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1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 100, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare bile duct and liver disease which can considerably impact quality of life (QoL). As part of a project developing a measure of QoL for people with PSC, we conducted a systematic review with four review questions. The first of these questions overlaps with a recently published systematic review, so this paper reports on the last three of our initial four questions: (A) How does QoL in PSC compare with other groups?, (B) Which attributes/factors are associated with impaired QoL in PSC?, (C) Which interventions are effective in improving QoL in people with PSC?. METHODS: We systematically searched five databases from inception to 1 November 2020 and assessed the methodological quality of included studies using standard checklists. RESULTS: We identified 28 studies: 17 for (A), ten for (B), and nine for (C). Limited evidence was found for all review questions, with few studies included in each comparison, and small sample sizes. The limited evidence available indicated poorer QoL for people with PSC compared with healthy controls, but findings were mixed for comparisons with the general population. QoL outcomes in PSC were comparable to other chronic conditions. Itch, pain, jaundice, severity of inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, and large-duct PSC were all associated with impaired QoL. No associations were found between QoL and PSC severity measured with surrogate markers of disease progression or one of three prognostic scoring systems. No interventions were found to improve QoL outcomes. CONCLUSION: The limited findings from included studies suggest that markers of disease progression used in clinical trials may not reflect the experiences of people with PSC. This highlights the importance for clinical research studies to assess QoL alongside clinical and laboratory-based outcomes. A valid and responsive PSC-specific measure of QoL, to adequately capture all issues of importance to people with PSC, would therefore be helpful for clinical research studies.

2.
Lancet ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714360

RESUMO

This Review, in addressing the unacceptably high mortality of patients with liver disease admitted to acute hospitals, reinforces the need for integrated clinical services. The masterplan described is based on regional, geographically sited liver centres, each linked to four to six surrounding district general hospitals-a pattern of care similar to that successfully introduced for stroke services. The plan includes the establishment of a lead and deputy lead clinician in each acute hospital, preferably a hepatologist or gastroenterologist with a special interest in liver disease, who will have prime responsibility for organising the care of admitted patients with liver disease on a 24/7 basis. Essential for the plan is greater access to intensive care units and high-dependency units, in line with the reconfiguration of emergency care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This Review strongly recommends full implementation of alcohol care teams in hospitals and improved working links with acute medical services. We also endorse recommendations from paediatric liver services to improve overall survival figures by diagnosing biliary atresia earlier based on stool colour charts and better caring for patients with impaired cognitive ability and developmental mental health problems. Pilot studies of earlier diagnosis have shown encouraging progress, with 5-6% of previously undiagnosed cases of severe fibrosis or cirrhosis identified through use of a portable FibroScan in primary care. Similar approaches to the detection of early asymptomatic disease are described in accounts from the devolved nations, and the potential of digital technology in improving the value of clinical consultation and screening programmes in primary care is highlighted. The striking contribution of comorbidities, particularly obesity and diabetes (with excess alcohol consumption known to be a major factor in obesity), to mortality in COVID-19 reinforces the need for fiscal and other long delayed regulatory measures to reduce the prevalence of obesity. These measures include the food sugar levy and the introduction of the minimum unit price policy to reduce alcohol consumption. Improving public health, this Review emphasises, will not only mitigate the severity of further waves of COVID-19, but is crucial to reducing the unacceptable burden from liver disease in the UK.

3.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD. DESIGN: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267568

RESUMO

Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is a rare autoimmune disease of the liver with many open questions as regards its aetiopathogenesis, natural history and clinical management. The classical picture of AIH is chronic hepatitis with fluctuating elevation of serum transaminases and Immunoglobulin G levels, the presence of circulating autoantibodies and typical histological features. However, atypical presentations do occur and are not well captured by current diagnostic scores, with important consequences in terms of missed diagnoses and delayed treatments. AIH is treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs but up to 40% of patients do not achieve full biochemical response and are at risk of progressing to cirrhosis and liver failure. Moreover, standard therapies are associated by significant side-effects which may impair the quality of life of patients living with AIH. However, advances in the understanding of the underlying immunology of AIH is raising the prospect of novel therapies and optimisation of existing therapeutic approaches to reduce side-effect burdens and potentially restore immunological tolerance. In this review we outline the clinical characteristics, aetiopathogenesis and management of AIH and current challenges in the diagnosis and management of AIH and provide evidence underlying the evolution of diagnostic and clinical management protocols.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opportunity to redefine the care journeys for those living with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) includes facilitating access to enhanced (PBC-dedicated) programmes by nonspecialist risk 'flagging' of patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop a nonexpert PBC stratification tool to help care pathway choices (standard vs. enhanced) choices in PBC. METHODS: We included ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients with PBC from the Global PBC Study Group. The performance of baseline and 1-year clinical markers with transplant-free survival was assessed to develop the 'ABA' tool using Age (A), Bilirubin (B), and Alkaline phosphatase (A). Added value of fibrosis estimation was assessed. RESULTS: 'ABA' classification mapped three risk groups (n = 2226): low [Age > 50 years, bilirubin ≤ 1 × ULN, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 3 × ULN], high (Age ≤ 50 years, bilirubin > 1 × ULN, ALP > 3 × ULN), and intermediate (other). Transplant-free survival at 10 years in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89, 77, and 59% at baseline and 86, 76, and 40% at 1 year, respectively. We propose that high-risk patients at baseline be directly triaged to enhanced (PBC-dedicated) care and the remaining be reassessed at 1 year. Modelling showed after 1 year 46% patients were proposed to enhanced care and 54% to standard care. The 'ABA' mapped pathways facilitated identification of patients at risk based on a young age, as compared to traditional liver biochemical stratification. In patients proposed to standard care, estimated fibrosis stage had ongoing prognostic value. CONCLUSION: Nonspecialist use of the 'ABA' risk tool could prioritize care journey choices for patients with PBC.

7.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) receive care in respiratory clinics without access to specialist hepatology expertise. Liver disease can develop asymptomatically, and non-invasive markers of fibrosis may help identify patients who require definitive assessment with liver biopsy. We evaluated the utility of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis in A1ATD to guide testing in settings without ready access to hepatology expertise. METHODS: Patients attending the London A1ATD service undergo assessment using blood tests to calculate the 'APRI' and 'FIB-4' score, liver ultrasound and Fibroscan. Liver biopsy is offered to patients who have abnormal liver function tests with abnormal liver ultrasound and/or liver stiffness >6 kPa on Fibroscan. Liver biopsies were assessed for the presence of A1AT, steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: 75 patients with A1ATD had results for analysis, 56% were female, age 16-82 years. 75% of patients had Fibroscan <6 kPa, 19% had Fibroscan 6-7.9 kPa and 6%>8 kPa. There was a significant correlation between FIB-4 and Fibroscan (r=0.244, p=0.035). Fibroscan >6 kPa corresponded to a FIB-4 score of >1.26. However, FIB-4 >1.26 had poor sensitivity (47%), specificity (32%) and positive-predictive value (PPV; 36%) to identify Fibroscan >6 kPa. The negative-predictive value (NPV) was stronger at 81%. APRI data were similar. Twelve patients underwent liver biopsy, with 11 reports available for analysis. Six had FIB-4 scores<1.26 and five had Fibroscan of <6 kPa. A1AT was present in 64% of biopsies, steatosis in 82%, mild fibrosis in 36%, moderate fibrosis in 9% and severe fibrosis in 9%. CONCLUSION: A combination of liver ultrasound and non-invasive fibrosis tests can help identify patients with A1ATD liver injury. However, APRI and FIB-4 scores alone had poor sensitivity and specificity to justify use as an independent tool for liver pathology in A1ATD.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a serum marker of cholestasis. We investigated whether serum level of GGT is a prognostic marker for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with PBC from the Global PBC Study Group, comprising 14 centers in Europe and North America. We obtained measurements of serum GGT at baseline and time points after treatment. We used Cox model hazard ratios to evaluate the association between GGT and clinical outcomes, including liver transplantation and liver-related death. RESULTS: Of the 2129 patients included in our analysis, 281 (13%) had a liver-related clinical endpoint. Mean age at diagnosis was 53 years and 91% of patients were female patients. We found a correlation between serum levels of GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (r = 0.71). Based on data collected at baseline and yearly for up to 5 years, higher serum levels of GGT were associated with lower hazard for transplant-free survival. Serum level of GGT at 12 months after treatment higher than 3.2-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) identified patients who required liver transplantation or with liver-related death at 10 years with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.70. The risk of liver transplantation or liver-related death in patients with serum level of GGT above 3.2-fold the ULN, despite level of ALP lower than 1.5-fold the ULN, was higher compared to patients with level of GGT lower than 3.2-fold the ULN and level of ALP lower than 1.5-fold the ULN (P < .05). Including information on level of GGT increased the prognostic value of the Globe score. CONCLUSIONS: Serum level of GGT can be used to identify patients with PBC at risk for liver transplantation or death, and increase the prognostic value of ALP measurement. Our findings support the use of GGT as primary clinical endpoint in clinical trials. In patients with low serum level of ALP, a high level of GGT identifies those who might require treatment of metabolic disorders or PBC treatment escalation.

9.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3008-3018, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780493

RESUMO

Patients waitlisted for and recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) are perceived to have a higher risk of contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and death; however, definitive epidemiological evidence is lacking. In a comprehensive national cohort study enabled by linkage of the UK transplant registry and Public Health England and NHS Digital Tracing services, we examined the incidence of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent mortality in patients on the active waiting list for a deceased donor SOT and recipients with a functioning SOT as of February 1, 2020 with follow-up to May 20, 2020. Univariate and multivariable techniques were used to compare differences between groups and to control for case-mix. One hundred ninety-seven (3.8%) of the 5184 waitlisted patients and 597 (1.3%) of the 46 789 SOT recipients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Mortality after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 10.2% (20/197) for waitlisted patients and 25.8% (154/597) for SOT recipients. Increasing recipient age was the only variable independently associated with death after positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Of the 1004 transplants performed in 2020, 41 (4.1%) recipients have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with 8 (0.8%) deaths reported by May 20. These data provide evidence to support decisions on the risks and benefits of SOT during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(7): 1134-1149, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current therapeutic options for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are limited by adverse events associated with corticosteroids and thiopurines and the limited evidence base for second- and third-line treatment options. Furthermore, current treatment approaches require long-term exposure of patients to pharmacological agents. There have been significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underpinning autoimmunity and an expansion in the available therapeutic agents for suppressing autoimmune responses or potentially restoring self-tolerance. AIM: To review the mechanisms and evidence for experimental therapies that are being actively explored in the management of AIH. METHODS: We have reviewed the literature relating to a range of novel therapeutic immunomodulatory treatment strategies and drugs. RESULTS: Drugs which block B cell-activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) and tumour necrosis factor α are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of AIH. Experimental therapies and technologies to increase immune tolerance, such as pre-implantation factor and regulatory T cell therapies, are undergoing development for application in autoimmune disorders. There is also evidence for targeting inflammatory pathways to control other autoimmune conditions, such as blockade of IL1 and IL6 and Janus-associated kinase (JAK) inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: With the range of tools available to clinicians and patients increasing, it is likely that the therapeutic landscape of AIH will change over the coming years and treatment approaches offering lower corticosteroid use and aiming to restore immune self-tolerance should be sought.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628685

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of living with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) on psychological wellbeing is not well-known. A recent scoping review by the authors found that both depression and anxiety frequently featured in the accounts of those living with the illness. However, less clear were the factors that led to such psychological distress, the impact that the illness had on families and how to best support those living or supporting someone living with the illness. In light of this, the aim of this study was to explore how the illness impacted the lives of both those diagnosed with the illness and those supporting them. METHOD AND RESULTS: This study adopted a phenomenological approach to understand the subjective experiences of individual participants. A total of 30 individuals took part in Asynchronous Virtual Focus Groups hosted on a Virtual Learning Environment for a four-week period. Chronological narratives of individuals' lived experiences from diagnosis to post-transplant are presented below. These narratives centred upon individuals' and families' experiences of receiving a diagnosis, and adjusting to life post-diagnosis, particularly in regard to their relationships with health professionals and other family members, and in preparing for the possibility of transplant. DISCUSSION: The present article provides an in-depth look at how PSC can impact psychological wellbeing, how psychological distress arises and includes advice tailored to individuals, families and health professionals on how to best support each other.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Colangite Esclerosante/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
12.
J Exp Med ; 217(9)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602903

RESUMO

The human liver contains specialized subsets of mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) and T cells, but whether these have definitive features of tissue residence (long-term retention, lack of egress) and/or can be replenished from the circulation remains unclear. Here we addressed these questions using HLA-mismatched liver allografts to discriminate the liver-resident (donor) from the infiltrating (recipient) immune composition. Allografts were rapidly infiltrated by recipient leukocytes, which recapitulated the liver myeloid and lymphoid composition, and underwent partial reprogramming with acquisition of CD68/CD206 on MNPs and CD69/CD103 on T cells. The small residual pool of donor cells persisting in allografts for over a decade contained CX3CR1hi/CD163hi/CD206hi Kupffer cells (KCs) and CXCR3hi tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). CD8+ TRM were found in the local lymph nodes but were not detected egressing into the hepatic vein. Our findings inform organ transplantation and hepatic immunotherapy, revealing remarkably long-lived populations of KCs and TRM in human liver, which can be additionally supplemented by their circulating counterparts.

13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1066-1074, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are widely established as independent predictors of prognosis. Current treatment goals do not aim for normalization of surrogate markers because their association with survival has not been defined. METHODS: The patient cohort from the GLOBAL PBC Study Group was used, comprising of long-term follow-up data from European and North American centers. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated and untreated patients with bilirubin levels ≤1 × upper limit of normal (ULN) at baseline or 1 year were included. The association of normal ALP with transplant-free survival was assessed in a subgroup with ALP ≤1.67 × ULN at 1 year. Optimal thresholds of bilirubin and ALP to predict liver transplantation (LT) or death were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 2,281 patients included in the time zero cohort and 2,555 patients in the 1-year cohort. The bilirubin threshold with the highest ability to predict LT or death at 1 year was 0.6 × ULN (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.69-2.66, P < 0.001). The 10-year survival rates of patients with bilirubin ≤0.6 × ULN and >0.6 × ULN were 91.3% and 79.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). The risk for LT or death was stable below the bilirubin levels of 0.6 × ULN, yet increased beyond this threshold. Ursodeoxycholic acid-induced reduction in bilirubin below this threshold was associated with an 11% improvement in 10-year survival. Furthermore, ALP normalization was optimal, with 10-year survival rates of 93.2% in patients with ALP ≤ 1 × ULN and 86.1% in those with ALP 1.0-1.67 × ULN. DISCUSSION: Attaining bilirubin levels ≤0.6 × ULN or normal ALP are associated with the lowest risk for LT or death in patients with PBC. This has important implications for treatment targets.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Colagogos e Coleréticos/uso terapêutico , Colangite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colangite/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(7): 761-767, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence linking achievement of biochemical response with outcomes in Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH), and it is unclear whether normalization of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels influences prognosis. AIMS: We aimed to investigate factors associated with death or liver transplantation in patients affected by AIH. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all AIH patients attending a tertiary liver unit since 1980. Patients not meeting established diagnostic criteria for AIH or with a follow-up shorter than 18 months were excluded. RESULTS: 107 patients meeting inclusion criteria were included in the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 44 years, 29 patients (27.1%) had cirrhosis at baseline. Median follow-up was 79 months, and 70 patients (79.5%) reached biochemical response. Biochemical response was associated with reduced hazard of liver transplant or death (HR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.46), whereas cirrhosis at diagnosis was an independent predictor of liver transplantation or death (Hazard ratio (HR) 11.8, 95%, confidence interval (CI) 1.18-117.4). Lack of normalization of serum IgG levels was associated with reduced 5-year transplant-free survival (95% in patients normalizing, compared to 86%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Normalization of serum IgG levels alone translates in better transplant-free survival in patients with AIH and should be a treatment target along with transaminases.

15.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 54(10): 898-904, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver health professionals have difficulty discussing liver cirrhosis and its prognosis with patients and families. Question Prompt Lists (QPLs), which are evidence-based lists of "recommended questions," may improve communication but need to be designed specifically for the target population. This study aimed to develop and pilot a QPL for patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: A mixed-methods design in 3 phases. In phase 1 (item generation), potential questions for inclusion in the QPL were identified from 3 sources-a scoping literature review; an online survey; and interviews with patients, family members, and health professionals. In phase 2 (QPL construction), a multidisciplinary expert panel finalized the selection of questions and the format of the QPL. In phase 3 (pilot study), the QPL was assessed for acceptability and feasibility in a hepatology outpatient clinic population. RESULTS: From 258 topics initially identified, 30 questions were included in the first draft of the QPL. After review by a multidisciplinary expert panel including patients, the QPL was reduced to 22 questions. In the pilot study, 133/215 eligible patients consented to participate, although only 67/133 used the QPL in their clinic appointment. Among those who used the QPL, all questions were asked at least once. The most commonly asked question related to life expectancy. Most participants expressed support for the content of the QPL. CONCLUSIONS: A QPL, suitable for use in patients with liver cirrhosis attending hepatology outpatient clinics, has been developed and piloted. The QPL seems to be feasible to use and acceptable to patients and clinicians. Further work is needed to evaluate its effectiveness and to determine optimum delivery in clinical practice.

16.
AMRC Open Res ; 1: 4, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322783

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) are being detected with increasing frequency. Current methods of stratifying risk of malignant transformation are imperfect. This study aimed to determine the frequency of pancreatic malignancy in patients with PCL and define clinical and radiological features that predict malignant transformation in patients managed by surgery and/or surveillance. Methods: A retrospective cohort of adults who were evaluated in a tertiary hepatopancreaticobiliary centre between January 2000 - December 2013 with a confirmed PCL and followed up for at least 5 years. All cystic lesions were discussed at a weekly multidisciplinary meeting. Results: Of the 1,090 patients diagnosed with a PCL, 768 patients were included in the study: 141 patients were referred for immediate pancreatic resection, 570 entered surveillance while 57 had a malignant PCL which was unresectable at diagnosis (n=47) or were unfit for surgery (n=10). In those who were resected following presentation, malignancy was present in 38%. During follow-up 2% of those entering a surveillance programme underwent malignant transformation. Clinical and radiological features associated with a high-risk PCL included older age, symptoms, associated solid component or dilated main pancreatic duct. In intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, larger size was not a feature of malignant transformation (benign vs. malignant 30mm vs. 23mm; P= 0.012). Conclusion: The sensitivity of standard diagnostic tests leading to immediate surgery for high-risk PCL (malignant or mucinous) was 92% but with a specificity of just 5%. Surveillance of PCL without high-risk features within a multidisciplinary meeting was associated with a low incidence of cancer development, supporting the use of worrisome clinical and radiological features in the initial stratification of PCL.

17.
J Hepatol ; 73(3): 559-565, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recurrence of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) after liver transplantation (LT) is frequent and can impair graft and patient survival. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the current standard therapy for PBC. We investigated the effect of preventive exposure to UDCA on the incidence and long-term consequences of PBC recurrence after LT. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in 780 patients transplanted for PBC, between 1983-2017 in 16 centers (9 countries), and followed-up for a median of 11 years. Among them, 190 received preventive UDCA (10-15 mg/kg/day). The primary outcome was histological evidence of PBC recurrence. The secondary outcomes were graft loss, liver-related death, and all-cause death. The association between preventive UDCA and outcomes was quantified using multivariable-adjusted Cox and restricted mean survival time (RMST) models. RESULTS: While recurrence of PBC significantly shortened graft and patient survival, preventive exposure to UDCA was associated with reduced risk of PBC recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.41; 95% CI 0.28-0.61; p <0.0001), graft loss (aHR 0.33; 95% CI 0.13-0.82; p <0.05), liver-related death (aHR 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.98; p <0.05), and all-cause death (aHR 0.69; 95% CI 0.49-0.96; p <0.05). On RMST analysis, preventive UDCA led to a survival gain of 2.26 years (95% CI 1.28-3.25) over a period of 20 years. Exposure to cyclosporine rather than tacrolimus had a complementary protective effect alongside preventive UDCA, reducing the cumulative incidence of PBC recurrence and all-cause death. CONCLUSIONS: Preventive UDCA after LT for PBC is associated with a reduced risk of disease recurrence, graft loss, and death. A regimen combining cyclosporine and preventive UDCA is associated with the lowest risk of PBC recurrence and mortality. LAY SUMMARY: Recurrence of primary biliary cholangitis after liver transplantation is frequent and can impair graft and patient survival. We performed the largest international study of transplanted patients with primary biliary cholangitis to date. Preventive administration of ursodeoxycholic acid after liver transplantation was associated with reduced risk of disease recurrence, graft loss, liver-related and all-cause mortality. A regimen combining cyclosporine and preventive ursodeoxycholic acid was associated with the best outcomes.

18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(10): 2295-2304.e2, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists because of the often mild symptoms of IBD. We assessed the effects of anti-TNF agents on liver function in patients with PSC and IBD, and their efficacy in treatment of IBD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 141 patients with PSC and IBD receiving treatment with anti-TNF agents (infliximab or adalimumab) at 20 sites (mostly tertiary-care centers) in Europe and North America. We collected data on the serum level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). IBD response was defined as either endoscopic response or, if no endoscopic data were available, clinical response, as determined by the treating clinician or measurements of fecal calprotectin. Remission was defined more stringently as endoscopic mucosal healing. We used linear regression analysis to identify factors associated significantly with level of ALP during anti-TNF therapy. RESULTS: Anti-TNF treatment produced a response of IBD in 48% of patients and remission of IBD in 23%. There was no difference in PSC symptom frequency before or after drug exposure. The most common reasons for anti-TNF discontinuation were primary nonresponse of IBD (17%) and side effects (18%). At 3 months, infliximab-treated patients had a median reduction in serum level of ALP of 4% (interquartile range, reduction of 25% to increase of 19%) compared with a median 15% reduction in ALP in adalimumab-treated patients (interquartile range, reduction of 29% to reduction of 4%; P = .035). Factors associated with lower ALP were normal ALP at baseline (P < .01), treatment with adalimumab (P = .090), and treatment in Europe (P = .083). CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis of 141 patients with PSC and IBD, anti-TNF agents were moderately effective and were not associated with exacerbation of PSC symptoms or specific side effects. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the association between use of adalimumab and reduced serum levels of ALP further.

19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013123, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of people with cirrhosis develop ascites. Several different treatments are available; including, among others, paracentesis plus fluid replacement, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, aldosterone antagonists, and loop diuretics. However, there is uncertainty surrounding their relative efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the benefits and harms of different treatments for ascites in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the different treatments for ascites according to their safety and efficacy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers until May 2019 to identify randomised clinical trials in people with cirrhosis and ascites. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or status) in adults with cirrhosis and ascites. We excluded randomised clinical trials in which participants had previously undergone liver transplantation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed a network meta-analysis with OpenBUGS using Bayesian methods and calculated the odds ratio, rate ratio, and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% credible intervals (CrI) based on an available-case analysis, according to National Institute of Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance. MAIN RESULTS: We included a total of 49 randomised clinical trials (3521 participants) in the review. Forty-two trials (2870 participants) were included in one or more outcomes in the review. The trials that provided the information included people with cirrhosis due to varied aetiologies, without other features of decompensation, having mainly grade 3 (severe), recurrent, or refractory ascites. The follow-up in the trials ranged from 0.1 to 84 months. All the trials were at high risk of bias, and the overall certainty of evidence was low or very low. Approximately 36.8% of participants who received paracentesis plus fluid replacement (reference group, the current standard treatment) died within 11 months. There was no evidence of differences in mortality, adverse events, or liver transplantation in people receiving different interventions compared to paracentesis plus fluid replacement (very low-certainty evidence). Resolution of ascites at maximal follow-up was higher with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (HR 9.44; 95% CrI 1.93 to 62.68) and adding aldosterone antagonists to paracentesis plus fluid replacement (HR 30.63; 95% CrI 5.06 to 692.98) compared to paracentesis plus fluid replacement (very low-certainty evidence). Aldosterone antagonists plus loop diuretics had a higher rate of other decompensation events such as hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, and variceal bleeding compared to paracentesis plus fluid replacement (rate ratio 2.04; 95% CrI 1.37 to 3.10) (very low-certainty evidence). None of the trials using paracentesis plus fluid replacement reported health-related quality of life or symptomatic recovery from ascites. FUNDING: the source of funding for four trials were industries which would benefit from the results of the study; 24 trials received no additional funding or were funded by neutral organisations; and the source of funding for the remaining 21 trials was unclear. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on very low-certainty evidence, there is considerable uncertainty about whether interventions for ascites in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis decrease mortality, adverse events, or liver transplantation compared to paracentesis plus fluid replacement in people with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites. Based on very low-certainty evidence, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and adding aldosterone antagonists to paracentesis plus fluid replacement may increase the resolution of ascites compared to paracentesis plus fluid replacement. Based on very low-certainty evidence, aldosterone antagonists plus loop diuretics may increase the decompensation rate compared to paracentesis plus fluid replacement.


Assuntos
Ascite/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Metanálise em Rede , Paracentese/métodos , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/métodos , Ascite/etiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Gastroenterology ; 159(1): e9-e11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945352
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