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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499528

RESUMO

Background: Whether health outcomes of menopausal estrogen therapy differ between women with and without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is unknown. Objective: To examine estrogen therapy outcomes by BSO status, with additional stratification by 10-year age groups. Design: Subgroup analyses of the randomized Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00000611). Setting: 40 U.S. clinical centers. Participants: 9939 women aged 50 to 79 years with prior hysterectomy and known oophorectomy status. Intervention: Conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) (0.625 mg/d) or placebo for a median of 7.2 years. Measurements: Incidence of coronary heart disease and invasive breast cancer (the trial's 2 primary end points), all-cause mortality, and a "global index" (these end points plus stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, and hip fracture) during the intervention phase and 18-year cumulative follow-up. Results: The effects of CEE alone did not differ significantly according to BSO status. However, age modified the effect of CEE in women with prior BSO. During the intervention phase, CEE was significantly associated with a net adverse effect (hazard ratio for global index, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.86]) in older women (aged ≥70 years), but the global index was not elevated in younger women (P trend by age = 0.016). During cumulative follow-up, women aged 50 to 59 years with BSO had a treatment-associated reduction in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.68 [CI, 0.48 to 0.96]), whereas older women with BSO had no reduction (P trend by age = 0.034). There was no significant association between CEE and outcomes among women with conserved ovaries, regardless of age. Limitations: The timing of CEE in relation to BSO varied; several comparisons were made without adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: The effects of CEE did not differ by BSO status in the overall cohort, but some findings varied by age. Among women with prior BSO, in those aged 70 years or older, CEE led to adverse effects during the treatment period, whereas women randomly assigned to CEE before age 60 seemed to derive mortality benefit over the long term. Primary Funding Source: The WHI program is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Wyeth Ayerst donated the study drugs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fiber-based prebiotic supplements are marketed for maintaining bowel health and promoting beneficial gut bacteria. However, the association between prebiotic supplement use and colorectal cancer risk and mortality is unknown. METHODS: The association between prebiotic use and colorectal cancer risk and mortality was evaluated in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative study. Self-reported prebiotic use was documented at study enrollment. Adjudicated colorectal cancer cases and mortality were captured using medical and death records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR related to prebiotic use and colorectal cancer risk and mortality. RESULTS: In total, 3,032 colorectal cancer cases were diagnosed during an average 15.4 years of follow-up. Overall, 3.7% of women used a prebiotic with psyllium, the major fiber type. Use of any prebiotic supplement was not associated with colorectal cancer risk or mortality. The type of prebiotic supplement (none vs. insoluble or soluble) was not associated with colorectal cancer risk; however, use of insoluble fiber prebiotics compared with none was associated with higher colorectal cancer mortality [HR, 2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-5.90; P = 0.007]. Likelihood ratio tests indicated no significant interactions between prebiotic use and other colorectal cancer risk factors, including metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Prebiotic fiber supplement use was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Insoluble, but not soluble, prebiotic fiber use was associated with higher colorectal cancer mortality. These findings do not support the promotion of prebiotic fiber supplements to reduce colorectal cancer risk or colorectal cancer mortality. IMPACT: Further investigation is warranted for findings regarding insoluble prebiotic fiber and higher colorectal cancer mortality in postmenopausal women.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

4.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1565-1574, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preferred macronutrient dietary composition, and the health consequences of dietary fat reduction specifically, have been debated for decades. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of long-term health outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) trial. OBJECTIVE: The DM trial aimed to examine whether a low-fat dietary pattern would reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and, secondarily, coronary heart disease (CHD), with various other health outcomes also considered. METHODS: The DM trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 40 centers in the US, among 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y with baseline intake of ≥32% energy from fat. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary pattern intervention group or to a usual-diet comparison group, during 1993-1998. Intervention goals were to reduce fat intake from ∼35% to 20% of total energy, in conjunction with increasing vegetables and fruit to 5 servings/d and grains to 6 servings/d. RESULTS: Over an 8.5-y (median) intervention period, intervention and comparison group differences included lower fat by 8-10%, and higher carbohydrate by 8-10%, of total energy, in conjunction with higher consumption of vegetables, fruit, and grains. Time-to-outcome analyses did not show significant differences between intervention and comparison groups for invasive breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or CHD, either over the intervention period or over longer-term cumulative follow-up. Additional analyses showed significant intervention group benefits related to breast cancer, CHD, and diabetes, without adverse effects. Over a 19.6-y (median) follow-up period, HRs (95% CIs) were 0.84 (0.74, 0.96) for breast cancer followed by death, and 0.87 (0.77, 0.98) for diabetes requiring insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in dietary fat with corresponding increase in vegetables, fruit, and grains led to benefits related to breast cancer, CHD, and diabetes, without adverse effects, among healthy postmenopausal US women.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1304-1310, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081854

RESUMO

We evaluated the role of seasonality in self-reported diet quality among postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). A total of 156,911 women completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at enrollment (1993-1998). FFQ responses reflected intake over the prior 3-month period, and seasons were defined as spring (March-May), summer (June-August), fall (September-November), and winter (December-February). FFQ data were used to calculate the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), a measure of diet quality that has a score range of 2.5-87.5, with higher scores representing better diet quality. In multivariable linear regression models using winter as the reference season, AHEI scores were higher in spring, summer, and fall (all P values < 0.05); although significant, the variance was minimal (mean AHEI score: winter, 41.7 (standard deviation, 11.3); summer, 42.2 (standard deviation, 11.3)). Applying these findings to hypothesis-driven association analysis of diet quality and its relationship with chronic disease risk (cardiovascular disease) showed that controlling for season had no effect on the estimated hazard ratios. Although significant differences in diet quality across seasons can be detected in this population of US postmenopausal women, these differences are not substantial enough to warrant consideration in association studies of diet quality.

6.
Sleep ; 42(7)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994175

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between sedentary time, total (total-PA), light (light-PA), moderate (MOD-PA), and vigorous (VIG-PA) physical activity with indices of sleep in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Baseline self-reported data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (n = 75 074) were used in this cross-sectional analysis. Total-PA, light-PA, MOD-PA, and VIG-PA were categorized by metabolic equivalents of the activity (MET-hour [hr]/week [wk]) and were estimated using validated questionnaires. Sedentary time was categorized by hr/day and was estimated via questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between these variables and short sleep (≤6 hr/night), long sleep (≥10 hr/night), poor sleep quality, and insomnia symptoms after adjustment for age, race, socioeconomic status, body mass index, health status, depressive symptoms, smoking status, alcohol use, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Higher sedentary time (>11 hr/day) was associated with higher odds of short sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72-1.88), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.74-1.97), and insomnia symptoms (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.49-1.64). Light-PA (>0 MET-hr/wk) was associated with lower odds of short sleep (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-1.00), and higher amounts of total-PA (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.97), light-PA (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-1.00), and MOD-PA (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86-0.97) were associated with lower odds of poor sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that higher levels of light and moderate intensity physical activity are associated with better sleep quality, whereas higher amounts of sedentary time are associated with short sleep and lower quality sleep. Future studies should investigate the directionality of these associations and potential causal pathways.

7.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent of error present in self-reported weight data in the Women's Health Initiative, variables that may be associated with error, and to develop methods to reduce any identified error. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Forty clinical centres in the USA.ParticipantsWomen (n 75 336) participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and women (n 6236) participating in the WHI Long Life Study (LLS) with self-reported and measured weight collected about 20 years later (2013-2014). RESULTS: The correlation between self-reported and measured weights was 0·97. On average, women under-reported their weight by about 2 lb (0·91 kg). The discrepancies varied by age, race/ethnicity, education and BMI. Compared with normal-weight women, underweight women over-reported their weight by 3·86 lb (1·75 kg) and obese women under-reported their weight by 4·18 lb (1·90 kg) on average. The higher the degree of excess weight, the greater the under-reporting of weight. Adjusting self-reported weight for an individual's age, race/ethnicity and education yielded an identical average weight to that measured. CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between self-reported and measured weights in the WHI are high. Discrepancies varied by different sociodemographic characteristics, especially an individual's BMI. Correction of self-reported weight for individual characteristics could improve the accuracy of assessment of obesity status in postmenopausal women.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention in Hispanic adults. DESIGN: Eligible individuals identified as Hispanic, were 18-64 years old and had BMI 30·0-50·0 kg/m2. Participants were randomized 2:2:1 to one of three beverages: Mediterranean lemonade (ML), green tea (GT) or flavoured water control (FW). After a 2-week washout period, participants were asked to consume 32 oz (946 ml) of study beverage daily for 6 weeks and avoid other sources of tea, citrus, juice and sweetened beverages; water was permissible. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks to assess primary and secondary efficacy outcomes. SETTING: Tucson, AZ, USA.ParticipantsFifty-two participants were recruited over 6 months; fifty were randomized (twenty-one ML, nineteen GT, ten FW). Study population mean (sd) age 44·6 (sd 10·2) years, BMI 35·9 (4·6) kg/m2; 78 % female. RESULTS: Forty-four (88 %) completed the 8-week assessment. Self-reported adherence was high. No significant change (95 % CI) in total cholesterol (mg/dl) from baseline was shown -1·7 (-14·2, 10·9), -3·9 (-17·2, 9·4) and -13·2 (-30·2, 3·8) for ML, GT and FW, respectively. Mean change in HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) -2·3 (-5·3, 0·7; ML), -1·0 (-4·2, 2·2; GT), -3·9 (-8·0, 0·2; FW) and LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 0·2 (-11·3, 11·8; ML), 0·5 (-11·4, 12·4; GT), -9·8 (-25·0, 5·4; FW) were also non-significant. Fasting glucose (mg/dl) increased significantly by 5·2 (2·6, 7·9; ML) and 3·3 (0·58, 6·4; GT). No significant change in HbA1c was demonstrated. Due to the small sample size, potential confounders and effect modifiers were not investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and retention figures indicate that a larger-scale trial is feasible; however, favourable changes in cardiometabolic biomarkers were not demonstrated.

10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(11): e11170, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New methods for assessing diet in research are being developed to address the limitations of traditional dietary assessment methods. Mobile device-assisted ecological momentary diet assessment (mEMDA) is a new dietary assessment method that has not yet been optimized and has the potential to minimize recall biases and participant burden while maximizing ecological validity. There have been limited efforts to characterize the use of mEMDA in behavioral research settings. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to summarize mEMDA protocols used in research to date, to characterize key aspects of these assessment approaches, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mEMDA compared with the traditional dietary assessment methods as well as implications for future mEMDA research. METHODS: Studies that used mobile devices and described mEMDA protocols to assess dietary intake were included. Data were extracted according to Preferred Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Cochrane guidelines and then synthesized narratively. RESULTS: The review included 20 studies with unique mEMDA protocols. Of these, 50% (10/20) used participant-initiated reports of intake at eating events (event-contingent mEMDA), and 50% (10/20) used researcher-initiated prompts requesting that participants report recent dietary intake (signal-contingent mEMDA). A majority of the study protocols (60%, 12/20) enabled participants to use mobile phones to report dietary data. Event-contingent mEMDA protocols most commonly assessed diet in real time, used dietary records for data collection (60%, 6/10), and provided estimates of energy and nutrient intake (60%, 6/10). All signal-contingent mEMDA protocols used a near real-time recall approach with unannounced (ie, random) abbreviated diet surveys. Most signal-contingent protocols (70%, 7/10) assessed the frequency with which (targeted) foods or food groups were consumed. Relatively few (30%, 6/20) studies compared mEMDA with the traditional dietary assessment methods. CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrates that mEMDA has the potential to reduce participant burden and recall bias, thus advancing the field beyond current dietary assessment methods while maximizing ecological validity.

11.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; (38): 88-100, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231343

RESUMO

Improved cancer treatments and cancer detection methods are not likely to completely eradicate the burden of cancer. Primary prevention of cancer is a logical strategy to use to control cancer while also seeking novel treatments and earlier detection. Lifestyle modification strategies to improve primary prevention and risk reduction for the development of cancer include choosing a healthy diet with an emphasis on plant sources, maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, being physically active, regularly using sunscreen and wearing protective clothing, limiting sun exposure during the hours of 10 AM to 2 PM, avoiding indoor tanning, and reducing or eliminating alcohol use. In addition to continued use of ongoing education of the public, health care providers, and cancer support communities, other policy and public health efforts should be pursued as well. Examples of supported and successful policy approaches are included in this article, including efforts to limit indoor tanning and improve community-wide interventions to reduce ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as to formally support various alcohol policy strategies including increasing alcohol taxes, reducing alcohol outlet density, improving clinical screening for alcohol use disorders, and limiting youth exposure to alcohol marketing and advertising. These prevention strategies are expected to have the largest impact on the development of melanoma as well as breast, colorectal, head and neck, liver, and esophageal cancers. The impact of these strategies as secondary prevention is less well understood. Areas of additional needed research and implementation are also highlighted. Future areas of needed research are the effects of these modifications after the diagnosis of cancer (as secondary prevention).


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Prevenção Secundária , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Dieta , Exercício , Guias como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Luz Solar
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(9): 855-862, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition strongly associated with the risk of numerous cancers. We examined the association between circulating high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a biomarker of inflammation and strong correlate of obesity, and the risk of three understudied obesity-related cancers in postmenopausal women: ovarian cancer, kidney cancer, and multiple myeloma. METHODS: Participants were 24,205 postmenopausal women who had measurements of baseline serum hsCRP (mg/L) in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) CVD Biomarkers Cohort, a collection of four sub-studies within the WHI. Incident cancers were identified over 17.9 years of follow-up (n = 153 ovarian, n = 110 kidney, n = 137 multiple myeloma). hsCRP was categorized into study-specific quartiles. Adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of baseline hsCRP with the risk of these cancers. RESULTS: There was no clear association between baseline hsCRP concentration and the risk of ovarian cancer (quartile 4 vs. 1: HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.56-1.37), kidney cancer (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.56-1.61), or multiple myeloma (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.52-1.29). HRs for 1 mg/L increases in hsCRP also approximated the null value for each cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that elevated CRP is not a major risk factor for these obesity-related cancers (ovarian or kidney cancers, or multiple myeloma) among postmenopausal women. Given the importance of elucidating the mechanisms underlying the association of obesity with cancer risk, further analysis with expanded biomarkers and in larger or pooled prospective cohorts is warranted.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(10): 2126-2135, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868784

RESUMO

The inconsistent findings from epidemiologic studies relating total sugars (TS) consumption to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk may be partly due to measurement error in self-reported intake. Using regression calibration equations developed based on the predictive biomarker for TS and recovery biomarker for energy, we examined the association of TS with T2D and CVD risk, before and after dietary calibration, in 82,254 postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. After up to 16 years of follow-up (1993-2010), 6,621 T2D and 5,802 CVD incident cases were identified. The hazard ratio for T2D per 20% increase in calibrated TS was 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.15) in multivariable energy substitution, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.18) in energy partition models. Multivariable hazard ratios for total CVD were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.09) from energy substitution, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.04) from energy partition models. Uncalibrated TS generated a statistically significant inverse association with T2D and total CVD risk in multivariable energy substitution and energy partition models. The lack of conclusive findings from our calibrated analyses may be due to the low explanatory power of the calibration equations for TS, which could have led to incomplete deattenuation of the risk estimates.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912394

RESUMO

Background: Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest a protective role for vitamin D in colorectal carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations that minimize risk are unknown. Current Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D guidance is based solely on bone health. Methods: We pooled participant-level data from 17 cohorts, comprising 5706 colorectal cancer case participants and 7107 control participants with a wide range of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. For 30.1% of participants, 25(OH)D was newly measured. Previously measured 25(OH)D was calibrated to the same assay to permit estimating risk by absolute concentrations. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) for prediagnostic season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random effects models. Results: Compared with the lower range of sufficiency for bone health (50-<62.5 nmol/L), deficient 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/L) was associated with 31% higher colorectal cancer risk (RR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.62); 25(OH)D above sufficiency (75-<87.5 and 87.5-<100 nmol/L) was associated with 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99) and 27% (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91) lower risk, respectively. At 25(OH)D of 100 nmol/L or greater, risk did not continue to decline and was not statistically significantly reduced (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.24, 3.5% of control participants). Associations were minimally affected when adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, or other risk factors. For each 25 nmol/L increment in circulating 25(OH)D, colorectal cancer risk was 19% lower in women (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.87) and 7% lower in men (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.00) (two-sided Pheterogeneity by sex = .008). Associations were inverse in all subgroups, including colorectal subsite, geographic region, and season of blood collection. Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D was related to a statistically significant, substantially lower colorectal cancer risk in women and non-statistically significant lower risk in men. Optimal 25(OH)D concentrations for colorectal cancer risk reduction, 75-100 nmol/L, appear higher than current IOM recommendations.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(6): 1760-1771, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901778

RESUMO

Background: Self-reported smoking is the principal measure used to assess lung cancer risk in epidemiological studies. We evaluated if circulating cotinine-a nicotine metabolite and biomarker of recent tobacco exposure-provides additional information on lung cancer risk. Methods: The study was conducted in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3) involving 20 prospective cohort studies. Pre-diagnostic serum cotinine concentrations were measured in one laboratory on 5364 lung cancer cases and 5364 individually matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between circulating cotinine and lung cancer, and assessed if cotinine provided additional risk-discriminative information compared with self-reported smoking (smoking status, smoking intensity, smoking duration), using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: We observed a strong positive association between cotinine and lung cancer risk for current smokers [odds ratio (OR ) per 500 nmol/L increase in cotinine (OR500): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.47]. Cotinine concentrations consistent with active smoking (≥115 nmol/L) were common in former smokers (cases: 14.6%; controls: 9.2%) and rare in never smokers (cases: 2.7%; controls: 0.8%). Former and never smokers with cotinine concentrations indicative of active smoking (≥115 nmol/L) also showed increased lung cancer risk. For current smokers, the risk-discriminative performance of cotinine combined with self-reported smoking (AUCintegrated: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68-0.71) yielded a small improvement over self-reported smoking alone (AUCsmoke: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.64-0.68) (P = 1.5x10-9). Conclusions: Circulating cotinine concentrations are consistently associated with lung cancer risk for current smokers and provide additional risk-discriminative information compared with self-report smoking alone.

16.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 118(10): 1855-1863.e6, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are important for cancer survival. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of dietary changes on mortality in breast cancer survivors is sparse. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the associations of changes in overall diet quality, indicated by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 score, with mortality in breast cancer survivors. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study from September 1993 through September 30, 2015. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: This study included 2,295 postmenopausal women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and completed a food frequency questionnaire both before and after the diagnosis of breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The HEI-2010 score (maximum score of 100) was calculated based on consumption of 12 dietary components. The outcomes were mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and causes other than breast cancer. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios of mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and other causes. RESULTS: Over 12 years of follow-up, 763 deaths occurred. Compared with women with relatively stable diet quality (±14.9% change in HEI-2010 score), women who decreased diet quality (≥15% decrease in HEI-2010 score) had a higher risk of death from breast cancer (adjusted hazard ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.52). Increased diet quality (≥15% increase in HEI-2010 score) was not significantly associated with lower risk of death. These associations persisted after additional adjustment for change in body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with breast cancer, decreased diet quality after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with higher risk of death from breast cancer.

17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 48(4): 971-981, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased breast density is a significant independent risk factor for breast cancer, and recent studies show that this risk is modifiable. Hence, breast density measures sensitive to small changes are desired. PURPOSE: Utilizing fat-water decomposition MRI, we propose an automated, reproducible breast density measurement, which is nonionizing and directly comparable to mammographic density (MD). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective study. POPULATION: The study included two sample sets of breast cancer patients enrolled in a clinical trial, for concordance analysis with MD (40 patients) and reproducibility analysis (10 patients). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: The majority of MRI scans (59 scans) were performed with a 1.5T GE Signa scanner using radial IDEAL-GRASE sequence, while the remaining (seven scans) were performed with a 3T Siemens Skyra using 3D Cartesian 6-echo GRE sequence with a similar fat-water separation technique. ASSESSMENT: After automated breast segmentation, breast density was calculated using FraGW, a new measure developed to reliably reflect the amount of fibroglandular tissue and total water content in the entire breast. Based on its concordance with MD, FraGW was calibrated to MR-based breast density (MRD) to be comparable to MD. A previous breast density measurement, Fra80-the ratio of breast voxels with <80% fat fraction-was also calculated for comparison with FraGW. STATISTICAL TESTS: Pearson correlation was performed between MD (reference standard) and FraGW (and Fra80). Test-retest reproducibility of MRD was evaluated using the difference between test-retest measures (Δ1-2 ) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Both FraGW and Fra80 were strongly correlated with MD (Pearson ρ: 0.96 vs. 0.90, both P < 0.0001). MRD converted from FraGW showed higher test-retest reproducibility (Δ1-2 variation: 1.1% ± 1.2%; ICC: 0.99) compared to MD itself (literature intrareader ICC ≤0.96) and Fra80. DATA CONCLUSION: The proposed MRD is directly comparable with MD and highly reproducible, which enables the early detection of small breast density changes and treatment response. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;48:971-981.

18.
J Aging Res ; 2018: 8491092, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670769

RESUMO

Studies suggest that ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may preserve skeletal muscle with aging. We evaluated longitudinal differences in lean body mass (LBM) among women diagnosed with hypertension and classified as ACE-I/ARB users and nonusers among Women's Health Initiative participants that received dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to estimate body composition (n=10,635) at baseline and at years 3 and 6 of follow-up. Of those, 2642 were treated for hypertension at baseline. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for relevant demographics, behaviors, and medications, assessed ACE-I/ARB use/nonuse and LBM associations at baseline, as well as change in LBM over 3 and 6 years. Although BMI did not differ by ACE-I/ARB use, LBM (%) was significantly higher in ACE-I/ARB users versus nonusers at baseline (52.2% versus 51.3%, resp., p=0.001). There was no association between ACE-I/ARB usage and change in LBM over time. Reasons for higher LBM with ACE-I/ARB use cross sectionally, but not longitundinally, are unclear and may reflect a threshold effect of these medications on LBM that is attenuated over time. Nevertheless, ACE-I/ARB use does not appear to negatively impact LBM in the long term.

19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 68: 61-66, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29567283

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bowel dysfunction is a common, persistent long-term effect of treatment for rectal cancer survivors. Survivors often use dietary modifications to maintain bowel control. There are few evidence-based interventions to guide survivors on appropriate diet modifications for bowel symptom management. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and design of the Altering Intake, Managing Symptoms (AIMS) intervention to support bowel dysfunction management in rectal cancer survivors. METHODS: The AIMS intervention is a ten-session, telephone-based diet behavior change intervention delivered by trained health coaches. It uses dietary recall, participant-completed food and symptom diaries, and health coaching guided by motivational interviewing to promote bowel symptom management and improved diet quality. Based on the Chronic Care Self-Management Model (CCM), the AIMS Intervention is designed to improve self-efficacy and self-management of bowel symptoms by coaching survivors to appropriately modify their diets through goal setting, self-monitoring, and problem-solving. The intervention targets survivors with stage I-III rectosigmoid colon/rectum cancer who are 6 months post-treatment, 21 years and older, and English-speaking. CONCLUSIONS: The design and development process described in this paper provides an overview and underscores the potential of the AIMS intervention to positively impact the quality of long-term survivorship for rectal cancer survivors. An ongoing pilot study will inform the design and development of future multi-site Phase II and III randomized trials.

20.
Public Health Rep ; 133(2): 200-206, 2018 Mar/Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smokers with comorbid health conditions have a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related death and disease. A better understanding of differences in quit rates among smokers with comorbid health conditions can guide tailoring of quitline services for subgroups. The objective of this study was to examine self-reported tobacco cessation rates among Arizona Smokers' Helpline callers with chronic health conditions (CHCs) and/or a mental health condition (MHC). METHODS: We analyzed data from quitline telephone callers (n = 39 779) who enrolled in and completed at least 1 behavioral counseling session (ie, coaching call). We categorized callers as CHC only (cardiovascular disease/respiratory-related/cancer; 32%), MHC only (eg, mood/anxiety/substance dependence; 13%), CHC + MHC (25%), or no comorbid condition (30%). We assessed 30-day abstinence at 7-month follow-up for 16 683 clients (41.9%). We used logistic regression analysis to test associations between comorbidity and quit outcomes after controlling for relevant variables (eg, nicotine dependence). RESULTS: Overall quit rates were 45.4% for those with no comorbid condition, 43.3% for those with a CHC only, 37.0% for those with an MHC only, and 33.3% for those with CHC + MHC. Compared with other groups, the CHC + MHC group had the lowest odds of quitting (adjusted odds ratio = 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.69). CONCLUSION: Having a comorbid condition was associated with lower quit rates, and smokers with co-occurring CHCs and MHCs had the lowest quit rates. Quitlines should evaluate more intensive, evidence-driven, tailored services for smoking cessation among callers with comorbid conditions.

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