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1.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591921

RESUMO

Background: Neuroblastoma is the commonest extracranial solid tumor of childhood, yet rare, and with poor survival before 1990, especially for high-risk disease; thus, information on late effects is sparse. With great advances in cancer treatment, survival has reached 80% in the Nordic countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of developing neurologic disorders after neuroblastoma. Material and methods: Through population-based cancer registries of four Nordic countries we identified 654 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma (diagnosed 1959-2008) and 133,668 matched population comparisons. We grouped neurologic diagnoses from national hospital registries into 11 main diagnostic categories and 56 disease-specific sub-categories and calculated relative risks (RRs), absolute excess risks (AERs), cumulative incidence and mean cumulative count (MCC). Information on cancer treatment was available for 49% of survivors. Results: A hospital contact for a neurologic disorder was observed in 181 survivors 5 years or more from cancer diagnosis with 59 expected, yielding a RR of 3.1 (95% CI 2.7-3.6) and an AER of 16 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 12-19). The most frequent disorders included epilepsy, paralytic syndromes, diseases of the eyes and ears and hearing loss. The cumulative incidence of any neurologic disorder was 31% in survivors 20 years after cancer diagnosis with a MCC of 0.5 unique diagnoses. All risks were highest in survivors of high-risk neuroblastoma. Conclusion: Neuroblastoma survivors represent a population with a high risk of developing neurologic disorders. Our results should contribute to improving health care planning and underscores the need for systematic follow-up care of this vulnerable group of survivors.

2.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 177-184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare clinically, neuro-radiologically, and molecularly defined malignancy of the brainstem with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months. Our aim is to evaluate the current tendency for its treatment in Europe in order to develop (inter)national consensus guidelines. METHODS: Healthcare professionals specialized in DIPG were asked to fill in an online survey with questions regarding usual treatment strategies at diagnosis and at disease progression in their countries and/or their centers, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four healthcare professionals responded to the survey, of which 87.8% were pediatric oncologists. Only 13.5% of the respondents biopsy all of their patients, 41.9% biopsy their patients infrequently. More than half of the respondents (54.1%) treated their patients with radiotherapy only at diagnosis, whereas 44.6% preferred radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. When the disease progresses, treatment strategies became even more diverse, and the tendency for no treatment increased from 1.4% at diagnosis to 77.0% after second progression. 36.5% of the healthcare professionals treat children younger than 3 years differently than older children at diagnosis. This percentage decreased, when the disease progresses. Most of the participants (51.4%) included less than 25% of their patients in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrates a large heterogeneity of treatment regimens, especially at disease progression. We emphasize the need for international consensus guidelines for the treatment of DIPG, possible by more collaborative clinical trials.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 143(12): 3083-3096, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926896

RESUMO

Because of the rarity of neuroblastoma and poor survival until the 1990s, information on late effects in neuroblastoma survivors is sparse. We comprehensively reviewed the long-term risk for somatic disease in neuroblastoma survivors. We identified 721 5-year survivors of neuroblastoma in Nordic population-based cancer registries and identified late effects in national hospital registries covering the period 1977-2012. Detailed treatment information was available for 46% of the survivors. The disease-specific rates of hospitalization of survivors and of 152,231 randomly selected population comparisons were used to calculate standardized hospitalization rate ratios (SHRRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs). During 5,500 person-years of follow-up, 501 5-year survivors had a first hospital contact yielding a SHRR of 2.3 (95% CI 2.1-2.6) and a corresponding AER of 52 (95% CI 44-60) per 1,000 person-years. The highest relative risks were for diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (SHRR 3.8; 95% CI 2.7-5.4), endocrine diseases (3.6 [3.1-4.2]), circulatory system diseases (3.1 [2.5-3.8]), and diseases of the nervous system (3.0 [2.6-3.3]). Approximately 60% of the excess new hospitalizations of survivors were for diseases of the nervous system, urinary system, endocrine system, and bone and soft tissue. The relative risks and AERs were highest for the survivors most intensively treated. Survivors of neuroblastoma have a highly increased long-term risk for somatic late effects in all the main disease groups as compared to background levels. Our results are useful for counseling survivors and should contribute to improving health care planning in post-therapy clinics.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neuroblastoma/complicações , Neuroblastoma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia
4.
J Neurooncol ; 132(2): 255-266, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110411

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare and deadly childhood malignancy. After 40 years of mostly single-center, often non-randomized trials with variable patient inclusions, there has been no improvement in survival. It is therefore time for international collaboration in DIPG research, to provide new hope for children, parents and medical professionals fighting DIPG. In a first step towards collaboration, in 2011, a network of biologists and clinicians working in the field of DIPG was established within the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) Brain Tumour Group: the SIOPE DIPG Network. By bringing together biomedical professionals and parents as patient representatives, several collaborative DIPG-related projects have been realized. With help from experts in the fields of information technology, and legal advisors, an international, web-based comprehensive database was developed, The SIOPE DIPG Registry and Imaging Repository, to centrally collect data of DIPG patients. As for April 2016, clinical data as well as MR-scans of 694 patients have been entered into the SIOPE DIPG Registry/Imaging Repository. The median progression free survival is 6.0 months (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.6-6.4 months) and the median overall survival is 11.0 months (95% CI 10.5-11.5 months). At two and five years post-diagnosis, 10 and 2% of patients are alive, respectively. The establishment of the SIOPE DIPG Network and SIOPE DIPG Registry means a paradigm shift towards collaborative research into DIPG. This is seen as an essential first step towards understanding the disease, improving care and (ultimately) cure for children with DIPG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviços de Informação , Cooperação Internacional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sistema de Registros , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 61(9): 1603-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24692119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite major treatment attempts, the prognosis for pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) remains dismal. Gliomas are highly vascularized tumors, suggesting that the prevention of vessel formation by anti-angiogenic treatment might be effective. PROCEDURE: Forty-one pediatric patients with DIPG were treated according to the Angiocomb protocol, starting with radiotherapy combined with topotecan and followed by anti-angiogenic triple medication consisting of thalidomide, etoposide, and celecoxib. Overall survival, radiological response, quality of life, requirement of corticosteroids, and adverse effects were monitored. Eight patients treated with only radiotherapy were used as controls. RESULTS: For study patients, the 12 and 24 months overall survival was 61% and 17%, respectively. The median overall survival was 12 months (range 4-60 months). Four radiological complete responses were seen, of which two were transient. Radiologically, 56% of the tumors reduced in size and 78% in signal intensity. Study patients were able to visit school or daycare and walk for a significantly longer time compared to controls (Log Rank 0.036 and 0.008, respectively). Adverse effects were generally minor. CONCLUSIONS: The Angiocomb protocol created a noticeable share of long-term survivors and was well tolerated, suggesting that anti-angiogenic therapy for patients with DIPG should be studied more in the future.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Glioma/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Celecoxib , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Indução de Remissão , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Sobrevida , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Topotecan/administração & dosagem
6.
J Clin Virol ; 46(1): 37-42, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19505845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) has been associated with a diverse spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and reported glial tropism. OBJECTIVE: To determine if HHV-6 is present in a series of pediatric brain tumors. STUDY DESIGN: Pediatric gliomas from 88 untreated patients represented in a tissue microarray (TMA) were screened for HHV-6 by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and compared to non-glial tumors (N=22) and control brain (N=32). Results were correlated with tumor grade and overall survival. RESULTS: HHV-6 U57 was detected by nested PCR in 68/120 (57%) tumors and 7/32 (22%) age-matched non-tumor brain (P=0.001). HHV-6 U31 was positive in 73/120 (61%) tumors and 11/32 (34%) controls (P=0.019). Seventy-two percent (43/60) of tumors were HHV-6 Variant A. HHV-6 U57 was confirmed by ISH in 83/150 (54%) tumors and 10/32 (31%) controls (P=0.021), revealing a non-lymphocytic origin of HHV-6. HHV-6A/B gp116/64/54 late antigen was detected by IHC in 50/124 (40%) tumors and 6/32 (18%) controls (P=0.013). Interestingly, 58% of low grade gliomas (N=67) were IHC positive compared to 19% of high grade gliomas (N=21, P=0.002) and 25% of non-gliomas (N=36, P=0.001). HHV-6A/B gp116/64/54 antigen co-localized with glial fibrillary acidic protein, confirming the astrocytic origin of antigen. Overall, there was no primary association between HHV-6A/B gp116/64/54 antigen detection and survival (P=0.861). CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first reported series of HHV-6 detection in pediatric brain tumors. The predominance of HHV-6 in glial tumors warrants further investigation into potential neurooncologic disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/virologia , Glioma/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 6/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Roseolovirus/complicações , Adolescente , Antígenos Virais/análise , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/análise , Glioma/etiologia , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Hibridização In Situ/métodos , Lactente , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 14(11): 3386-94, 2008 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18519768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously showed that overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with malignant grade in childhood glioma. The objective of this study was to determine whether protein expression of EGFR or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and their active signaling pathways are related to malignant histology, progression of disease, and worse survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue microarrays were prepared from untreated tumors from 85 new glioma patients [22 high-grade gliomas (HGG) and 63 low-grade gliomas (LGG)] diagnosed at this institution from 1989 to 2004. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess total expression of EGFR, PDGFR beta, and PTEN and expression of phosphorylated EGFR, phosphorylated PDGFR alpha (p-PDGFR alpha), phosphorylated AKT, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin. These results were correlated with clinicopathologic data, including extent of initial tumor resection, evidence of dissemination, tumor grade, proliferation index, and survival, as well as with Affymetrix gene expression profiles previously obtained from a subset of these tumors. RESULTS: High expression of p-PDGFR alpha, EGFR, PDGFR beta, and phosphorylated EGFR was seen in 85.7%, 80.0%, 78.9%, and 47.4% of HGG and 40.0%, 87.1%, 41.7%, and 30.6% of LGG, respectively. However, high expression of p-PDGFR alpha and PDGFR beta was the only significant association with malignant histology (P = 0.031 and 0.005, respectively); only the loss of PTEN expression was associated with worse overall survival. None of these targets, either alone or in combination, was significantly associated with progression-free survival in either LGG or HGG. CONCLUSIONS: High PDGFR protein expression is significantly associated with malignant histology in pediatric gliomas, but it does not represent an independent prognostic factor. Deficient PTEN expression is associated with worse overall survival in HGG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/biossíntese , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/biossíntese , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Receptores ErbB/biossíntese , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Análise Serial de Tecidos
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 48(3): 278-84, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16456857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children <4 years of age (yo) with malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors have a dismal prognosis. In an attempt to delay or obviate radiation therapy (XRT) and improve outcome, our institution has treated children <4 yo with newly diagnosed malignant CNS tumors with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) followed by selective XRT. PROCEDURE: Fifteen children (age 4-38 months) with malignant CNS tumors have completed treatment with HDC/ASCR. All patients received three cycles of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 3.5 mg/kg- day 0, cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg- day 1 and 2, etoposide 2.5 mg/kg- day 0-2, vincristine 0.05 mg/kg, day 0, 7, 14) followed by three cycles of HDC (carboplatin 17 mg/kg and thiotepa 6 mg/kg, day 0 and 1) with ASCR. Histology included five medulloblastomas, four primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), five malignant gliomas, and one ependymoma. Outcome and treatment toxicities were evaluated by retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Median follow-up time of the 15 patients is 22 months (range 8-82 months). The 1- and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) is 86.1% and 52.2% and overall survival (OS) 91.6% and 72.1%, respectively. Ten patients are alive and disease free 3-77 months (median 18 months) after having completed HDC/ASCR, thereoff five received XRT. Toxicity was primarily myelosuppression. There was no treatment mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We are encouraged by the outcome of 15 children <4 yo with malignant CNS tumors treated with tandem cycles of HDC and ASCR at our institution. The treatment regimen is relatively well tolerated.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Oligodendroglioma/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Ependimoma/tratamento farmacológico , Ependimoma/mortalidade , Ependimoma/cirurgia , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Ganglioglioma/tratamento farmacológico , Ganglioglioma/metabolismo , Ganglioglioma/radioterapia , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/mortalidade , Glioma/radioterapia , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/mortalidade , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Meduloblastoma/cirurgia , Índice Mitótico , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/radioterapia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/cirurgia , Oligodendroglioma/tratamento farmacológico , Oligodendroglioma/mortalidade , Oligodendroglioma/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/efeitos adversos , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Tiotepa/administração & dosagem , Transplante Autólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
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