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1.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; : 1-45, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413036

RESUMO

Problem identification: Loneliness is common after cancer, contributing to poor outcomes. Interventions to modify loneliness are needed. This systematic review describes the current literature regarding loneliness interventions in cancer survivors. Literature search: Databases including: Ovid/MEDLINE; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Elsevier/Embase; Clarivate/Web of Science (Core Collection), EBSCO/PsycINFO, EBSCO/CINAHL were used to perform a systematic review of literature using PRISMA guidelines. Second, risk of bias, meta-analysis and a narrative synthesis approach was completed to synthesize findings from multiple studies. Data evaluation/synthesis: Six thousand five hundred three studies were initially evaluated; eight studies met inclusion criteria. Findings indicate a paucity of interventions, generally of lower quality. Interventions were feasible and acceptable; those interventions with cultural modifications were more likely to demonstrate effectiveness. Conclusions: There are limited interventions addressing loneliness in cancer survivors. Development and testing of culturally-relevant programs are warranted. Implications for psychosocial oncology: Current studies suggest the psychosocial symptom of loneliness is modifiable among adult cancer survivors. Few interventions have been tested and shown to be effectiveness in cancer survivors in the U.S. and none have been tailored for older adult survivors, by patient gender/sex and few for specific race/ethnic groups. Results from this systematic review: a narrative synthesis and meta-analysis can inform future interventions targeting loneliness in this growing, yet vulnerable, adult cancer survivor population.

2.
Ann Behav Med ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature assessing the effect of marital status on mortality has underrepresented, or altogether omitted Hispanics and the potential moderating effect of Hispanic ethnicity on these relationships. Given cultural and network dynamics, marital advantages in older Hispanic women may be greater than other groups given their family-focused, collectivist orientation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand whether older Hispanic women exhibited a more pronounced marital advantage as compared with non-Hispanic Whites. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study and Clinical Trials (N = 161,808) collected initially from 1993 to 1998 and followed until 2018. Our sample excluded those respondents indicating "other" as their race-ethnicity and those missing marital status and race-ethnicity variables (N = 158,814). We used Cox-proportional hazards models to assess the association between race-ethnicity, marital status, and the interactive effect of race-ethnicity and marital status on survival. RESULTS: After controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and health controls, we found a Hispanic survival advantage when compared with non-Hispanic Whites and all other racial-ethnic groups with the exception of Asian/Pacific Islander women (all significant HRs < 0.78, all ps ≤ 0.001). Hispanics had a higher rate of divorce when compared with non-Hispanic Whites. The interactive effect of race-ethnicity and marital status was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: U.S. Hispanic, postmenopausal women exhibit a mortality advantage over and above marital status despite their high rates of divorce. Implications and potential explanations are discussed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00000611.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic abnormalities are a leading cause of death among women, including women with cancer. METHODS: This study examined the association between prediagnosis cardiovascular health and total and cause-specific mortality among 12,076 postmenopausal women who developed local- or regional-stage invasive cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Cardiovascular risk factors included waist circumference, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Obesity-related cancers included breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for important predictors of survival. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10.0 years from the date of the cancer diagnosis, there were 3607 total deaths, with 1546 (43%) due to cancer. Most participants (62.9%) had 1 or 2 cardiometabolic risk factors, and 8.1% had 3 or 4. In adjusted models, women with 3 to 4 risk factors (vs none) had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.73-2.30), death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR, 4.01; 95% CI, 2.88-5.57), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.1-1.72), and other-cause mortality (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.70-2.69). A higher waist circumference was associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.30) and cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women diagnosed with cancer in the WHI, cardiometabolic risk factors before the cancer diagnosis were associated with greater all-cause, CVD, cancer-specific, and other-cause mortality. These results raise hypotheses regarding potential clinical intervention strategies targeting cardiometabolic abnormalities that require future prospective studies for confirmation. LAY SUMMARY: This study uses information from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) to find out whether cardiac risk factors are related to a greater risk of dying among older women with cancer. The WHI is the largest study of medical problems faced by older women in this country. The results show that women who have 3 or 4 risk factors are more likely to die of any cause, heart disease, or cancer in comparison with women with no risk factors. It is concluded that interventions to help to lower the burden of cardiac risk factors can have an important impact on survivorship among women with cancer.

4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(9): e18491, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The collection of self-reported physical activity using validated questionnaires has known bias and measurement error. OBJECTIVE: Accelerometry, an objective measure of daily activity, increases the rigor and accuracy of physical activity measurements. Here, we describe the methodology and related protocols for accelerometry data collection and quality assurance using the Actigraph GT9X accelerometer data collection in a convenience sample of ovarian cancer survivors enrolled in GOG/NRG 0225, a 24-month randomized controlled trial of diet and physical activity intervention versus attention control. METHODS: From July 2015 to December 2019, accelerometers were mailed on 1337 separate occasions to 580 study participants to wear at 4 time points (baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months) for 7 consecutive days. Study staff contacted participants via telephone to confirm their availability to wear the accelerometers and reviewed instructions and procedures regarding the return of the accelerometers and assisted with any technology concerns. RESULTS: We evaluated factors associated with wear compliance, including activity tracking, use of a mobile app, and demographic characteristics with chi-square tests and logistic regression. Compliant data, defined as ≥4 consecutive days with ≥10 hours daily wear time, exceeded 90% at all study time points. Activity tracking, but no other characteristics, was significantly associated with compliant data at all time points (P<.001). This implementation of data collection through accelerometry provided highly compliant and usable activity data in women who recently completed treatment for ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The high compliance and data quality associated with this protocol suggest that it could be disseminated to support researchers who seek to collect robust objective activity data in cancer survivors residing in a wide geographic area.

5.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors (CS) with ostomies may face challenges in sustaining physical activity (PA) levels and maintaining healthy diets. This analysis describes lifestyle behaviors and their relationships with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in CS with ostomies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of a multisite randomized self-management education trial for CS with ostomies. The baseline self-reported measures were queried on aerobic PA and diet using the City of Hope Quality of Life Ostomy measure, and the Self-Efficacy to Perform Self-Management Behaviors questionnaire (SE). PA was compared against the American Cancer Society PA guidelines for CS. Relationships between PA and HRQOL were evaluated using multiple linear regression, stratified by BMI. RESULTS: Among 200 responders, fewer than 20% met or exceeded the PA guideline for cancer survivors; overall, confidence in the ability to perform gentle or aerobic PA was moderate (6/10 on the SE). Overall HRQOL (p = 0.038), psychological well-being (p = 0.017), and physical strength (p = 0.025) were associated with increased PA. Almost half (48.7%) of CS reported a special diet. CS with urostomies were less likely to report diet adjustments after their ostomy surgeries (OR: 0.16, 95% CI [0.08-0.38]) than CS with fecal ostomies. CONCLUSIONS: Better HRQOL is associated with PA guideline achievement among CS with ostomies. Additionally, diet adjustments were reported more frequently in CS with fecal ostomies. Our findings bear clinical relevance for designing ostomy self-management and lifestyle recommendations for CS with ostomies. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The evaluation of lifestyle behaviors may be an especially important focus for CS with ostomies.

6.
Prev Med Rep ; 19: 101163, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714778

RESUMO

Minority youth represent a unique population for public health interventions given the social, economic, and cultural barriers they often face in accessing health services. Interventions to increase uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in minority youth have the potential to reduce disparities in HPV infection and HPV-related cancers. This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of interventions to increase HPV vaccine uptake, measured as vaccine series initiation and series completion, among adolescents and young adults, aged 9-26 years old, identifying as a racial and ethnic minority or sexual and gender minority (SGM) group in high-income countries. Of the 3013 citations produced by a systematic search of three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) in November 2018, nine studies involving 9749 participants were selected for inclusion. All studies were conducted in the United States and were published from 2015 to 2018. Interventions utilized education, vaccine appointment reminders, and negotiated interviewing to increase vaccination. Participants were Black or African American (44.4%), Asian (33.3%), Hispanic or Latinx (22.2%), American Indian or Alaska Native (11.1%), and SGM (22.2%). Studies enrolled parent-child dyads (33.3%), parents alone (11.1%), and youth alone (55.6%). Vaccine series initiation ranged from 11.1% to 84% and series completion ranged from 5.6% to 74.2% post-intervention. Educational and appointment reminder interventions may improve HPV vaccine series initiation and completion in minority youth in the U.S. Given the lack of high quality, adequately powered studies, further research is warranted to identify effective strategies for improving HPV vaccine uptake for minority populations.

7.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(3): nzaa021, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159070

RESUMO

Background: Women without cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypertension at baseline assigned to intervention in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) trial experienced 30% lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), whereas results in women with hypertension or prior CVD could have been confounded by postrandomization use of statins. Objectives: Intervention participants reported various self-selected changes to achieve the 20% total fat goals. Reviewed are intervention compared with comparison group HRs for CHD, stroke, and total CVD in relation to specific dietary changes in normotensive participants. Methods: Dietary change was assessed by comparing baseline with year 1 FFQ data in women (n = 10,371) without hypertension or CVD at baseline with intake of total fat above the median to minimize biases due to use of the FFQ in trial eligibility screening. Results: Intervention participants self-reported compensating reduced energy intake from total fat by increasing carbohydrate and protein. Specifically they increased plant protein, with those in the upper quartile (increased total protein by ≥3.3% of energy) having a CHD HR of 0.39 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.71), compared with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.48) for those in the lower quartile of change (decreased total protein ≥0.6% of energy), with P-trend of 0.04. CHD HR did not vary significantly with change in percentage energy from carbohydrate, and stroke HR did not vary significantly with any macronutrient changes. Scores reflecting adherence to recommended dietary patterns including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial and the Healthy Eating Index showed favorable changes in the intervention group. Conclusions: Intervention group total fat reduction replaced with increased carbohydrate and some protein, especially plant-based protein, was related to lower CHD risk in normotensive women without CVD who reported high baseline total fat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. Link to the WHI trial protocol: https://www.whi.org/about/SitePages/Dietary%20Trial.aspx.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1419-1428, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies of dietary fat intake and breast cancer have reported inconsistent findings. This topic was addressed in additional analyses of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification (DM) clinical trial that evaluated a low-fat dietary pattern influence on breast cancer incidence. METHODS: In the WHI DM trial, 48,835 postmenopausal women, ages 50-79 years, with no prior breast cancer, and a dietary fat intake of ≥ 32% of energy were randomly assigned at 40 US centers to a usual diet comparison group (60%) or dietary intervention group (40%). The goals were to reduce fat intake to 20% of energy and increase vegetable, fruit, and grain intake. Breast cancers were confirmed after central medical record review and serial National Death Index linkages to enhance mortality findings. RESULTS: During 8.5 years of dietary intervention, breast cancer incidence and deaths as a result of breast cancer were nonsignificantly lower in the intervention group, while deaths after breast cancer were statistically significantly lower both during intervention and through a 16.1-year (median) follow-up. Now, after a long-term, cumulative 19.6-year (median) follow-up, the significant reduction in deaths after breast cancer persists (359 [0.12%] v 652 [0.14%] deaths; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.96; P = .01), and a statistically significant reduction in deaths as a result of breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death attributed to the breast cancer) emerged (132 [0.037%, annualized risk] v 251 [0.047%] deaths, respectively; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.97; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Adoption of a low-fat dietary pattern associated with increased vegetable, fruit, and grain intake, demonstrably achievable by many, may reduce the risk of death as a result of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

9.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 9(3): 315-327, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904297

RESUMO

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors, here defined as individuals diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age, are at high risk for adverse late-term metabolic effects of treatment through adulthood. Diet is a modifiable lifestyle behavior that may improve metabolic health outcomes in AYA cancer survivors. However, the details of dietary interventions for this unique population remain largely undescribed. In this systematic review, we aim to synthesize the results of dietary interventions for adult AYA cancer survivors. Seven databases and clinical trial registries were searched in March 2019 for interventions targeting dietary behaviors in AYA cancer survivors (PROPSERO systematic review number: CRD42019126376). Descriptive statistics and a narrative synthesis were completed to detail intervention participants and components. After full text review of 233 studies, four studies met all inclusion criteria. All studies were heterogeneous for participant age, cancer type, and duration, and were designed for feasibility and preliminary efficacy. Included studies followed different dietary guidance; however, each resulted in a significant change on a primary outcome of either dietary quality or body composition. Three of the four studies included a theoretical framework, where self-efficacy was a central construct. Counseling, in person, telephone, or electronic, provided behavioral support. Results of this systematic review suggest high potential to change dietary behaviors in AYA, but interventions remain limited. AYA cancer survivors demonstrate unique physiological and psychosocial needs, and future interventions designed to address this care gap should be targeted for this population with consideration of social support, delivery mode, and individual tailoring.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 591-598, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity-related cancers disproportionately affect the Black community. We assessed the relationship between diet quality, physical activity, and their combined effect on obesity-related cancer risk and mortality in Black women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). METHODS: Data from postmenopausal (50-79 years of age) Black women enrolled in WHI clinical trials or observational studies were analyzed. Exposure variables included baseline physical activity [metabolic equivalent of tasks (MET)-hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] and diet quality [Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015]. Outcomes included adjudicated obesity-related cancer incidence and mortality. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between MVPA and HEI-2015 and obesity-related cancer risk and mortality. RESULTS: The analytical sample included 9,886 Black women, with a baseline mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.1 kg/m2 (SD = 6.8); mean HEI-2015 score of 63.2 (SD = 11.0, possible range 0 to 100); and mean MVPA of 5.0 (SD = 9.4) MET-hours/week. Over an average of 13 years of follow-up, 950 (9.6%) obesity-related cancer cases were observed, with 313 (32.9%) resulting in death. Physical activity [HR, 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.30], diet quality (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.92-1.08), and their combination (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.29) were not associated with risk for any or site-specific obesity-related cancers. Similarly, these health behaviors had no association with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality, physical activity and their combined effect, as measured, were not associated with obesity-related cancer risk and mortality in Black women enrolled in WHI. IMPACT: Other social, behavioral, and biological factors may contribute to racial disparities observed in obesity-related cancer rates.

11.
Nutr Rev ; 78(3): 225-234, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904838

RESUMO

Dairy products have been a key component of dietary guidance in the United States for more than 100 years. In light of major advances in the understanding of dietary intake and metabolism, the aim of this review was to examine whether dairy should remain a single commodity in federal guidance. Considerations include recognizing that a substantial proportion of the world's adult population (65%-70%) exhibits lactase nonpersistence, a reduced ability to metabolize lactose to glucose and galactose. Shifts in the US population, including a greater proportion of African Americans and Asians, are of key importance because several studies have shown a markedly higher prevalence of lactase nonpersistence and, consequently, a lower dairy intake among these groups. While cow's milk alternatives are available, families who use them will pay up to an additional $1400 per year compared with those who are able to consume dairy products. Dietary guidance also contains downstream effects for government assistance, such as the US Department of Agriculture's National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. For reasons like these, Canada has recently removed dairy as a separate food group in national dietary guidance. The results of the present review suggest that consideration of this modification when developing population-level guidelines in the United States is warranted.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Intolerância à Lactose , Política Nutricional , Afro-Americanos , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Canadá , Bovinos , Humanos , Lactose , Leite , Estados Unidos
12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(9): 2394-2405, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Inflamação/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neopterina/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/sangue , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/etiologia , Triptofano/sangue
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(9): 929-937, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk. METHODS: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.

14.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 301, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the U.S., Hispanic women experience a disproportionate rate of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. At the same time, Hispanic women remain considerably underrepresented in behavioral weight loss interventions. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the evidence related to the effectiveness of weight loss interventions among Hispanic women in the U.S. This review will identify elements of successful weight loss interventions as well as areas for future research. METHODS/DESIGN: The following databases will be searched to identify all relevant articles (from inception onwards): PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science (Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index), PsycINFO, CINAHL, Chicano Database, SPORTDiscus, CAB Abstracts, and Google Scholar. We will include randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies of adult women (> 18 years) from Hispanic/Latino background living in the United States. Eligible interventions will target weight-related behaviors (including diet, physical activity, behavior modification and/or their combinations). The review's primary outcome will be weight change (expressed as change in lbs/kg or body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2)). Three reviewers will independently screen and select data and two will extract data. The methodological quality (or risk of bias) of individual studies will be appraised using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. A narrative synthesis will describe quality and content of the evidence. DISCUSSION: The aim of this systematic review is to critically examine existing weight loss interventions for Hispanic women in the U.S. and provide quality evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions on weight loss. Further, this review seeks to identify characteristics of effective interventions and suggest future directions for research efforts targeting weight loss in this population. This review will inform the development of future weight loss interventions for this population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019119094.


Assuntos
Manejo da Obesidade/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Perda de Peso , Terapia Comportamental , Dieta Redutora , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Ann Intern Med ; 171(6): 406-414, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499528

RESUMO

Background: Whether health outcomes of menopausal estrogen therapy differ between women with and without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is unknown. Objective: To examine estrogen therapy outcomes by BSO status, with additional stratification by 10-year age groups. Design: Subgroup analyses of the randomized Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00000611). Setting: 40 U.S. clinical centers. Participants: 9939 women aged 50 to 79 years with prior hysterectomy and known oophorectomy status. Intervention: Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/d) or placebo for a median of 7.2 years. Measurements: Incidence of coronary heart disease and invasive breast cancer (the trial's 2 primary end points), all-cause mortality, and a "global index" (these end points plus stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, and hip fracture) during the intervention phase and 18-year cumulative follow-up. Results: The effects of CEE alone did not differ significantly according to BSO status. However, age modified the effect of CEE in women with prior BSO. During the intervention phase, CEE was significantly associated with a net adverse effect (hazard ratio for global index, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.86]) in older women (aged ≥70 years), but the global index was not elevated in younger women (P trend by age = 0.016). During cumulative follow-up, women aged 50 to 59 years with BSO had a treatment-associated reduction in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.68 [CI, 0.48 to 0.96]), whereas older women with BSO had no reduction (P trend by age = 0.034). There was no significant association between CEE and outcomes among women with conserved ovaries, regardless of age. Limitations: The timing of CEE in relation to BSO varied; several comparisons were made without adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: The effects of CEE did not differ by BSO status in the overall cohort, but some findings varied by age. Among women with prior BSO, in those aged 70 years or older, CEE led to adverse effects during the treatment period, whereas women randomly assigned to CEE before age 60 seemed to derive mortality benefit over the long term. Primary Funding Source: The WHI program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Wyeth Ayerst donated the study drugs.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/métodos , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Ovariectomia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(11): 1884-1890, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fiber-based prebiotic supplements are marketed for maintaining bowel health and promoting beneficial gut bacteria. However, the association between prebiotic supplement use and colorectal cancer risk and mortality is unknown. METHODS: The association between prebiotic use and colorectal cancer risk and mortality was evaluated in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative study. Self-reported prebiotic use was documented at study enrollment. Adjudicated colorectal cancer cases and mortality were captured using medical and death records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR related to prebiotic use and colorectal cancer risk and mortality. RESULTS: In total, 3,032 colorectal cancer cases were diagnosed during an average 15.4 years of follow-up. Overall, 3.7% of women used a prebiotic with psyllium, the major fiber type. Use of any prebiotic supplement was not associated with colorectal cancer risk or mortality. The type of prebiotic supplement (none vs. insoluble or soluble) was not associated with colorectal cancer risk; however, use of insoluble fiber prebiotics compared with none was associated with higher colorectal cancer mortality [HR, 2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-5.90; P = 0.007]. Likelihood ratio tests indicated no significant interactions between prebiotic use and other colorectal cancer risk factors, including metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Prebiotic fiber supplement use was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Insoluble, but not soluble, prebiotic fiber use was associated with higher colorectal cancer mortality. These findings do not support the promotion of prebiotic fiber supplements to reduce colorectal cancer risk or colorectal cancer mortality. IMPACT: Further investigation is warranted for findings regarding insoluble prebiotic fiber and higher colorectal cancer mortality in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos/efeitos adversos , Saúde da Mulher/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1565-1574, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preferred macronutrient dietary composition, and the health consequences of dietary fat reduction specifically, have been debated for decades. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of long-term health outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) trial. OBJECTIVE: The DM trial aimed to examine whether a low-fat dietary pattern would reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and, secondarily, coronary heart disease (CHD), with various other health outcomes also considered. METHODS: The DM trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 40 centers in the US, among 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y with baseline intake of ≥32% energy from fat. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern intervention group or to a usual-diet comparison group, during 1993-1998. Intervention goals were to reduce fat intake from ∼35% to 20% of total energy, in conjunction with increasing vegetables and fruit to 5 servings/d and grains to 6 servings/d. RESULTS: Over an 8.5-y (median) intervention period, intervention and comparison group differences included lower fat by 8-10%, and higher carbohydrate by 8-10%, of total energy, in conjunction with higher consumption of vegetables, fruit, and grains. Time-to-outcome analyses did not show significant differences between intervention and comparison groups for invasive breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or CHD, either over the intervention period or over longer-term cumulative follow-up. Additional analyses showed significant intervention group benefits related to breast cancer, CHD, and diabetes, without adverse effects. Over a 19.6-y (median) follow-up period, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.84 (0.74, 0.96) for breast cancer followed by death, and 0.87 (0.77, 0.98) for diabetes requiring insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in dietary fat with corresponding increase in vegetables, fruit, and grains led to benefits related to breast cancer, CHD, and diabetes, without adverse effects, among healthy postmenopausal US women.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Saúde da Mulher
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1304-1310, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081854

RESUMO

We evaluated the role of seasonality in self-reported diet quality among postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). A total of 156,911 women completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at enrollment (1993-1998). FFQ responses reflected intake over the prior 3-month period, and seasons were defined as spring (March-May), summer (June-August), fall (September-November), and winter (December-February). FFQ data were used to calculate the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), a measure of diet quality that has a score range of 2.5-87.5, with higher scores representing better diet quality. In multivariable linear regression models using winter as the reference season, AHEI scores were higher in spring, summer, and fall (all P values < 0.05); although significant, the variance was minimal (mean AHEI score: winter, 41.7 (standard deviation, 11.3); summer, 42.2 (standard deviation, 11.3)). Applying these findings to hypothesis-driven association analysis of diet quality and its relationship with chronic disease risk (cardiovascular disease) showed that controlling for season had no effect on the estimated hazard ratios. Although significant differences in diet quality across seasons can be detected in this population of US postmenopausal women, these differences are not substantial enough to warrant consideration in association studies of diet quality.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Estações do Ano , Saúde da Mulher , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
19.
Sleep ; 42(7)2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994175

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between sedentary time, total (total-PA), light (light-PA), moderate (MOD-PA), and vigorous (VIG-PA) physical activity with indices of sleep in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Baseline self-reported data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n = 75 074) were used in this cross-sectional analysis. Total-PA, light-PA, MOD-PA, and VIG-PA were categorized by metabolic equivalents of the activity (MET-hour [hr]/week [wk]) and were estimated using validated questionnaires. Sedentary time was categorized by hr/day and was estimated via questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between these variables and short sleep (≤6 hr/night), long sleep (≥10 hr/night), poor sleep quality, and insomnia symptoms after adjustment for age, race, socioeconomic status, body mass index, health status, depressive symptoms, smoking status, alcohol use, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Higher sedentary time (>11 hr/day) was associated with higher odds of short sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72-1.88), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.74-1.97), and insomnia symptoms (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.49-1.64). Light-PA (>0 MET-hr/wk) was associated with lower odds of short sleep (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-1.00), and higher amounts of total-PA (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.97), light-PA (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-1.00), and MOD-PA (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.97) were associated with lower odds of poor sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that higher levels of light and moderate intensity physical activity are associated with better sleep quality, whereas higher amounts of sedentary time are associated with short sleep and lower quality sleep. Future studies should investigate the directionality of these associations and potential causal pathways.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
20.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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