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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Designated Cancer Centers are required to assess and address the needs of their catchments. In rural regions, catchment areas are vast, populations small, and infrastructure for data capture limited, making analyses of cancer patterns challenging. METHODS: The four NCI-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers in the southern Rocky Mountain region formed the Four Corners Collaboration (4C2) to address these challenges. Colorectal cancer (CRC) was identified as a disease site where disparities exist. The 4C2 leaders examined how geographic and sociodemographic characteristics were correlated to stage at diagnosis and survival in the region and compared those relationships to a sample from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program. RESULTS: In 4C2, Hispanics were more likely to live in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas relative to their counterparts in the SEER program. These residency patterns were positively correlated with later stage diagnosis and higher mortality. Living in an area with high-income inequality was positively associated with mortality for Non-Hispanic whites in 4C2. In SEER, Hispanics had a slightly higher likelihood of distant stage disease, and disadvantaged socioeconomic status was associated with poor survival. CONCLUSION: CRC interventions in 4C2 will target socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, especially those with higher income inequality, to improve outcomes among Hispanics and Non-Hispanic whites. The collaboration demonstrates how bringing NCI-Designated Cancer Centers together to identify and address common population catchment issues provides opportunity for pooled analyses of small, but important populations, and thus, capitalize on synergies among researchers to reduce cancer disparities.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Short and long sleep duration and poor sleep quality are risk factors for weight gain and cancer mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sleep and weight change among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Women participating in the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed with incident breast cancer between year one and year three were included. Self-reported sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 5 h (short), 6 h, 7-8 h (optimal), and ≥ 9 h (long). Self-reported sleep quality was categorized as poor, average, and above average. Post-diagnosis weight change was the difference of weight closest to, but preceding diagnosis, and year 3 weight. We used linear regression to evaluate sleep duration and sleep quality associations with post-diagnosis weight change adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 1156 participants, 63% were weight stable after diagnosis; average weight gain post cancer diagnosis was 3.2 kg. Six percent of women reported sleeping ≤ 5 h, 26% reported 6 h, 64% reported 7-8 h, and 4% reported ≥ 9 h. There were no differences in adjusted estimates of weight change among participants with short duration (0.37 kg; 95% CI - 0.88, 1.63), or long duration (- 0.56 kg; 95% CI - 2.03, 0.90) compared to optimal duration, nor was there a difference among poor quality (- 0.51 kg; 95% CI - 1.42, 0.41) compared to above average quality. CONCLUSION: Among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors, sleep duration and quality were not associated with weight change after breast cancer diagnosis. Future studies should consider capturing change in adiposity and to expand beyond self-reported sleep.

3.
Womens Midlife Health ; 8(1): 1, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983682

RESUMO

"Race" and "ethnicity" are socially constructed terms, not based on biology - in contrast to biologic ancestry and genetic admixture - and are flexible, contested, and unstable concepts, often driven by power. Although individuals may self-identify with a given race and ethnic group, as multidimensional beings exposed to differential life influencing factors that contribute to disease risk, additional social determinants of health (SDOH) should be explored to understand the relationship of race or ethnicity to health. Potential health effects of structural racism, defined as "the structures, policies, practices, and norms resulting in differential access to goods, services, and opportunities of society by "race," have been largely ignored in medical research. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was expected to enroll a racially and ethnically diverse cohort of older women at 40 U.S. clinical centers between 1993 and 1998; yet, key information on the racial and ethnic make-up of the WHI cohort of 161,808 women was limited until a 2020-2021 Task Force was charged by the WHI Steering Committee to better characterize the WHI cohort and develop recommendations for WHI investigators who want to include "race" and/or "ethnicity" in papers and presentations. As the lessons learned are of relevance to most cohorts, the essence of the WHI Race and Ethnicity Language and Data Interpretation Guide is presented in this paper. Recommendations from the WHI Race and Ethnicity Language and Data Interpretation Guide include: Studies should be designed to include all populations and researchers should actively, purposefully and with cultural-relevance, commit to recruiting a diverse sample; Researchers should collect robust data on race, ethnicity and SDOH variables that may intersect with participant identities, such as immigration status, country of origin, acculturation, current residence and neighborhood, religion; Authors should use appropriate terminology, based on a participant's self-identified "race" and "ethnicity", and provide clear rationale, including a conceptual framework, for including race and ethnicity in the analytic plan; Researchers should employ appropriate analytical methods, including mixed-methods, to study the relationship of these sociocultural variables to health; Authors should address how representative study participants are of the population to which results might apply, such as by age, race and ethnicity.

4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(1): 28-38, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932888

RESUMO

The Breast Cancer Weight Loss (BWEL) trial is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine whether weight loss after a breast cancer diagnosis can reduce the risk of cancer recurrence in women with overweight or obesity. The BWEL trial will compare the efficacy of a telephone-based weight-loss intervention plus health education materials versus health education materials alone on invasive disease-free survival in 3,181 women with stage II or III breast cancer and BMI > 27 kg/m2 . This report provides a detailed description of the goals and methods of the lifestyle intervention and the evidence supporting the intervention used in the BWEL trial. The intervention's primary goal for participants is to achieve and maintain a weight loss ≥ 10% of baseline weight through increased physical activity and caloric restriction. The evidence supporting the diet, physical activity, and behavioral components of this telephone-based weight-loss intervention, as well as strategies to promote participant engagement and retention, is described. The intervention is provided through 42 sessions delivered by trained health coaches over a 2-year period. If the BWEL lifestyle intervention is successful in improving cancer outcomes, then weight loss will be incorporated into the care of thousands of breast cancer patients.

5.
Southwest J Pulm Crit Care ; 23(5): 129-137, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900389

RESUMO

To examine how sleep quality and sleep duration affect caloric intake among those experiencing involuntary job loss. Methods: Adequate sleep and self reported dietary recall data from the Assessing Daily Activity Patterns through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study was analysed. Primary sleep indices used were total sleep time, time spent in bed after final awakening, and sleep quality as measured by the Daily Sleep Diary (DSD). Mean Energy consumption (MEC) was the primary nutritional index. Secondary indices included diet quality using the Health Eating Index 2015 (HEI), and self-reported intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats. Results: The study participants were comprised mainly of women (61%) and non-Hispanic white. The participants had at least 2 years of college education and mean body mass index of 30.2±8.08 (kg/m 2). The average time in bed was 541.8 (9.0 hrs) ±77.55 minutes and total sleep time was 461.1 (7.6 hrs) ±56.49 minutes. Mean sleep efficiency was 91±6%, self-reported sleep quality was 2.40±0.57 (0-4 scale, 4 = very good), and minutes earlier than planned morning awakening were 14.36±24.15. Mean HEI score was 47.41±10.92. Although the MEC was below national average for both men and women, male sex was associated with higher MEC. In a fully adjusted model sleep quality was positively associated with MEC. Conclusion: Daily overall assessments of sleep quality among recently unemployed persons were positively associated with mean energy consumption. Additionally, the diet quality of unemployed persons was found to be unhealthier than the average American and consistent with the relationship between poor socioeconomic status and lower diet quality.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960058

RESUMO

Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most common obesity-related cancer death among women in the U.S. Insulin resistance, which worsens in the setting of obesity, is associated with higher breast cancer incidence and mortality. Maladaptive eating patterns driving insulin resistance represent a key modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that time-restricted feeding paradigms (TRF) improve cancer-related metabolic risk factors; however, more flexible approaches could be more feasible and effective. In this exploratory, secondary analysis, we identified participants following a low-glucose eating pattern (LGEP), defined as consuming energy when glucose levels are at or below average fasting levels, as an alternative to TRF. Results show that following an LGEP regimen for at least 40% of reported eating events improves insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and other cancer-related serum biomarkers. The magnitude of serum biomarkers changes observed here has previously been shown to favorably modulate benign breast tissue in women with overweight and obesity who are at risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. By comparison, the observed effects of LGEP were similar to results from previously published TRF studies in similar populations. These preliminary findings support further testing of LGEP as an alternative to TRF and a postmenopausal breast cancer prevention strategy. However, results should be interpreted with caution, given the exploratory nature of analyses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações
7.
Int J Womens Health ; 13: 929-937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703322

RESUMO

Purpose: In the United States, Hispanics are more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Annually, 250,000 to 1 million women are diagnosed with a precursor to CC. The aim of this study was to assess whether Hispanics have a higher prevalence of cervical dysplasia compared to Non-Hispanics Whites among a population of low-income women. Patients and Methods: We analyzed the results of 10,911 cervical cytology tests administered between 2003 and 2016 that were funded through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) program for low-income, uninsured women entitled the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). In the state of Arizona, the program is called the Well Women HealthCheck Program (WWHP). Logistic regression was used to identify increased risk of dysplasia, including low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL/ICC), and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess increased likelihood for LSIL and HSIL/ICC as separate categories. Results: In the crude analysis, Hispanic ethnicity was modestly associated with higher prevalence of LSIL (odds ratio (OR)=1.39, 95% CI=1.01-1.91), but this association was not statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. However, in the final models, lower income was independently associated with LSIL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.55, 95% CI=1.30-1.44), while smoking (aOR=2.88, 95% CI=1.21-6.84) and no history of Pap test within five years (aOR=3.54, 95% CI=1.61-6.99) were independently associated with HSIL. Conclusion: After adjusting for confounding in a sample of low-income women with comparable Pap screening rates, ethnicity was not associated with greater prevalence of abnormal pap smears. However, other variables were independently associated with LSIL and HSIL. The higher proportion of LSIL cases among lower income individuals compared to those with higher incomes, and the higher proportion of HSIL cases observed among those screened least regularly stresses the importance of programs like WWHP: programs that target low-income, uninsured women. These programs help save lives.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(12): 2217-2226, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are formed through nonenzymatic glycation of free amino groups in proteins or lipid. They are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and their accumulation in the body is implicated in chronic disease morbidity and mortality. We examined the association between postdiagnosis dietary Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-AGE intake and mortality among women diagnosed with breast cancer. METHODS: Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) between 1993 and 1998 and followed up until death or censoring through March 2018. We included 2,023 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer during follow-up who completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) after diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of association between tertiles of postdiagnosis CML-AGE intake and mortality risk from all causes, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: After a median 15.1 years of follow-up, 630 deaths from all causes were reported (193 were breast cancer-related, and 129 were cardiovascular disease-related). Postdiagnosis CML-AGE intake was associated with all-cause (HRT3vsT1, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74), breast cancer (HRT3vsT1, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.98-2.24), and cardiovascular disease (HRT3vsT1, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.09-3.32) mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of AGEs was associated with higher risk of major causes of mortality among postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer. IMPACT: Our findings suggest that dietary AGEs may contribute to the risk of mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Further prospective studies examining dietary AGEs in breast cancer outcomes and intervention studies targeting dietary AGE reduction are needed to confirm our findings.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 626428, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485209

RESUMO

Introduction: Mexican-origin women suffer disproportionate rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and research on how to tailor NAFLD treatment interventions for this population is lacking. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and information sources related to NAFLD in a community-based sample of Mexican-origin women. Methods: This study employed a convergent parallel mixed-methods approach and consisted of a brief questionnaire (n = 194) and interviews (n = 26) among Mexican-origin women recruited from community-based settings including health fairs, churches, and community events. Participants were eligible if they identified as Mexican-origin, had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were 18-64 years of age, had the ability to speak, read, and write in English and/or Spanish, and provided informed consent. A purposeful sampling approach was used to recruit a subset of women (n = 26) with confirmed liver steatosis indicative of NAFLD (controlled attenuation parameter ≥280 dB/m) who completed the questionnaire. The twenty-six participants then completed one on one, in-depth semi-structured interviews to ascertain their knowledge and understanding of NAFLD. Results: Qualitative findings revealed low awareness of risk factors for liver disease, NAFLD specifically. Knowledge of liver disease tended to center around cirrhosis, a condition many participants reported was prevalent in their families. Quantitative and qualitative findings both found information sources for NAFLD and liver disease to be predominantly friends, family, and media. Interviews revealed a misperception related to NAFLD risk that liver disease was only caused by high alcohol intake. Conclusion: Low levels of NAFLD awareness and knowledge warrant the need for greater efforts to educate the general population, perhaps by integrating NAFLD education into existing type 2 diabetes educational campaigns and prevention interventions. Additionally, further elicitation research conducted in Mexican-origin adults is needed to elucidate key factors within behavioral-theory constructs that can be targeted in future interventions tailored to this unique population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1553, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African American adults suffer disproportionately from obesity-related chronic diseases, particularly at younger ages. In order to close the gap in these health disparities, efforts to develop and test culturally appropriate interventions are critical. METHODS: A PRISMA-guided systematic review was conducted to identify and critically evaluate health promotion interventions for African Americans delivered in barbershops and hair salons. Subject headings and keywords used to search for synonyms of 'barbershops,' 'hair salons,' and 'African Americans' identified all relevant articles (from inception onwards) from six databases: Academic Search Ultimate, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science (Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies for adult (> 18 years) African Americans delivered in barbershops and hair salons that evaluated interventions focused on risk reduction/management of obesity-related chronic disease: cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes were included. Analyses were conducted in 2020. RESULTS: Fourteen studies met criteria for inclusion. Ten studies hosted interventions in a barbershop setting while four took place in hair salons. There was substantial variability among interventions and outcomes with cancer the most commonly studied disease state (n = 7; 50%), followed by hypertension (n = 5; 35.7%). Most reported outcomes were focused on behavior change (n = 10) with only four studies reporting clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion interventions delivered in barbershops/hair salons show promise for meeting cancer screening recommendations and managing hypertension in African Americans. More studies are needed that focus on diabetes and obesity and utilize the hair salon as a site for intervention delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020159050 .


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357819

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and health beliefs among cancer survivors and identify potential differences between adolescent and young adult (AYA) and adult/older cancer survivors. Methods: Cancer survivors (n = 1864) participating in the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) provided responses regarding diet and PA and selected health beliefs related to general health and cancer (self-efficacy, attitudinal belief, normative belief, risk belief, intention, and self-regulation). Health belief associations with diet and PA were assessed using adjusted logistic regression models, and multiple linear regression was used for a computed Modified American Cancer Society Adherence score (0-10, higher score indicates higher adherence to recommendations); age at diagnosis was evaluated as a potential effect modifier. Results: Health behaviors between AYA and adult/older were not significantly different; a greater percent of AYA met fruit and resistance PA recommendations. Higher health self-efficacy was associated with meeting aerobic PA recommendations (odds ratio [OR]: 1.71; confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.13-2.60; p = 0.01). Higher intention was inversely related to meeting vegetable recommendation (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.97; p = 0.04). Self-regulation was associated with higher odds of meeting each recommendation. Self-efficacy and self-regulation were associated with greater adherence (ß = 0.52 ± 0.16, p = 0.001; ß = 1.21 ± 0.24, p < 0.0001, respectively). Age at diagnosis was not an effect modifier. Conclusion: Health behaviors and beliefs among AYA and adult/older are similar. Self-efficacy and self-regulation through engagement with a mobile app support adoption of diet and PA recommendations among HINTS respondents. Future interventions should consider mechanisms to promote self-efficacy and self-regulation to maximize diet and PA behaviors in cancer survivors.

12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 190(1): 69-78, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is a known risk factor for post-menopausal breast cancer and may increase risk for triple negative breast cancer in premenopausal women. Intervention strategies are clearly needed to reduce obesity-associated breast cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a Phase II double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of metformin in overweight/obese premenopausal women with components of metabolic syndrome to assess the potential of metformin for primary breast cancer prevention. Eligible participants were randomized to receive metformin (850 mg BID, n = 76) or placebo (n = 75) for 12 months. Outcomes included breast density, assessed by fat/water MRI with change in percent breast density as the primary endpoint, anthropometric measures, and intervention feasibility. RESULTS: Seventy-six percent in the metformin arm and 83% in the placebo arm (p = 0.182) completed the 12-month intervention. Adherence to study agent was high with more than 80% of participants taking ≥ 80% assigned pills. The most common adverse events reported in the metformin arm were gastrointestinal in nature and subsided over time. Compared to placebo, metformin intervention led to a significant reduction in waist circumference (p < 0.001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.019). Compared to placebo, metformin did not change percent breast density and dense breast volume but led to a numerical but not significant decrease in non-dense breast volume (p = 0.070). CONCLUSION: We conclude that metformin intervention resulted in favorable changes in anthropometric measures of adiposity and a borderline decrease in non-dense breast volume in women with metabolic dysregulation. More research is needed to understand the impact of metformin on breast cancer risk reduction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02028221. Registered January 7, 2014, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02028221.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Síndrome Metabólica , Metformina , Adiposidade , Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 8714873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457010

RESUMO

Background: Obesity rates in Hispanic women residing in the United States (U.S.) are disproportionately high, increasing the risk of obesity-related disease and mortality. The effectiveness of interventions targeting weight loss in this population remains largely unknown. Purpose: The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate the evidence related to the effectiveness of weight loss interventions conducted among U.S. Hispanic women and provide guidance for future research. Methods: Bibliographic databases (n = 10, from each database's inception to July 2, 2019) were searched using the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies with weight change outcomes were included. Results were described in a narrative synthesis. Results: 5,423 articles were assessed for eligibility based on inclusion criteria; 15 studies were included in the final review. Nine trials were RCTs and six were quasi-experimental studies; all but six were pilot studies. Most studies recruited overweight or obese women with no existing medical conditions and did not follow participants beyond the intervention. All trials were delivered in-person. Intervention strategies and content and weight change outcomes were highly variable. Conclusions: RCTs with statistically powered sample sizes are needed to robustly test the effects of weight loss interventions in this population.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Programas de Redução de Peso , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estados Unidos
14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106524, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most Latina breast cancer survivors do not meet diet and physical activity (PA) guidelines for cancer survivors and effective lifestyle interventions to adopt and maintain these recommendations are limited, especially among underserved populations. Here we describe the design, methods and enrollment of a 2 × 2 factorial-designed trial testing the separate effects of the ¡Mi Vida Saludable! (My Healthy Life!) intervention program on changes in diet and PA behaviors among Latina breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Latinas with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer, no evidence of recurrent/metastatic disease, and > 90 days post-treatment were primarily identified via cancer registries and physician referral. Participants were randomized to four arms: 1) 4 weeks of in-person group sessions plus 11 months of eHealth communication, 2) in-person group sessions alone, 3) eHealth alone, or 4) control. All participants received a Fitbit to self-monitor PA. Assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months include diet, PA, anthropometrics, predictors and mediators of behavior change, psychosocial and quality of life outcomes, and blood draw. RESULTS: Of 884 women screened between January 2016 and September 2018, 27% were eligible. Primary reasons for ineligibility included not being willing/able to participate due to work/life responsibilities, health reasons, or transportation. Of 241 eligible women, 167 completed baseline assessment and enrolled. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully enrolled a diverse group of breast cancer survivors representing more than 15 Latin American nationalities to a diet and physical activity trial. If effective, the ¡Mi Vida Saludable! program can be implemented by community groups and medical centers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02780271, registered May 2016.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280991

RESUMO

Mexican-origin (MO) adults have among the highest rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) placing them at increased risk of liver cancer. Evidence suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PNPLA3 gene, rs738409, increases the risk and progression of NAFLD and may modify the relationship between certain dietary factors and liver steatosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether interactions exist between specific dietary factors and rs738409 genotype status among MO adults in relation to levels of liver steatosis. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a sample of 288 MO adults. Participants completed at least two 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple linear regression was performed assuming an additive genetic model to test the main effects of several dietary variables on levels of hepatic steatosis, adjusting for covariates. To test for effect modification, the product of the genotype and the dietary variable was included as a covariate in the model. No significant association between dietary intake and level of hepatic steatosis was observed, nor any significant gene-diet interactions. Our findings suggest that dietary intake may have the same magnitude of protective or deleterious effect even among MO adults with high genetic risk for NAFLD and NAFLD progression.


Assuntos
Dieta , Lipase , Proteínas de Membrana , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Fígado , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , México/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 22: 100768, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997460

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the study protocol of SWOG S1820, a trial of the Altering Intake, Managing Symptoms intervention for bowel dysfunction in survivors of Rectal Cancer (AIMS-RC). Design: SWOG S1820 is a multi-site, randomized trial of 94 post-treatment survivors of rectal cancer, comparing the intervention and attention control arms. Setting: Affiliated institutions of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) and the National Clinical Trial Network (NCTN). Participants: Survivors of rectal cancer who are between 6 and 24 months after treatment completion. Intervention: AIMS-RC is a 17-week, 10 session telephone coaching program to help survivors of rectal cancer track their symptoms and improve their diets for better health and bowel function. It includes telephone-based coaching, resource manual, and personalized text/email messaging for motivation in between the telephone sessions. Main outcome measures: Bowel function, low anterior resection syndrome score, quality of life (QOL), dietary quality, motivation, self-efficacy, positive/negative affect, feasibility, adherence, retention, acceptability. Analysis: Thirty-seven participants per arm (74 total) provide 80% power to detect this 0.5 standard deviation effect size, based on a two-sample t-test with a 1-sided alpha = 0.1. A total of 94 randomized participants will be accrued to account for 7% ineligibility and 15% attrition at 6 months.

17.
Obes Sci Pract ; 7(2): 208-216, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841890

RESUMO

Objective: Unemployment is an established risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have examined obesity-related health behavior after involuntary job loss specifically. Job loss confers a disruption in daily time structure that could lead to negative metabolic and psychological outcomes through chronobiological mechanisms. This study examines whether individuals with unstable social rhythms after involuntary job loss present with higher abdominal adiposity than individuals with more consistent social rhythms and whether this relationship varies as a function of depressive symptoms. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline data (n = 191) from the ongoing Assessing Daily Activity Patterns in occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study were analyzed using linear regression techniques. Participants completed the Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM) daily over 2 weeks. They also completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and participated in standardized waist circumference measurements (cm). Results: A significant interaction emerged between SRM and BDI-II demonstrating that less consistent social rhythms were associated with larger waist circumference at lower levels of depressive symptoms. Additional exploratory analyses demonstrated a positive association between the number of daily activities performed alone and waist circumference when controlling for symptoms of depression. Conclusion: These findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between social rhythm stability and abdominal adiposity in adults who have recently, involuntarily lost their jobs. Results highlight the moderating role of depressive symptoms on daily routine in studies of metabolic health. Future prospective analysis is necessary to examine causal pathways.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1229-1240, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is increasing in countries with high consumption of Western dietary patterns and rising obesity rates. We examined the hypothesis that specific dietary patterns reflecting hyperinsulinemia (empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia; EDIH), systemic inflammation (empirical dietary inflammatory pattern; EDIP), and postprandial glycemia [glycemic index (GI); glycemic load (GL)] are associated with pancreatic cancer risk, including the potential modifying role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We calculated dietary scores from baseline (1993-1998) food frequency questionnaires among 129,241 women, 50-79 years-old in the Women's Health Initiative. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for pancreatic cancer risk. RESULTS: During a median 19.9 years of follow-up, 850 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. We observed no association between dietary scores and pancreatic cancer risk overall. However, risk was elevated among participants with longstanding T2D (present >3 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis) for EDIH. For each 1 SD increment in dietary score, the HRs (95% CIs) were: EDIH, 1.33 (1.06-1.66); EDIP, 1.26 (0.98-1.63); GI, 1.26 (0.96-1.67); and GL, 1.23 (0.96-1.57); although interactions were not significant (all P interaction >0.05). Separately, we observed inverse associations between GI [0.86 (0.76-0.96), P interaction = 0.0068] and GL [0.83 (0.73-0.93), P interaction = 0.0075], with pancreatic cancer risk among normal-weight women. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no overall association between the dietary patterns evaluated and pancreatic cancer risk, although women with T2D appeared to have greater cancer risk. IMPACT: The elevated risk for hyperinsulinemic diets among women with longstanding T2D and the inverse association among normal-weight women warrant further examination.

19.
Front Sociol ; 6: 611972, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869562

RESUMO

The goal of the American Indian Youth Wellness Camp in a Box was to engage, educate and empower families to improve their health and overall well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Camp in a Box was a 9-week program, inclusive of a 1-week intensive camp component followed by an 8-week booster component with content focused on nutrition, mental health and physical activity education. The Camp in a Box is a Tribal/Urban Indian-University partnership, and materials were developed to replace an existing weeklong residential camp and to comply with social distancing guidelines. Fourteen American Indian families from Tribal/Urban Indian communities in the southwestern United States participated (36 children aged 2-18 years; 32 adults). The intensive camp week included daily materials for families to complete together, Monday through Friday. Materials were provided for approximately 4 h of activities per day. The booster sessions began after camp week and included approximately 4 h of supplementary activities designed to be completed at any time most convenient for the family over the course of the week. Activities were designed to encourage interaction among family members with materials and supplies for parents and youth to participate. Self-reported outcomes suggested that families changed their eating habits to include more vegetables, less sweets and junk food. Parents reported an increase in family physical activity and that the activities brought the family closer together. Our Camp in a Box program was feasible and well-received until school began. During camp week, 100% of recruited families participated; at Booster Week 8, ten families (71%) remained enrolled and active. Camp in a Box is a feasible alternative to residential camps for promotion of health behaviors associated with metabolic disease prevention among American Indian families. In contrast to residential camps for youth, Camp in a Box offers an opportunity to engage the entire family in health promotion activities.

20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1083-1092, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876183

RESUMO

The dietary modification (DM) clinical trial, within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), studied a low-fat dietary pattern intervention that included guidance to increase vegetables, fruit, and grains. This study was motivated in part from uncertainty about the reliability of observational studies examining the association between dietary fat and chronic disease risk by using self-reported dietary data. In addition to this large trial, which had breast and colorectal cancer as its primary outcomes, a substantial biomarker research effort was initiated midway in the WHI program to contribute to nutritional epidemiology research more broadly. Here we review and update findings from the DM trial and from the WHI nutritional biomarker studies and examine implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. The WHI included the randomized controlled DM trial (n = 48,835) and a prospective cohort observational (OS) study (n = 93,676), both among postmenopausal US women, aged 50-79 y when enrolled during 1993-1998. Also reviewed is a nutrition and physical activity assessment study in a subset of 450 OS participants (2007-2009) and a related controlled feeding study among 153 WHI participants (2010-2014). Long-term follow-up in the DM trial provides evidence for intervention-related reductions in breast cancer mortality, diabetes requiring insulin, and coronary artery disease in the subset of normotensive healthy women, without observed adverse effects or changes in all-cause mortality. Studies of intake biomarkers, and of biomarker-calibrated intake, suggest important associations of total energy intake and macronutrient dietary composition with the risk for major chronic diseases among postmenopausal women. Collectively these studies argue for a nutrition epidemiology research agenda that includes major efforts in nutritional biomarker development, and in the application of biomarkers combined with self-reported dietary data in disease association analyses. We expect such efforts to yield novel disease association findings and to inform disease prevention approaches for potential testing in dietary intervention trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Saúde da Mulher , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
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