Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 94
Filtrar
1.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 49: 1-10, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743376

RESUMO

Our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying anorexia nervosa (AN) is incomplete. The aim was to conduct a metabolomics profiling of serum samples from women with AN (n = 65), women who have recovered from AN (AN-REC, n = 65), and age-matched healthy female controls (HC, n = 65). Serum concentrations of 21 metabolites were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). We used orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) modeling to assign group classification based on the metabolites. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for metabolite concentration differences across groups. The OPLS-DA model could distinguish between the AN and HC groups (p = 9.05 × 10-11 R2Y = 0.36, Q2 = 0.37) and between the AN-REC and HC groups (p = 8.47 × 10-6, R2Y = 0.36, Q2 = 0.24,), but not between the AN and AN-REC groups (p = 0.63). Lower methanol concentration in the AN and AN-REC group explained most of the variance. Likewise, the strongest finding in the univariate analyses was lower serum methanol concentration in both AN and AN-REC compared with HC, which withstood adjustment for body mass index (BMI). We report for the first time lower serum concentrations of methanol in AN. The fact that low methanol was also found in recovered AN suggests that low serum concentration of methanol could either be trait marker or a scar effect of AN.

2.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12880, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064741

RESUMO

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (rg = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (rg = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (rg = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (rgs = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.

3.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252150

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared eating disorder (ED) characteristics and treatment seeking behaviors between self-identified competitive athletes and non-athletes in a large, community-based sample. METHOD: During the 2018 National Eating Disorders Awareness Week, 23,920 respondents, 14.7% of whom identified as competitive athletes, completed the National Eating Disorders Association online screen. Data were collected on demographics, disordered eating behaviors, probable ED diagnosis/risk, treatment history, and intent to seek treatment. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly White (81.8%), female (90.3%), and between 13 and 24 years (82.6%). Over 86% met criteria for an ED/subthreshold ED, and of those, only 2.5% were in treatment. Suicidal ideation was reported in over half of the sample. Athletes reported a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in and more frequent excessive exercise episodes than non-athletes. Athletes also reported a significantly lower likelihood of engaging in and less frequent binge-eating episodes compared with non-athletes. Athletes were more likely to screen positive for an ED/subthreshold ED than non-athletes, but percentages across all probable ED diagnoses were similar. No significant differences between athletes and non-athletes emerged on treatment history or intention to seek treatment post-screen (less than 30%). DISCUSSION: Although the distribution of probable ED diagnoses was similar in athletes and non-athletes, symptom profiles related to disordered eating behavior engagement and frequency may differ. Athletes may be less likely to seek treatment due to stigma, accessibility, and sport-specific barriers. Future work should directly connect survey respondents to tailored treatment tools and increase motivation to seek treatment.

4.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with screen-detected disordered eating and related traits in a population-based sample of women in China. We also explored prevalence trends over time. METHOD: A total of 4,218 females aged 12-50 were sampled from 15 provinces as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2015. The SCOFF questionnaire screened for disordered eating and the selected questions from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire measured dietary restraint, shape concerns, and weight concerns. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and sociodemographic factors captured urban/rural residence, age, ethnicity, income, education, marital status, and occupational status. We calculated the prevalence of screen-detected disordered eating and related traits broadly and across several dimensions and compared prevalence estimates to 2009 and 2011 reports. RESULTS: We detected 296 individuals who screened positive for disordered eating on the SCOFF (prevalence = 7.04%). Positive screens were associated with urban residence (p = .002) and higher education levels (p < .001). Scores on restraint, shape concerns, and weight concerns were all higher for individuals in urban versus village locations (all p's < .001), and with higher BMI (p < .001) for shape and weight concerns. The prevalence of screen-detected disordered eating increased numerically across 2009, 2011, and 2015. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of screen-detected disordered eating in mainland China was comparable to other populations worldwide obtained from a recent meta-analysis. The distribution of disordered eating and related traits varied by several sociodemographic factors, which include age, BMI, urban/rural residence, education, and income, suggesting important directions for case detection and intervention in China.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 507, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe disorder, for which genetic evidence suggests psychiatric as well as metabolic origins. AN has high somatic and psychiatric comorbidities, broad impact on quality of life, and elevated mortality. Risk factor studies of AN have focused on differences between acutely ill and recovered individuals. Such comparisons often yield ambiguous conclusions, as alterations could reflect different effects depending on the comparison. Whereas differences found in acutely ill patients could reflect state effects that are due to acute starvation or acute disease-specific factors, they could also reflect underlying traits. Observations in recovered individuals could reflect either an underlying trait or a "scar" due to lasting effects of sustained undernutrition and illness. The co-twin control design (i.e., monozygotic [MZ] twins who are discordant for AN and MZ concordant control twin pairs) affords at least partial disambiguation of these effects. METHODS: Comprehensive Risk Evaluation for Anorexia nervosa in Twins (CREAT) will be the largest and most comprehensive investigation of twins who are discordant for AN to date. CREAT utilizes a co-twin control design that includes endocrinological, neurocognitive, neuroimaging, genomic, and multi-omic approaches coupled with an experimental component that explores the impact of an overnight fast on most measured parameters. DISCUSSION: The multimodal longitudinal twin assessment of the CREAT study will help to disambiguate state, trait, and "scar" effects, and thereby enable a deeper understanding of the contribution of genetics, epigenetics, cognitive functions, brain structure and function, metabolism, endocrinology, microbiology, and immunology to the etiology and maintenance of AN.

6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(11): 1780-1790, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the early impact of COVID-19 on people with self-reported eating disorders. METHOD: Participants in the United States (US, N = 511) and the Netherlands (NL, N = 510), recruited through ongoing studies and social media, completed an online survey that included both quantitative measures and free-text responses assessing the impact of COVID-19 on situational circumstances, eating disorder symptoms, eating disorder treatment, and general well-being. RESULTS: Results revealed strong and wide-ranging effects on eating disorder concerns and illness behaviors that were consistent with eating disorder type. Participants with anorexia nervosa (US 62% of sample; NL 69%) reported increased restriction and fears about being able to find foods consistent with their meal plan. Individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder (US 30% of sample; NL 15%) reported increases in their binge-eating episodes and urges to binge. Respondents noted marked increases in anxiety since 2019 and reported greater concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on their mental health than physical health. Although many participants acknowledged and appreciated the transition to telehealth, limitations of this treatment modality for this population were raised. Individuals with past histories of eating disorders noted concerns about relapse related to COVID-19 circumstances. Encouragingly, respondents also noted positive effects including greater connection with family, more time for self-care, and motivation to recover. DISCUSSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with increased anxiety and poses specific disorder-related challenges for individuals with eating disorders that require attention by healthcare professionals and carers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Países Baixos , Autorrelato , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511555

RESUMO

We received rapid ethical permission to evaluate the early impact of COVID-19 on people with eating disorders. Participants in the United States (US, N=511) and the Netherlands (NL, N=510), recruited through ongoing studies and social media, completed an online baseline survey that included both quantitative measures and free-text responses assessing the impact of COVID-19 on situational circumstances, eating disorder symptoms, eating disorder treatment, and general well-being. Results revealed strong and wide-ranging effects on eating disorder concerns and illness behaviors that were consistent with diagnoses. Participants with anorexia nervosa (US 62% of sample; NL 69%) reported increased restriction and fears about being able to find foods consistent with their meal plan. Individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder (US 30% of sample; NL 15%) reported increases in their binge-eating episodes and urges to binge. Respondents noted marked increases in anxiety since 2019 and reported greater concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on their mental health than physical health. Although many participants acknowledged and appreciated the transition to telehealth, limitations of this treatment modality for this population were raised. Individuals with past histories of eating disorders noted concerns about relapse related to COVID-19 circumstances. Encouragingly, respondents also noted positive effects including greater connection with family, more time for self-care, and motivation to recover.

8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 307, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Binge Eating Genetics Initiative (BEGIN) is a multipronged investigation examining the interplay of genomic, gut microbiota, and behavioral factors in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. METHODS: 1000 individuals who meet current diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder are being recruited to collect saliva samples for genotyping, fecal sampling for microbiota characterization, and recording of 30 days of passive data and behavioral phenotyping related to eating disorders using the app Recovery Record adapted for the Apple Watch. DISCUSSION: BEGIN examines the interplay of genomic, gut microbiota, and behavioral factors to explore etiology and develop predictors of risk, course of illness, and response to treatment in bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder. We will optimize the richness and longitudinal structure of deep passive and active phenotypic data to lay the foundation for a personalized precision medicine approach enabling just-in-time interventions that will allow individuals to disrupt eating disorder behaviors in real time before they occur. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT04162574. November 14, 2019, Retrospectively Registered.

9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 718-724, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389698

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric disorder with high mortality and relapse rates. Even though changes in inflammatory markers and cytokines are known to accompany cachexia associated with somatic disorders such as cancer and chronic kidney disorder, studies on inflammatory markers in AN are rare and typically include few individuals. Here, we utilize an Olink Proteomics inflammatory panel to explore the concentrations of 92 preselected inflammation-related proteins in plasma samples from women with active AN (N = 113), recovered from AN (AN-REC, N = 113), and normal weight healthy controls (N = 114). After correction for multiple testing, twenty-five proteins differed significantly between the AN group and controls (lower levels: ADA, CCL19, CD40, CD5, CD8A, CSF1, CXCL1, CXCL5, HGF, IL10RB, IL12B, 1L18R1, LAP TGFß1, MCP3, OSM, TGFα, TNFRSF9, TNFS14 and TRANCE; higher levels: CCL11, CCL25, CST5, DNER, LIFR and OPG). Although more than half of these differences (N = 15) were present in the comparison between AN and AN-REC, no significant differences were seen between AN-REC and controls. Furthermore, twenty-five proteins correlated positively with BMI (ADA, AXIN1, CASP8, CD5, CD40, CSF1, CXCL1, CXCL5, EN-RAGE, HGF, IL6, IL10RB, IL12B, IL18, IL18R1, LAP TGFß1, OSM, SIRT2, STAMBP, TGFα, TNFRSF9, TNFS14, TRANCE, TRAIL and VEGFA) and four proteins correlated negatively with BMI (CCL11, CCL25, CCL28 and DNER). These results suggest that a dysregulated inflammatory status is associated with AN, but, importantly, seem to be confined to the acute illness state.

10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the most disabling and fatal psychiatric illnesses, eating disorders (EDs) often manifest early in life, which encourages investigations into in utero and perinatal environmental risk factors. The objective of this study was to determine whether complications during pregnancy and birth and perinatal conditions are associated with later eating disorder risk in offspring and whether these associations are unique to EDs. METHODS: All individuals born in Denmark to Danish-born parents 1989-2010 were included in the study and followed from their 6th birthday until the end of 2016. Exposure to factors related to pregnancy, birth, and perinatal conditions was determined using national registers, as were hospital-based diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified during follow-up. For comparison, diagnoses of depressive, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders were also included. Cox regression was used to compare hazards of psychiatric disorders in exposed and unexposed individuals. RESULTS: 1 167 043 individuals were included in the analysis. We found that similar to the comparison disorders, prematurity was associated with increased eating disorder risk. Conversely, patterns of increasing risks of EDs, especially in AN, with increasing parental ages differed from the more U-shaped patterns observed for depressive and anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that pregnancy and early life are vulnerable developmental periods when exposures may influence offspring mental health, including eating disorder risk, later in life. The results suggest that some events pose more global transdiagnostic risk whereas other patterns, such as increasing parental ages, appear more specific to EDs.

11.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(2): 296-301, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research indicates a link between ovarian hormones and eating pathology, suggesting that some women with an eating disorder may be ovarian hormone sensitive. Using premenstrual symptoms (PMS) as an indirect measure of ovarian hormone sensitivity, we investigated the association between 11 PMS domains and four core eating disorder symptoms: body dissatisfaction, binge eating, purging, and restriction. METHOD: Participants were young adult women (N = 455) who completed an online survey. PMS were assessed using the Daily Record of Severity of Problems and eating pathology with the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory. Pearson correlations were calculated between PMS domains and eating disorder symptoms followed by a stepwise regression to create a more refined model for each eating disorder symptom, including relevant covariates. RESULTS: Significant correlations between a majority of eating disorder symptoms and PMS emerged (r's = .13-.37; p < .01). Backward regression revealed significant PMS domain predictors for each symptom. The final models captured a small-to-moderate amount of variance for each eating disorder symptom (R2 = 0.06-0.25). DISCUSSION: Women who experience physical and psychological PMS may be at risk for eating disorder symptoms; PMS could be a marker of ovarian hormone sensitivity in women at risk for an eating disorder. Future studies should address mechanisms underlying this association.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Síndrome Pré-Menstrual/complicações , Progesterona/sangue , Adulto , Estradiol/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Progesterona/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(9): 2036-2046, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087453

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and likely to share genetic risk factors. Hence, we examine their shared genetic background using a cross-disorder GWAS meta-analysis of 3495 AN cases, 2688 OCD cases, and 18,013 controls. We confirmed a high genetic correlation between AN and OCD (rg = 0.49 ± 0.13, p = 9.07 × 10-7) and a sizable SNP heritability (SNP h2 = 0.21 ± 0.02) for the cross-disorder phenotype. Although no individual loci reached genome-wide significance, the cross-disorder phenotype showed strong positive genetic correlations with other psychiatric phenotypes (e.g., rg = 0.36 with bipolar disorder and 0.34 with neuroticism) and negative genetic correlations with metabolic phenotypes (e.g., rg = -0.25 with body mass index and -0.20 with triglycerides). Follow-up analyses revealed that although AN and OCD overlap heavily in their shared risk with other psychiatric phenotypes, the relationship with metabolic and anthropometric traits is markedly stronger for AN than for OCD. We further tested whether shared genetic risk for AN/OCD was associated with particular tissue or cell-type gene expression patterns and found that the basal ganglia and medium spiny neurons were most enriched for AN-OCD risk, consistent with neurobiological findings for both disorders. Our results confirm and extend genetic epidemiological findings of shared risk between AN and OCD and suggest that larger GWASs are warranted.

13.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 16: 100467, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701041

RESUMO

Recruitment and retention in pediatric obesity treatment remains challenging, especially for groups at highest risk of this condition, including African Americans. However, most investigations examine attrition during intervention or follow-up. Little is known about those who refuse enrollment, or drop out at baseline. Thus, the trajectory of recruitment, enrollment, and retention, especially at these early stages, is not well understood, limiting knowledge of treatment access. This study examined enrollment in a pediatric weight management intervention. We provide demographic information on nested consort flow groups. We compared non-overlapping interest/enrollment groups to examine differences between those who progressed to the next consort flow group and those who did not; specifically the four groups examined were: (1) eligible at screening, did not attend baseline (n children  = 261), (2) attended baseline, did not enroll (n children  = 46), (3) enrolled, did not complete posttesting (n children  = 81), and (4) completed posttesting (n children  = 284). Of enrolled families, >70% were African American; >78% completed posttesting. No differences emerged across groups on sex, ethnicity, or race (ps > .05). Attrition was unrelated to initial child BMI. In this trial, the goal of enrolling diverse parents of children with obesity was achieved, and most enrollees completed treatment.

14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are two severe eating disorders associated with high premature mortality, suicidal risk and serious medical complications. Transition between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa over the illness course and familial co-aggregation of the two eating disorders imply aetiological overlap. However, genetic and environmental liabilities to the overlap are poorly understood. Quantitative genetic research using clinical diagnosis is needed. METHODS: We acquired a clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (prevalence = 0.90%) and bulimia nervosa (prevalence = 0.48%) in a large population-based sample (N = 782 938) of randomly selected full-sisters and maternal half-sisters born in Sweden between 1970 and 2005. Structural equation modelling was applied to quantify heritability of clinically diagnosed anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and the contributions of genetic and environmental effects on their overlap. RESULTS: The heritability of clinically diagnosed anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa was estimated at 43% [95% confidence interval (CI) (36-50%)] and 41% (31-52%), respectively, in the study population, with the remaining variance explained by variance in unique environmental effects. We found statistically significant genetic [0.66, 95% CI (0.49-0.82)] and unique environmental correlations [0.55 (0.43-0.66)] between the two clinically diagnosed eating disorders; and their overlap was about equally explained by genetic and unique environmental effects [co-heritability 47% (35-58%)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports shared mechanisms for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and extends the literature from self-reported behavioural measures to clinical diagnosis. The findings encourage future molecular genetic research on both eating disorders and emphasize clinical vigilance for symptom fluctuation between them.

15.
J Psychosom Res ; 126: 109797, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal problems are common in all eating disorders; however, the extent to which these problems predate the onset of eating disorders is not clear. We explored longitudinal associations between childhood gastrointestinal problems and adolescent disordered eating, and assessed whether observed associations are potentially causal or due to familial confounding factors. METHODS: Data from a population-based Swedish twin sample were used to investigate associations between parent- and self-reported protracted constipation and diarrhea in childhood and adolescence, and later disordered eating, measured by the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI). Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations. Possible familial confounding was explored by using a within-twin pair analysis. RESULTS: We found that those who reported a history of constipation at age 15 scored 5.55 and 5.04 points higher, respectively, on the EDI total score at age 15 and 18, compared with those without constipation. Those reporting a history of diarrhea at age 15 scored 5.15 points higher, and the group reporting both problems scored 9.52 points higher on the EDI total score at age 15 than those reporting no problems. We observed that the association between constipation and disordered eating was attenuated in the within-twin pair analysis, but remained positive. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal problems in childhood and adolescence are significantly associated with disordered eating. Associations were partly due to familial confounding, but might also be consistent with a causal interpretation. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of disordered eating when following children and adolescents who present with gastrointestinal problems.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Diarreia/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1207-1214, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308545

RESUMO

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness1, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men2-4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%5. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders6, and outcomes are unacceptably poor7. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)8,9 and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(8): 577-586, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (EDs) frequently co-occur, little is known about the shared etiology. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the genetic association between ADHD and various EDs, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and other EDs such as bulimia nervosa. METHODS: We applied different genetically informative designs to register-based information of a Swedish nationwide population (N = 3,550,118). We first examined the familial coaggregation of clinically diagnosed ADHD and EDs across multiple types of relatives. We then applied quantitative genetic modeling in full-sisters and maternal half-sisters to estimate the genetic correlations between ADHD and EDs. We further tested the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores and ED symptoms, and between AN polygenic risk scores and ADHD symptoms, in a genotyped population-based sample (N = 13,472). RESULTS: Increased risk of all types of EDs was found in individuals with ADHD (any ED: odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.81, 4.14; AN: OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 2.15, 2.86; other EDs: OR = 4.66, 95% CI = 4.47, 4.87; bulimia nervosa: OR = 5.01, 95% CI = 4.63, 5.41) and their relatives compared with individuals without ADHD and their relatives. The magnitude of the associations decreased as the degree of relatedness decreased, suggesting shared familial liability between ADHD and EDs. Quantitative genetic models revealed stronger genetic correlation of ADHD with other EDs (.37, 95% CI = .31, .42) than with AN (.14, 95% CI = .05, .22). ADHD polygenic risk scores correlated positively with ED symptom measures overall and with the subscales Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction despite small effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed stronger genetic association with ADHD for non-AN EDs than for AN, highlighting specific genetic correlation beyond a general genetic factor across psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dev Psychol ; 55(7): 1566-1578, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985163

RESUMO

Body dissatisfaction is a significant mental health symptom present in adolescent girls and boys. However, it is often either disregarded in adolescent boys or examined using assessments that may not resonate with males. The present study addresses these issues, examining the manifestation, etiology, and correlates of 3 facets of body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys. Adolescent male twins aged 16- to 17-years-old from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development were included along with a female comparison group: 915 monozygotic and 671 dizygotic same-sex twins. Body dissatisfaction was defined using measures of height dissatisfaction, muscle dissatisfaction, and the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-BD). We examined the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, whether the facets of body dissatisfaction were phenotypically and etiologically distinct, and associations with specific externalizing and internalizing symptoms. For boys, muscle dissatisfaction scores were greater than height dissatisfaction scores. Results also indicated that height and muscle dissatisfaction were phenotypically and etiologically distinct from the EDI-BD. Unique associations were observed with externalizing and internalizing symptoms: muscle dissatisfaction with symptoms of bulimia nervosa and the EDI-BD with internalizing symptoms, body mass index, and drive for thinness. The facets of body dissatisfaction were also largely distinct in girls and unique between-sex associations with externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. Overall, male-oriented aspects of body dissatisfaction are distinct from female-oriented aspects of body dissatisfaction. To capture the full picture of male body dissatisfaction, multiple facets must be addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Gêmeos , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
19.
Eat Behav ; 33: 18-22, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785025

RESUMO

Youth with loss of control eating (LOC) have poorer social relationships than youth without LOC. However, perceived family functioning among youth reporting LOC is relatively unexplored. We examined perceived family functioning among 990 twins (age = 17.47 ±â€¯0.71 years, 53% female) from the Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence with (n = 158) and without (n = 832) LOC. LOC was assessed with one binary item. Associations between family functioning and LOC were examined using general linear models that accounted for dependence in twin data. Girls with greater family conflict had higher odds of endorsing LOC (p = .02), but not after accounting for depressive symptoms (p = .26). Further analysis indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the association between LOC and family conflict (p = .04). This finding is consistent with an interpersonal model, which proposes that interpersonal difficulties lead to negative emotional states, which promotes LOC as a method of coping with negative affect. Family cohesion and expressiveness were not associated with LOC in girls, and none of the family functioning variables were associated with LOC in boys (ps > .05). Future studies are needed to clarify these relations and to determine any relevant treatment indications.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Colorado , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(2): 200-205, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined a hypothesized pathway by which interoceptive dysfunction accounted for associations between personality features (harm avoidance, self-directedness, and perfectionism) and anorexia nervosa (AN) severity (indicated by drive for thinness, eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals, and body mass index). METHOD: The study sample (n = 270, mean age = 28.47, 95.2% female, 98% White/Caucasian) consisted of probands and biological relatives who met DSM-IV criteria for lifetime diagnoses of AN (omitting criterion D, amenorrhea) drawn from the Price Foundation Anorexia Nervosa Affected Relative Pairs Study (AN-ARP). Participants completed measures assessing personality, interoceptive dysfunction, and eating pathology. RESULTS: Associations between personality features of low self-directedness and high perfectionism and indicators of AN severity (drive for thinness and eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals) were significant, as were the hypothesized indirect pathways through interoceptive dysfunction. Neither harm avoidance nor body mass index was significantly related to other study variables, and the proposed indirect pathways involving these variables were not significant. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that certain personality features may relate to AN severity, in part, through their associations with interoceptive dysfunction. Future research should examine prospective associations and the value of interventions targeting interoceptive dysfunction for interrupting the link between personality and AN severity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...