treatments for tinnitus without specific or treatable origin. Funding: none.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048298, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588246

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease associated with significant chronic pain, disability and impaired quality of life and is the most common form of osteoarthritis. There is no cure for knee osteoarthritis, and the main therapeutic goals are pain management and improving quality of life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative efficacy and acceptability of available interventions using network meta-analysis (NMA) to provide a comprehensive evidence base to inform future treatment guidelines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive literature search of major electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and clinical trial registries will identify randomised control trials (RCTs) of interventions listed in NICE guidelines for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in adults. We will perform an NMA to estimate relative intervention effects across the whole treatment network. If any studies use multicomponent intervention packages, we will employ a component NMA model to estimate the contribution of individual components. The quality of evidence will be assessed using the Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis approach, which is based on the traditional GRADE framework adapted for NMA. Risk of bias (RoB) will be assessed using the revised Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool for RCTs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not require ethical approval. Findings will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020184192.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Dor Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Metanálise em Rede , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Manejo da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 679379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552513

RESUMO

The putative risk/protective factors for several personality disorders remain unclear. The vast majority of published studies has assessed personality characteristics/traits rather than disorders. Thus, the current umbrella review of meta-analyses (MAs) aims to systematically assess risk or protective factors associated with personality disorders. We searched PubMed-MEDLINE/PsycInfo databases, up to August 31, 2020. Quality of MAs was assessed with AMSTAR-2, while the credibility of evidence for each association was assessed through standard quantitative criteria. Out of 571 initial references, five meta-analyses met inclusion criteria, encompassing 56 associations of 26 potential environmental factors for antisocial, dependent, borderline personality disorder, with a median of five studies per association, and median 214 cases per association. Overall, 35 (62.5%) of the associations were nominally significant. Six associations met class II (i.e., highly suggestive) evidence for borderline personality disorder, with large effect sizes involving childhood emotional abuse (OR = 28.15, 95% CI 14.76-53.68), childhood emotional neglect (OR = 22.86, 95% CI 11.55-45.22), childhood any adversities (OR = 14.32, 95% CI 10.80-18.98), childhood physical abuse (OR = 9.30, 95% CI 6.57-13.17), childhood sexual abuse (OR = 7.95, 95% CI 6.21-10.17), and childhood physical neglect (OR = 5.73, 95% CI 3.21-10.21), plus 16 further associations supported by class IV evidence. No risk factor for antisocial or dependent personality disorder was supported by class I, II, and III, but six and seven met class IV evidence, respectively. Quality of included meta-analyses was rated as moderate in two, critically low in three. The large effect sizes found for a broad range of childhood adversities suggest that prevention of personality disorders should target childhood-related risk factors. However, larger cohort studies assessing multidimensional risk factors are needed in the field.

9.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a safe and feasible form of exercise. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the mental health effects of HIIT, in healthy populations and those with physical illnesses, and to compare the mental health effects to non-active controls and other forms of exercise. DESIGN: Random effects meta-analyses were undertaken for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HIIT with non-active and/or active (exercise) control conditions for the following coprimary outcomes: mental well-being, symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological stress. Positive and negative affect, distress and sleep outcomes were summarised narratively. DATA SOURCES: Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to 7 July 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: RCTs that investigated HIIT in healthy populations and/or those with physical illnesses and reported change in mental well-being, depression, anxiety, psychological stress, positive/negative affect, distress and/or sleep quality. RESULTS: Fifty-eight RCTs were retrieved. HIIT led to moderate improvements in mental well-being (standardised mean difference (SMD): 0.418; 95% CI: 0.135 to 0.701; n=12 studies), depression severity (SMD: -0.496; 95% CI: -0.973 to -0.020; n=10) and perceived stress (SMD: -0.474; 95% CI: -0.796 to -0.152; n=4) compared with non-active controls, and small improvements in mental well-being compared with active controls (SMD:0.229; 95% CI: 0.054 to 0.403; n=12). There was a suggestion that HIIT may improve sleep and psychological distress compared with non-active controls: however, these findings were based on a small number of RCTs. CONCLUSION: These findings support the use of HIIT for mental health in the general population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: The quality of evidence was moderate-to-high according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020182643.

11.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 591006, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381326

RESUMO

Background: Neurofeedback (NFB) attempts to alter the brain's electrophysiological activity and has shown potential as a pain management technique. Existing studies, however, often lack appropriate control groups or fail to assess whether electrophysiological activity has been successfully regulated. The current study is a randomized controlled trial comparing changes in brain activity and pain during NFB with those of a sham-control group. Methods: An experimental pain paradigm in healthy participants was used to provide optimal control of pain sensation. Twenty four healthy participants were blind randomized to receive either 10 × NFB (with real EEG feedback) or 10 × sham (with false EEG feedback) sessions during noxious cold stimulation. Prior to actual NFB training, training protocols were individually determined for each participant based on a comparison of an initial 32-channel qEEG assessment administered at both baseline and during an experimental pain task. Each individual protocol was based on the electrode site and frequency band that showed the greatest change in amplitude during pain, with alpha or theta up-regulation at various electrode sites (especially Pz) the most common protocols chosen. During the NFB sessions themselves, pain was assessed at multiple times during each session on a 0-10 rating scale, and ANOVA was used to examine changes in pain ratings and EEG amplitude both across and during sessions for both NFB and sham groups. Results: For pain, ANOVA trend analysis found a significant general linear decrease in pain across the 10 sessions (p = 0.015). However, no significant main or interaction effects of group were observed suggesting decreases in pain occurred independently of NFB. For EEG, there was a significant During Session X Group interaction (p = 0.004), which indicated that EEG amplitude at the training site was significantly closer to the target amplitude for the NFB compared to the sham group during painful stimulation, but this was only the case at the beginning of the cold task. Conclusion: While these results must be interpreted within the context of an experimental pain model, they underline the importance of including an appropriate comparison group to avoid attributing naturally occurring changes to therapeutic effects.

12.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 96: 104474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the efficacy and acceptability of pharmacotherapy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) while simultaneously considering the neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), cognitive function, motor symptoms, and acceptability. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched from inception through June 5, 2019, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and open-label trials (OLTs) in patients with DLB. We performed a pairwise conventional meta-analysis (PWMA) and network meta-analysis (NMA) within a frequentist framework. The main outcomes were mean change scores in NPS, general cognition, motor symptoms and acceptability. The effect sizes and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018096996). RESULTS: In total, we included 29 studies (9 RCTs and 20 OLTs). In the NMA with 9 RCTs, both high- (mean difference [MD] 2.00, 95% CIs, 0.69 to 3.31) and low-dose (1.86, 0.58 to 3.15) donepezil were associated with a greater cognitive improvement than placebo. High-dose zonisamide was associated with greater motor symptom improvement ( -4.10, -7.03 to -1.17]). No medications reached statistical significance regarding improving neuropsychiatric symptoms or developing intolerable adverse effects as compared to placebo. In the second NMA, with 29 studies as an exploratory analysis, aripiprazole and yokukansan may be effective for neuropsychiatric symptoms, while levodopa may be associated with cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: We report the most comprehensive evidence for the selection of pharmacotherapy for treating different clusters of DLB-related symptoms. Due to the limited availability of RCTs on DLB, more well-conducted RCTs are needed for MMA to warrant clinical efficacy in the future.


Assuntos
Doença por Corpos de Lewy , Cognição , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise em Rede , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3614-3621, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: US population-based cancer registries can be used for surveillance of human papillomavirus (HPV) types found in HPV-associated cancers. Using this framework, HPV prevalence among high-grade cervical precancers and invasive cervical cancers were compared before and after HPV vaccine availability. METHODS: Archived tissue from 2 studies of cervical precancers and invasive cervical cancers diagnosed from 1993-2005 (prevaccine) were identified from 7 central cancer registries in Florida; Hawaii; Iowa; Kentucky; Louisiana; Los Angeles County, California; and Michigan; from 2014 through 2015 (postvaccine) cases were identified from 3 registries in Iowa, Kentucky, and Louisiana. HPV testing was performed using L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction analysis. HPV-type-specific prevalence was examined grouped by hierarchical attribution to vaccine types: HPV 16, 18, HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, other oncogenic HPV types, and other types/HPV negative. Generalized logit models were used to compare HPV prevalence in the prevaccine study to the postvaccine study by patient age, adjusting for sampling factors. RESULTS: A total of 676 precancers (328 prevaccine and 348 postvaccine) and 1140 invasive cervical cancers (777 prevaccine and 363 postvaccine) were typed. No differences were observed in HPV-type prevalence by patient age between the 2 studies among precancers or invasive cancers. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of reduction in vaccine-type prevalence between the 2 studies is likely explained by the low number of cases and low HPV vaccination coverage among women in the postvaccine study. Monitoring HPV-type prevalence through population-based strategies will continue to be important in evaluating the impact of the HPV vaccine.

14.
Nurs Stand ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-risk alcohol use is correlated with chronic pain. Chronic pain and alcohol dependence are associated with similar neurological, endocrinological and behavioural patterns, and it has been hypothesised that symptoms of neuropathic pain are exacerbated following alcohol withdrawal. AIM: To investigate the presence of neuropathic pain upon withdrawal from alcohol, in people with high-risk alcohol use with or without a history of medically assisted detoxification. METHOD: A small observational cross-sectional study investigated the presence of neuropathic pain in two groups of hospitalised adults exhibiting high-risk alcohol use: one group with a history of medically assisted detoxification, the other group with no history of medically assisted detoxification. RESULTS: The results provided some evidence that neuropathic pain is more likely to be experienced by people with high-risk alcohol use who have previously undergone medically assisted detoxification. CONCLUSION: Understanding that previous medically assisted detoxification may increase the risk of neuropathic pain means that nurses can improve their preparation when assessing, monitoring and managing neuropathic pain in people recovering from high-risk alcohol use. Nurses will be able to direct patients recovering from high-risk alcohol use to available pain management support in a timely manner, for example a local pain clinic, possibly even before detoxification. This is important given the links between pain, relapse into alcohol use and addiction to analgesics.

15.
Vision Res ; 187: 75-84, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225132

RESUMO

Face recognition skills are distributed on a continuum, with developmental prosopagnosics and super-recognisers at the bottom and top ends, respectively. Holistic processing propensity is associated with face recognition ability and may be impaired in some developmental prosopagnosics and enhanced in some super-recognisers. Across two experiments we compared holistic processing of 75 super-recognisers and 89 typical-range ability controls using The Part-Whole Effect (PWE) paradigm. A subgroup of super-recognisers demonstrated enhanced PWEs in the nose region, suggesting they integrate the nose into the holistic face percept more effectively than controls. Focussed processing of the nose region, an optimal viewing position to extract the holistic properties of faces, has previously been associated with superior face recognition, and this may partly explain the superiority of some super-recognisers. However, a few super-recognisers generated extreme nose region performance patterns in an opposite direction across both experiments, suggesting their superiority is driven by alternative mechanisms. These results support proposals that super-recognition is associated with heterogeneous underlying processes.

16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E59, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The number of adults entering the age groups at greatest risk for being diagnosed with cancer is increasing. Projecting cancer incidence can help the cancer control community plan and evaluate prevention strategies aimed at reducing the growing number of cancer cases. METHODS: We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program and the US Census Bureau to estimate average, annual, age-standardized cancer incidence rates and case counts (for all sites combined and top 22 invasive cancers) in the US for 2015 and to project cancer rates and counts to 2050. We used age, period, and cohort models to inform projections. RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2050, we predict the overall age-standardized incidence rate (proxy for population risk for being diagnosed with cancer) to stabilize in women (1%) and decrease in men (-9%). Cancers with the largest change in risk include a 34% reduction for lung and bronchus and a 32% increase for corpus uterine (32%). Because of the growth and aging of the US population, we predict that the annual number of cancer cases will increase 49%, from 1,534,500 in 2015 to 2,286,300 in 2050, with the largest percentage increase among adults aged ≥75 years. Cancers with the largest projected absolute increase include female breast, colon and rectum, and prostate. DISCUSSION: By 2050, we predict the total number of incident cases to increase by almost 50% as a result of the growth and aging of the US population. A greater emphasis on cancer risk reduction is needed to counter these trends.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Adulto , Censos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Patient Educ Couns ; 104(8): 2126-2132, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Consultation skills are essential to clinical practice and, when effective, can facilitate diagnoses and improve patient satisfaction. Various models exist to facilitate consultation teaching. These can be prescriptive, a challenge to apply in clinical settings and are often designed for primary care. In redesigning our entire curriculum, we sought to create a new visual, digital, resource for consultation teaching, aligned with statements from the UK Council for Clinical Communication (UKCCC), and suitable for the evolving expectations of patients, clinicians and the UK NHS, in 21st century medicine. METHODS: We conducted a literature review encompassing teaching methods, NHS Priorities, patients' priorities, lifestyle interventions and practitioner resilience. COGConnect was designed iteratively through consultation with a graphic designer, health psychologists, a range of clinicians, and a consultation expert, and has evolved through extensive use in our new "effective consulting" course in primary and secondary care. RESULTS: COGConnect is deliberately visual, iterative, bi-directional and multi-phasic. The central image of COGConnect is two persons in connection; the floating cogs suggesting an encounter of different agents who must adapt their cog-connection in terms of speed, direction and dimension. Around this image we place five core values. The consultation phases are represented by ten colourful cogs, with important additions including 'formulating', 'activating' and 'integrating'. CONCLUSION: COGConnect builds on the strengths of existing frameworks and provides a strong visual resource suitable for digital learning. It offers greater emphasis on explicit clinical reasoning, activation of patient self-care and learning from the interaction. Having become the de facto resource for consultation skills training across primary and secondary care in our institution, the next phase is to develop the COGConnect.info website and a programme of formal evaluation.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Currículo , Comunicação , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Ensino
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(2): 29-35, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444294

RESUMO

Screening for breast cancer, cervical cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC) reduces mortality from these cancers.* However, screening test receipt has been below national targets with disparities observed in certain populations (1,2). National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 2018 were analyzed to estimate percentages of adults up to date with U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) screening recommendations. Screening test receipt remained below national Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) targets, although CRC test receipt neared the target. Disparities were evident, with particularly low test receipt among persons who were uninsured or did not have usual sources of care. Continued monitoring helps assess progress toward targets and could inform efforts to promote screening and reduce barriers for underserved populations.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Programas Gente Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(2): 150-157, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Responsiveness to direct verbal suggestions (suggestibility) has long been hypothesised to represent a predisposing factor for functional neurological disorder (FND) but previous research has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate whether patients with FND display elevated suggestibility relative to controls via meta-analysis. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched in November 2019, with the search updated in April 2020, for original studies assessing suggestibility using standardised behavioural scales or suggestive symptom induction protocols in patients with FND (including somatisation disorder) and controls. The meta-analysis followed Cochrane, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Data extraction and study quality coding were performed by two independent reviewers. Standardised suggestibility scores and responsiveness to symptom induction protocols were used to calculate standardised mean differences (SMDs) between groups. RESULTS: Of 26 643 search results, 19 articles presenting 11 standardised suggestibility data sets (FND: n=316; control: n=360) and 11 symptom suggestibility data sets (FND: n=1285; control: n=1409) were included in random-effect meta-analyses. Meta-analyses revealed that patients with FND displayed greater suggestibility than controls on standardised behavioural scales (SMD, 0.48 (95% C, 0.15 to 0.81)) and greater responsiveness to suggestive symptom induction (SMD, 1.39 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.86)). Moderation analyses presented mixed evidence regarding the extent to which effect sizes covaried with methodological differences across studies. No evidence of publication bias was found. CONCLUSIONS: These results corroborate the hypothesis that FND is characterised by heightened responsiveness to verbal suggestion. Atypical suggestibility may confer risk for FND and be a cognitive marker that can inform diagnosis and treatment of this condition.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Sugestão , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico
20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(2): 195-203, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare cognitive effects and acceptability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to determine whether cognitive training (CT) during rTMS or tDCS provides additional benefits. METHODS: Electronic search of PubMed, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO up to 5 March 2020. We enrolled double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcomes were acceptability and pre-post treatment changes in general cognition measured by Mini-Mental State Examination, and the secondary outcomes were memory function, verbal fluency, working memory and executive function. Durability of cognitive benefits (1, 2 and ≥3 months) after brain stimulation was examined. RESULTS: We included 27 RCTs (n=1070), and the treatment components included high-frequency rTMS (HFrTMS) and low-frequency rTMS, anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS), CT, sham CT and sham brain stimulation. Risk of bias of evidence in each domain was low (range: 0%-11.1%). HFrTMS (1.08, 9, 0.35-1.80) and atDCS (0.56, 0.03-1.09) had short-term positive effects on general cognition. CT might be associated with negative effects on general cognition (-0.79, -2.06 to 0.48) during rTMS or tDCS. At 1-month follow-up, HFrTMS (1.65, 0.77-2.54) and ctDCS (2.57, 0.20-4.95) exhibited larger therapeutic responses. Separate analysis of populations with pure AD and MCI revealed positive effects only in individuals with AD. rTMS and tDCS were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: HFrTMS is more effective than atDCS for improving global cognition, and patients with AD may have better responses to rTMS and tDCS than MCI.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Metanálise em Rede , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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