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1.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of longitudinal trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-measures of cardiac structure and function in the community is not well known. Therefore we aimed to relate risk factor levels from different examination cycles to CMR-measures of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle in a population-based cohort. METHODS: We assessed conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors in 349 participants (143 women; aged 25-59 years) at three examination cycles (Exam 1 [baseline], at Exam 2 [7-years follow-up] and at Exam 3 [14-years follow-up]) of the KORA S4 cohort and related single-point measurements of individual risk factors and longitudinal trajectories of these risk factors to various CMR-measures obtained at Exam 3. RESULTS: High levels of diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and LDL-cholesterol at the individual exams were associated with worse cardiac function and structure. Trajectory clusters representing higher levels of the individual risk factors were associated with worse cardiac function and structure compared to low risk trajectory clusters of individual risk factors. Multivariable (combining different risk factors) trajectory clusters were associated with different cardiac parameters in a graded fashion (e.g. decrease of LV stroke volume for middle risk cluster ß = - 4.91 ml/m2, 95% CI - 7.89; - 1.94, p < 0.01 and high risk cluster ß = - 7.00 ml/m2, 95% CI - 10.73; - 3.28, p < 0.001 compared to the low risk cluster). The multivariable longitudinal trajectory clusters added significantly to explain variation in CMR traits beyond the multivariable risk profile obtained at Exam 3. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular disease risk factor levels, measured over a time period of 14 years, were associated with CMR-derived measures of cardiac structure and function. Longitudinal multivariable trajectory clusters explained a greater proportion of the inter-individual variation in cardiac traits than multiple risk factor assessed contemporaneous with the CMR exam.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fat mass and fat-free mass may play independent roles in mortality risk but available studies on body composition have yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the relations of body fat mass and fat-free mass to risk of mortality. METHODS: In pooled data from 7 prospective cohorts encompassing 16,155 individuals aged 20 to 93 y (median, 44 y), we used Cox regression and restricted cubic splines to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for the relation of body composition, measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, to total mortality. We adjusted for age, study, sex, ethnicity, history of diabetes mellitus, education, smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 14 y (range, 3-21 y), 1347 deaths were identified. After mutual adjustment for fat mass and fat-free mass, fat mass showed a J-shaped association with mortality (overall P value < 0.001; P for nonlinearity = 0.003). Using a fat mass index of 7.3 kg/m2 as the reference, a high fat mass index of 13.0 kg/m2 was associated with an HR of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.87). In contrast, fat-free mass showed an inverse association with mortality (overall P value < 0.001; P for nonlinearity = 0.001). Compared with a low fat-free mass index of 16.1 kg/m2, a high fat-free mass of 21.9 kg/m2 was associated with an HR of 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Fat mass and fat-free mass show opposing associations with mortality. Excess fat mass is related to increased mortality risk, whereas fat-free mass protects against risk of mortality. These findings suggest that body composition provides important prognostic information on an individual's mortality risk not provided by traditional proxies of adiposity such as BMI.

3.
J Proteome Res ; 20(1): 751-762, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253581

RESUMO

The plasma proteome is the ultimate target for biomarker discovery. It stores an endless amount of information on the pathophysiological status of a living organism, which is, however, still difficult to comprehensively access. The high complexity of the plasma proteome can be addressed by either a system-wide and unbiased tool such as mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or a highly sensitive targeted immunoassay such as the proximity extension assay (PEA). To address relevant differences and important shared characteristics, we tested the performance of LC-MS/MS in the data-dependent and data-independent acquisition modes and Olink PEA to measure circulating plasma proteins in 173 human plasma samples from a Southern German population-based cohort. We demonstrated the measurement of more than 300 proteins with both LC-MS/MS approaches applied, mainly including high-abundance plasma proteins. By the use of the PEA technology, we measured 728 plasma proteins, covering a broad dynamic range with high sensitivity down to pg/mL concentrations. Then, we quantified 35 overlapping proteins with all three analytical platforms, verifying the reproducibility of data distributions, measurement correlation, and gender-based differential expression. Our work highlights the limitations and the advantages of both targeted and untargeted approaches and proves their complementary strengths. We demonstrated a significant gain in proteome coverage depth and subsequent biological insight by a combination of platforms-a promising approach for future biomarker and mechanistic studies.

4.
Exp Gerontol ; 145: 111196, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We explored the male-female health-survival paradox in the context of health expectancy (HE) at age 65 and thereafter, using three different morbidity measures and different severity cut-offs with and without adjustments for the share of nursing home residents. METHODS: HE at ages 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 was estimated with the Sullivan method, linking morbidity prevalence from the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-Age study to 2016 Bavarian mortality data. Morbidity measures comprised deficit accumulation (Frailty Index, FI, cut-offs 0.08 and 0.25), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, HAQ-DI, cut-off >0) and participation (Global Activity Limitation Indicator, GALI, "limited" vs "not limited"). RESULTS: Morbidity data were available for 4083 participants (52.7% female). HE was lower in women than in men at all ages. Differences in morbidity prevalence, absolute HE, and health proportions of life expectancy (relative HE) increased with age for FI ≥ 0.25 and GALI, but not for HAQ-DI > 0 and FI > 0.08. Accounting for the share of nursing home residents resulted in a slight reduction of HE estimates but had no impact on estimated sex differences. CONCLUSIONS: In HE at age 65 and thereafter, women's health disadvantage was larger than their life expectancy advantage over men.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127013, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution contributes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, but its relevance for other complications of diabetes, in particular distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN), is unclear. Recent studies have indicated that DSPN is also increasingly prevalent in obesity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess associations of air pollutants with prevalent and incident DSPN in a population-based study of older individuals with high rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses on prevalent DSPN were based on 1,075 individuals 62-81 years of age from the German Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 survey (2006-2008). Analyses on incident DSPN included 424 individuals without DSPN at baseline (KORA F4), of whom 188 had developed DSPN by the KORA FF4 survey (2013-2014). Associations of annual average air pollutant concentrations at participants' residences with prevalent and incident DSPN were estimated using Poisson regression models with a robust error variance adjusting for multiple confounders. RESULTS: Higher particle number concentrations (PNCs) were associated with higher prevalence [risk ratio (RR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase=1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.20)] and incidence [1.11 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.24)] of DSPN. In subgroup analyses, particulate (PNC, PM10, PMcoarse, PM2.5, and PM2.5abs) and gaseous (NOx, NO2) pollutants were positively associated with prevalent DSPN in obese participants, whereas corresponding estimates for nonobese participants were close to the null [e.g., for an IQR increase in PNC, RR=1.17 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.31) vs. 1.06 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.19); pinteraction=0.22]. With the exception of PM2.5abs, corresponding associations with incident DSPN were positive in obese participants but null or inverse for nonobese participants, with pinteraction≤0.13 [e.g., for PNC, RR=1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.51) vs. 1.03 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.18); pinteraction=0.03]. DISCUSSION: Both particulate and gaseous air pollutants were positively associated with prevalent and incident DSPN in obese individuals. Obesity and air pollution may have synergistic effects on the development of DSPN. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7311.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382400

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Improved strategies to identify persons at high risk of type 2 diabetes are important to target costly preventive efforts to those who will benefit most. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether novel biomarkers improve the prediction of type 2 diabetes beyond non-invasive standard clinical risk factors alone or in combination with HbA1c. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a population-based case-cohort study for discovery (689 incident cases and 1,850 non-cases) and an independent cohort study (n=262 incident cases, 2,549 non-cases) for validation. An L1-penalized (lasso) Cox model was used to select the most predictive set among 47 serum biomarkers from multiple etiological pathways. All variables available from the non-invasive German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRSadapted) were forced into the models. The C-index and the category-free net reclassification index (cfNRI) were used to evaluate the predictive performance of the selected biomarkers beyond the GDRSadapted model (plus HbA1c). RESULTS: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, insulin growth factor binding protein-2, soluble E-selectin, decorin, adiponectin, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were selected as most relevant. The simultaneous addition of these six biomarkers significantly improved the predictive performance in both the discovery (C-index [95% CI]: 0.053 [0.039-0.066]; cfNRI [95% CI]: 67.4% [57.3%-79.5%]) and the validation study (0.034 [0.019-0.053]; 48.4% [35.6%-60.8%]). Significant improvements by these biomarkers were also seen on top of the GDRSadapted model plus HbA1c in both studies. CONCLUSION: The addition of six biomarkers significantly improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes when added to a non-invasive clinical model or to a clinical model plus HbA1c.

7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146689

RESUMO

Importance: Human genetics and studies in experimental models support a key role of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in atherosclerosis. Yet, the associations of circulating MCP-1 levels with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular death in the general population remain largely unexplored. Objective: To explore whether circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with risk of incident coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Data Sources and Selection: Population-based cohort studies, identified through a systematic review, that have examined associations of circulating MCP-1 levels with cardiovascular end points. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Using a prespecified harmonized analysis plan, study-specific summary data were obtained from Cox regression models after excluding individuals with overt cardiovascular disease at baseline. Derived hazard ratios (HRs) were synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and unstable angina), nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death (from cardiac or cerebrovascular causes). Results: The meta-analysis included 7 cohort studies involving 21 401 individuals (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [10.2] years; 10 012 men [46.8%]). Mean (SD) follow-up was 15.3 (4.5) years (326 392 person-years at risk). In models adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, higher MCP-1 levels at baseline were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (HR per 1-SD increment in MCP-1 levels: 1.06 [95% CI, 1.01-1.11]; P = .01), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.13]; P = .02), and cardiovascular death (HR, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.05-1.20]; P < .001). In analyses comparing MCP-1 quartiles, these associations followed dose-response patterns. After additionally adjusting for vascular risk factors, the risk estimates were attenuated, but the associations of MCP-1 levels with cardiovascular death remained statistically significant, as did the association of MCP-1 levels in the upper quartile with coronary heart disease. There was no significant heterogeneity; the results did not change in sensitivity analyses excluding events occurring in the first 5 years after MCP-1 measurement, and the risk estimates were stable after additional adjustments for circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions and Relevance: Higher circulating MCP-1 levels are associated with higher long-term cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling individuals free of overt cardiovascular disease. These findings provide further support for a key role of MCP-1-signaling in cardiovascular disease.

8.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 300, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease has emerged as a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and in many current guidelines, it is already considered as a coronary heart disease (CHD) equivalent. Routinely, creatinine has been used as the main marker of renal function, but recently, cystatin C emerged as a more promising marker. The aim of this study was to assess the comparative cardiovascular and mortality risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using cystatin C-based and creatinine-based equations of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in participants of population-based and disease cohorts. METHODS: The present study has been conducted within the BiomarCaRE project, with harmonized data from 20 population-based cohorts (n = 76,954) from 6 European countries and 3 cardiovascular disease (CVD) cohorts (n = 4982) from Germany. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess hazard ratios (HRs) for the various CKD definitions with adverse outcomes and mortality after adjustment for the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) variables and study center. Main outcome measures were cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CKD stage 3-5 by creatinine- and cystatin C-based eGFR, respectively, was 3.3% and 7.4% in the population-based cohorts and 13.9% and 14.4% in the disease cohorts. CKD was an important independent risk factor for subsequent CVD events and mortality. For example, in the population-based cohorts, the HR for CVD mortality was 1.72 (95% CI 1.53 to 1.92) with creatinine-based CKD and it was 2.14 (95% CI 1.90 to 2.40) based on cystatin-based CKD compared to participants without CKD. In general, the HRs were higher for cystatin C-based CKD compared to creatinine-based CKD, for all three outcomes and risk increased clearly below the conventional threshold for CKD, also in older adults. Net reclassification indices were larger for a cystatin-C based CKD definition. Differences in HRs (between the two CKD measures) in the disease cohorts were less pronounced than in the population-based cohorts. CONCLUSION: CKD is an important risk factor for subsequent CVD events and total mortality. However, point estimates of creatinine- and cystatin C-based CKD differed considerably between low- and high-risk populations. Especially in low-risk settings, the use of cystatin C-based CKD may result in more accurate risk estimates and have better prognostic value.

9.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125578

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. Here, we aim to identify dietary patterns and to investigate their association with prediabetes, undetected diabetes and prevalent diabetes. METHODS: The present study included 1305 participants of the cross-sectional population-based KORA FF4 study. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements together with a physician-confirmed diagnosis allowed for an accurate categorization of the participants according to their glucose tolerance status into normal glucose tolerance (n = 698), prediabetes (n = 459), undetected diabetes (n = 49), and prevalent diabetes (n = 99). Dietary patterns were identified through principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering. The association between dietary patterns and glucose tolerance status was investigated using multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: A Prudent pattern, characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains and dairy products, and a Western pattern, characterized by high consumption of red and processed meat, alcoholic beverages, refined grains and sugar-sweetened beverages, were identified. Participants following the Western pattern had significantly higher chances of having prediabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35, 2.73), undetected diabetes (OR 10.12; 95% CI 4.19, 24.43) or prevalent diabetes (OR 3.51; 95% CI 1.85, 6.67), compared to participants following the Prudent pattern. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, the present study is one of the few investigating the association between dietary patterns and prediabetes or undetected diabetes. The use of a reference group exclusively including participants with normal glucose tolerance might explain the strong associations observed in our study. These results suggest a very important role of dietary habits in the prevention of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 178, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide levels have been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, less is known about other cardiac stress biomarkers in this context. Here we evaluated the association of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin (copeptin), C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with incident T2D and changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study using data from the population-based KORA F4/FF4 study. 1773 participants (52.3% women) with MR-proANP measurements and 960 (52.7% women) with copeptin, CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM measurements were included. We examined associations of circulating plasma levels of MR-proANP, copeptin, CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM with incident T2D, the combined endpoint of incident prediabetes/T2D and with fasting and 2 h-glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and HbA1c at follow-up. Logistic and linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, height, hypertension, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, smoking, physical activity and parental history of diabetes were used to compute effect estimates. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 6.4 years (25th and 75th percentiles: 6.0 and 6.6, respectively), 119 out of the 1773 participants and 72 out of the 960 participants developed T2D. MR-proANP was inversely associated with incident T2D (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.75 [0.58; 0.96] per 1-SD increase of log MR-proANP). Copeptin was positively associated with incident prediabetes/T2D (1.29 [1.02; 1.63] per 1-SD increase of log copeptin). Elevated levels of CT-proET-1 were associated with increased HOMA-B at follow-up, while elevated MR-proADM levels were associated with increased fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B at follow-up. These associations were independent of previously described diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: High plasma concentrations of MR-proANP contributed to a lower risk of incident T2D, whereas high plasma concentrations of copeptin were associated with an increased risk of incident prediabetes/T2D. Furthermore, high plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM were associated with increased insulin resistance. Our study provides evidence that biomarkers implicated in cardiac stress are associated with incident T2D and changes in glucose metabolism.

11.
Diabetes ; 69(12): 2766-2778, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928870

RESUMO

With an estimated prevalence of 463 million affected, type 2 diabetes represents a major challenge to health care systems worldwide. Analyzing the plasma proteomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes may illuminate hitherto unknown functional mechanisms underlying disease pathology. We assessed the associations between type 2 diabetes and >1,000 plasma proteins in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 cohort (n = 993, 110 cases), with subsequent replication in the third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3) cohort (n = 940, 149 cases). We computed logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension. Additionally, we investigated associations with incident type 2 diabetes and performed two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to prioritize our results. Association analysis of prevalent type 2 diabetes revealed 24 replicated proteins, of which 8 are novel. Proteins showing association with incident type 2 diabetes were aminoacylase-1, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2. Aminoacylase-1 was associated with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. MR analysis yielded nominally significant causal effects of type 2 diabetes on cathepsin Z and rennin, both known to have roles in the pathophysiological pathways of cardiovascular disease, and of sex hormone-binding globulin on type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, our high-throughput proteomics study replicated previously reported type 2 diabetes-protein associations and identified new candidate proteins possibly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

12.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 74, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concentrations of the highly atherogenic lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are mainly genetically determined by the LPA gene locus. However, up to 70% of the coding sequence is located in the complex so-called kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) copy number variation, a region hardly accessible by common genotyping and sequencing technologies. Despite its size, little is known about genetic variants in this complex region. The R21X variant is a functional variant located in this region, but it has never been analyzed in large cohorts. METHODS: We typed R21X in 10,910 individuals from three European populations using a newly developed high-throughput allele-specific qPCR assay. R21X allelic location was determined by separating the LPA alleles using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and typing them separately. Using GWAS data, we identified a proxy SNP located outside of the KIV-2. Linkage disequilibrium was determined both statistically and by long-range haplotyping using PFGE. Worldwide frequencies were determined by reanalyzing the sequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project with a dedicated pipeline. RESULTS: R21X carriers (frequency 0.016-0.021) showed significantly lower mean Lp(a) concentrations (- 11.7 mg/dL [- 15.5; - 7.82], p = 3.39e-32). The variant is located mostly on medium-sized LPA alleles. In the 1000 Genome data, R21X mostly occurs in Europeans and South Asians, is absent in Africans, and shows varying frequencies in South American populations (0 to 0.022). Of note, the best proxy SNP was another LPA null mutation (rs41272114, D' = 0.958, R2 = 0.281). D' was very high in all 1000G populations (0.986-0.996), although rs41272114 frequency varies considerably (0-0.182). Co-localization of both null mutations on the same allele was confirmed by PFGE-based long-range haplotyping. CONCLUSIONS: We performed the largest epidemiological study on an LPA KIV-2 variant so far, showing that it is possible to assess LPA KIV-2 mutations on a large scale. Surprisingly, in all analyzed populations, R21X was located on the same haplotype as the splice mutation rs41272114, creating "double-null" LPA alleles. Despite being a nonsense variant, the R21X status does not provide additional information beyond the rs41272114 genotype. This has important implications for studies using LPA loss-of-function mutations as genetic instruments and emphasizes the complexity of LPA genetics.

13.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(12): 1008-1015, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigate whether socially disadvantaged individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of smoking and alcohol intake on allostatic load (AL), a marker of physiological 'wear and tear', resulting from adaptation to chronic stress. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 27 019 men and 26 738 women aged 35-74 years were identified from 21 European cohorts in the BiomarCaRE consortium. We defined three educational classes (EDs) according to years of schooling and an AL score as the sum of z-scores of eight selected biomarkers from the cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory systems. We used the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to disentangle the ED gradient in AL score into the differential exposure (DE, attributable to different distribution of smoking and alcohol intake across EDs) and the differential susceptibility (DS, attributable to a different effect of risk factors on AL across EDs) components. RESULTS: Less-educated men (mean AL difference: 0.68, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.79) and women (1.52, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.64) had higher AL scores. DE accounted for 7% and 6% of the gradient in men and women, respectively. In men, combining smoking and alcohol intake, DS accounted for 42% of the gradient (smoking DS coefficient=0.177, 26% of the gradient; alcohol DS coefficient=0.109; 16%, not statistically significant). DS contribution increased to 69% in metabolic markers. DS estimates were consistent across age groups, irrespective of comorbidities and robust to unmeasured confounding. No DS was observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: In men, a DS mechanism substantially contributes to the educational class gradient in allostatic load.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uromodulin has been associated with arterial hypertension in genome-wide association studies, but data from clinical and preclinical studies are inconsistent. We here analyzed the association of serum uromodulin (sUmod) with arterial hypertension and vasoactive hormones in a population-based study. METHODS: In 1108 participants of the KORA F4 study aged 62-81 years, sUmod was measured and the association of sUmod with arterial hypertension was assessed using logistic regression models. The associations of sUmod with renin and aldosterone and with the vasoconstrictive prohormone C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) were analyzed in 1079 participants and in 618 participants, respectively, using linear regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment including sex, age, eGFR, BMI, fasting glucose, current smoking, previous stroke and myocardial infarction, sUmod was inversely associated with arterial hypertension (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68-0.91; p = 0.001). SUmod was not significantly associated with renin and aldosterone after adjustment for sex, age and eGFR. However, sUmod was inversely associated with CT-proET-1 (ß -0.19 ± 0.04; p < 0.001) after adjustment for sex, age, eGFR, BMI, arterial hypertension, fasting glucose, current smoking, previous stroke and myocardial infarction. The association with CT-proET-1 was stronger in participants with hypertension (ß -0.22 ± 0.04) than in normotensive participants (ß -0.13 ± 0.06; p for interaction hypertension = 0.003 in the model adjusted for hypertension). CONCLUSIONS: SUmod was inversely associated with arterial hypertension and the vasoconstrictive prohormone CT-proET-1, suggesting direct or indirect effects of sUmod on blood pressure regulation.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Uromodulina/sangue , Idoso , Aldosterona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Renina/sangue
15.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(12): 1481-1491, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748175

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify socioeconomic, behavioral and clinical factors that are associated with prediabetes according to different prediabetes definition criteria. METHODS: Analyses use pooled data of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) studies (n = 5312 observations aged ≥ 38 years without diabetes). Prediabetes was defined through either impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or elevated HbA1c according to thresholds of the American Diabetes Association. Explanatory variables were regressed on prediabetes using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Mean age was 58.4 years; 50% had prediabetes (33% had IFG, 16% IGT, and 26% elevated HbA1c, 10% fulfilled all three criteria). Age, obesity, hypertension, low education, unemployment, statutory health insurance, urban residence and physical inactivity were associated with prediabetes. Male sex was a stronger risk factor for IFG (OR = 2.5; 95%-CI: 2.2-2.9) than for IGT or elevated HbA1c, and being unemployed was a stronger risk factor for IGT (OR = 3.2 95%-CI: 2.6-4.0) than for IFG or elevated HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: The overlap of people with IFG, IGT and elevated HbA1c is small, and some factors are associated with only one criterion. Knowledge on sociodemographic and socioeconomic risk factors can be used to effectively target interventions to people at high risk for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Medicina Preventiva/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(13): e015189, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602397

RESUMO

Background Waist circumference and hip circumference are both strongly associated with risk of death; however, their joint association has rarely been investigated. Methods and Results The MONICA Risk, Genetics, Archiving, and Monograph (MORGAM) Project was conducted in 30 cohorts from 11 countries; 90 487 men and women, aged 30 to 74 years, predominantly white, with no history of cardiovascular disease, were recruited in 1986 to 2010 and followed up for up to 24 years. Hazard ratios were estimated using sex-specific Cox models, stratified by cohort, with age as the time scale. Models included baseline categorical obesity measures, age, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive drugs, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. A total of 9105 all-cause deaths were recorded during a median follow-up of 10 years. Hazard ratios for all-cause death presented J- or U-shaped associations with most obesity measures. With waist and hip circumference included in the same model, for all hip sizes, having a smaller waist was strongly associated with lower risk of death, except for men with the smallest hips. In addition, among those with smaller waists, hip size was strongly negatively associated with risk of death, with ≈20% more people identified as being at increased risk compared with waist circumference alone. Conclusions A more complex relationship between hip circumference, waist circumference, and risk of death is revealed when both measures are considered simultaneously. This is particularly true for individuals with smaller waists, where having larger hips was protective. Considering both waist and hip circumference in the clinical setting could help to best identify those at increased risk of death.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) is an operator-independent and non-invasive measurement method to assess microvascular endothelial function in the fingertips. PAT-derived measures of endothelial function were associated with type 2 diabetes in cross-sectional studies. However, longitudinal studies are lacking. The study aims to investigate the association of two PAT-derived endothelial function parameters reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and mean baseline amplitude (MBA) with follow-up glucose and insulin parameters and the development of (pre)diabetes and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 673 participants initially without diabetes (328 men and 345 women) aged 52-71 years from the prospective population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4/FF4 cohort study conducted in Southern Germany (baseline examination F4: 2006-2008; follow-up FF4: 2013-2014). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline and follow-up to define type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function and hemoglobin A1c. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted logistic/linear regression models, a 1 SD increase in baseline RHI was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (OR 0.69 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.97)) as well as with fasting insulin (ß -0.069 (95% CI -0.131 to -0.007)) and HOMA-IR (ß -0.072 (95% CI -0.133 to -0.010)) at follow-up in participants with initial normoglycemia. A 1 SD increase in baseline MBA was positively associated with incident (pre)diabetes (OR 1.62 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.11)) and fasting glucose (ß 0.096 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.146)) at follow-up in participants with initial normoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular endothelial dysfunction seems to be involved in the development of early derangements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance and could thereby trigger the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1049, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension remains a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to describe sex-stratified age-standardized estimates of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, and their associated factors in older adults. METHODS: The KORA-Age1 is a population-based cross-sectional survey carried out in 2008/2009 on individuals aged 65-94 years in Augsburg region, Germany. Blood pressure measurements were available for 1052 out of 1079 persons who participated in the physical examination. Factors associated with prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension were investigated by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was 73.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69.3-77.9], representing 74.8% (95% CI, 68.4-80.2) in men and 73.5% (95% CI, 66.8-79.3) in women. Among those with hypertension, 80.2% (95% CI, 75.3-84.4) were aware of their hypertensive condition and 74.4% (95% CI, 69.2-79.1) were on treatment for hypertension. Among those aware of their hypertension status, 92.8% (95% CI, 88.8-95.6) were on treatment and 53.7% (95% CI, 47.0-60.1) had their blood pressure controlled. Hypertension was more frequent in individuals who were older, obese, or had diabetes. Higher education attainment or presence of comorbidities was associated with higher level of hypertension awareness. Individuals taking three antihypertensive drug classes were more likely to have controlled hypertension compared with those taking one antihypertensive drug class, odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% CI, 1.14-2.99). CONCLUSION: Our findings identified high prevalence of hypertension and relevant health gaps on awareness, treatment and suboptimal control of hypertension in older adults in Germany. Screening for hypertension should especially target older adults with low educational attainment and 'healthy' elderly with less contact to physicians.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Conscientização , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
19.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3369, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about mortality risk in persons with increased haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ) levels below the diabetes threshold. Moreover, little is known about how associations between increased HbA1c and mortality depend on the length of follow-up. Therefore, we studied associations between HbA1c and mortality over long-term follow-up in persons with and without known diabetes. METHODS: We used data from two German population-based cohort studies: KORA S4 Study (Southern Germany, n = 1458, baseline visits in 1999 to 2001, baseline age 55 to 74 years, mortality follow-up 16.8 years) and Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study (Ruhr area, n = 4613, baseline visits in 2000 to 2003, baseline age 45 to 75 years, mortality follow-up 17.8 years). Adjusted log-linear models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: In both cohorts, participants with HbA1c 39 to 41 mmol/mol (5.7%-5.9%) and HbA1c 42 to 46 mmol/mol (6.0% to 6.4%) did not have a larger overall mortality risk than participants with HbA1c < 39 mmol/mol (5.7%): the corresponding adjusted RRs were 1.00 (95% CI: 0.83-1.21) and 1.01 (0.80-1.27) in KORA and 0.99 (0.82-1.21) and 0.83 (0.65-1.07) in the HNR Study. For the pooled cohorts, the RR for HbA1c 39 to 46 mmol/mol (5.7%-6.4%) was 0.96 (0.85-1.07). Associations between newly detected diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) and mortality were weak after 4 and 8 years of follow-up, but were stronger after 12 years of follow-up, whereas associations between previously known diabetes (baseline) and mortality decreased. CONCLUSIONS: HbA1c -defined pre-diabetes is not associated with overall mortality. For newly detected and previously known diabetes, mortality risks vary with length of follow-up.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association of the proinsulin to insulin ratio (PIR) with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), components of the metabolic syndrome, and renal and cardiovascular outcomes in the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study (2006-2008)/FF4 study (2013-2014). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analyses included 1514 participants of the KORA F4 study at baseline and 1132 participants of the KORA FF4 study after a median follow-up time of 6.6 years. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as cardiovascular events were analyzed after a median time of 9.1 and 8.6 years, respectively. The association of PIR with T2D, renal and cardiovascular characteristics and mortality were assessed using logistic regression models. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of PIR with components of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity, PIR was associated with prevalent (OR: 2.24; 95% CI 1.81 to 2.77; p<0.001) and incident T2D (OR: 1.66; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.17; p<0.001). PIR was associated with fasting glucose (ß per SD: 0.11±0.02; p<0.001) and HbA1c (ß: 0.21±0.02; p<0.001). However, PIR was not positively associated with other components of the metabolic syndrome and was even inversely associated with waist circumference (ß: -0.22±0.03; p<0.001), BMI (ß: -0.11±0.03; p<0.001) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (ß: -0.22±0.02; p<0.001). PIR was not significantly associated with the intima-media thickness (IMT), decline of kidney function, incident albuminuria, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In the KORA F4/FF4 cohort, PIR was positively associated with prevalent and incident T2D, but inversely associated with waist circumference, BMI and insulin resistance, suggesting that PIR might serve as a biomarker for T2D risk independently of the metabolic syndrome, but not for microvascular or macrovascular complications.

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