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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: p16 positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients are potentially cured with definitive treatment. However, there are currently no reliable biomarkers of treatment failure in p16 positive OPSCC. Pathologist-based visual assessment of tumor cell multinucleation has been shown to be independently prognostic of disease-free survival in p16 positive OPSCC. However, its quantification is time-intensive, subjective, and at risk of interobserver variability. METHODS: We present a deep learning-based metric, the multi-nucleation index (MuNI), for prognostication in p16 positive OPSCC. This approach quantifies tumor multi-nucleation from digitally scanned hematoxylin eosin (H&E)-stained slides. Representative H&E whole slide images from 1,094 previously untreated p16 positive OPSCC patients were acquired from six institutions for optimizing and validating MuNI. RESULTS: MuNI was prognostic for disease-free (DFS), overall (OS), or distant metastasis-free (DMFS) survival in p16 positive OPSCC with HRs of 1.78(95%CI:1.37-2.30), 1.94(1.44-2.60), and 1.88(1.43-2.47), respectively, independent of age, smoking status, treatment type, and T/N-categories in multivariable analyses. It was also prognostic for DFS, OS, and DMFS in OPSCC patients at stages I and III. CONCLUSION: MuNI holds promise as a low-cost, tissue non-destructive, H&E stain based digital biomarker test for counseling, treatment, and surveillance of p16 positive OPSCC patients. These data support further confirmation of MuNI in prospective trials. FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health (under award numbers 1U24CA199374-01, R01CA202752-01A, R01CA208236-01A1, R01CA216579-01A1, R01CA220581-01A1, 1U01CA239055-01), the National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (1R43EB028736-01), the National Center for Research Resources (1C06RR12463-01), the VA Merit Review Award (IBX004121A) from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development Service, the DoD Breast Cancer Research Program Breakthrough Level 1 Award (W81XWH-19-1-0668), the DOD Prostate Cancer Idea Development Award (W81XWH-15-1-0558), the DOD Lung Cancer Investigator-Initiated Translational Research Award (W81XWH-18-1-0440), the DOD Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program (W81XWH-16-1-0329), the Ohio Third Frontier Technology Validation Fund, the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation Program in the Department of Biomedical Engineering, and the Clinical and Translational Science Award Program (CTSA) at Case Western Reserve University, the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, an institutional pilot grant (1IK2CX001953) and Dan L Duncan Comprehensive Cancer Center Support Grant (NCI-CA125123). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

2.
Oral Oncol ; 116: 105241, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop nomograms predicting overall survival (OS), freedom from locoregional recurrence (FFLR), and freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM) for patients receiving chemoradiation for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and treatment data for patients with LSCC enrolled on NRG Oncology/RTOG 0129 and 0522 were extracted from the RTOG database. The dataset was partitioned into 70% training and 30% independent validation datasets. Significant predictors of OS, FFLR, and FFDM were obtained using univariate analysis on the training dataset. Nomograms were built using multivariate analysis with four a priori variables (age, gender, T-stage, and N-stage) and significant predictors from the univariate analyses. These nomograms were internally and externally validated using c-statistics (c) on the training and validation datasets, respectively. RESULTS: The OS nomogram included age, gender, T stage, N stage, and number of cisplatin cycles. The FFLR nomogram included age, gender, T-stage, N-stage, and time-equivalent biologically effective dose. The FFDM nomogram included age, gender, N-stage, and number of cisplatin cycles. Internal validation of the OS nomogram, FFLR nomogram, and FFDM nomogram yielded c = 0.66, c = 0.66 and c = 0.73, respectively. External validation of these nomograms yielded c = 0.59, c = 0.70, and c = 0.73, respectively. Using nomogram score cutoffs, three risk groups were separated for each outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed and validated easy-to-use nomograms for LSCC outcomes using prospective cooperative group trial data.

3.
Head Neck ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For human papilloma virus positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), management recommendations for patients with a single metastatic lymph node <6 cm in diameter remain nebulous, leading to treatment heterogeneity in this common subgroup of patients. METHODS: We utilized the National Cancer Database to perform survival and multivariable analyses of patients with HPV+ OPSCC with one positive lymph node <6 cm and negative surgical margins. RESULTS: We found that 5-year survival is comparable between patients who receive surgery and adjuvant radiation versus surgery alone. In multivariable analyses, we found no significant difference in the hazard ratio of overall survival after adjusting for various potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that patients with margin-negative HPV+ OPSCC with a single positive lymph node <6 cm have comparable survival with or without adjuvant radiation. Future studies exploring outcomes for this specific group in randomized-controlled trials will be critical for further evaluating these initial observations.

4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102915, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While smoking is associated with worse outcomes in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the magnitude of this association is unclear given the heterogenous smoking definitions and outcomes. Our objective was to investigate the association between smoking, survival, and recurrence in HPV-related OPSCC using multiple smoking metrics reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 375 adults with p16+ OPSCC undergoing surgical resection (n = 272) or definitive chemoradiation (n = 103) at a tertiary academic institution from 2006 to 2017. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence. We used multiple smoking metrics commonly cited in previous studies, including ever versus never smokers, current versus former/never smokers, ≤10 versus >10 pack-year, ≤20 versus >20 pack-year, and continuous pack-year. RESULTS: There were 375 patients, median age 58 years, with 326 (87%) males, and median follow-up of 52 months. Of all smoking metrics, >20 pack-year history was the strongest predictor of both OS (HR 2.24, 95% CI: 1.19-4.20) and DFS (HR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.04-2.66) on univariable and multivariable analysis after adjusting for age, overall stage, and comorbidities. Patients with >20 pack-year smoking history were also more likely to have recurrence (HR 1.59, 95% CI: 0.95-2.67) after adjusting for overall stage. CONCLUSION: Heavier smoking >20 pack-years was the strongest smoking metric associated with 2-times worse survival and recurrence. Our findings suggest that >20 pack-year smoking history may be a more useful cutoff for risk stratification models but requires further validation.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2003128, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507809

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reducing radiation treatment dose could improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients with good-risk human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Whether reduced-dose radiation produces disease control and QOL equivalent to standard chemoradiation is not proven. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized, phase II trial, patients with p16-positive, T1-T2 N1-N2b M0, or T3 N0-N2b M0 OPSCC (7th edition staging) with ≤ 10 pack-years of smoking received 60 Gy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) over 6 weeks with concurrent weekly cisplatin (C) or 60 Gy IMRT over 5 weeks. To be considered for a phase III study, an arm had to achieve a 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate superior to a historical control rate of 85% and a 1-year mean composite score ≥ 60 on the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). RESULTS: Three hundred six patients were randomly assigned and eligible. Two-year PFS for IMRT + C was 90.5% rejecting the null hypothesis of 2-year PFS ≤ 85% (P = .04). For IMRT, 2-year PFS was 87.6% (P = .23). One-year MDADI mean scores were 85.30 and 81.76 for IMRT + C and IMRT, respectively. Two-year overall survival rates were 96.7% for IMRT + C and 97.3% for IMRT. Acute adverse events (AEs) were defined as those occurring within 180 days from the end of treatment. There were more grade 3-4 acute AEs for IMRT + C (79.6% v 52.4%; P < .001). Rates of grade 3-4 late AEs were 21.3% and 18.1% (P = .56). CONCLUSION: The IMRT + C arm met both prespecified end points justifying advancement to a phase III study. Higher rates of grade ≥ 3 acute AEs were reported in the IMRT + C arm.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151273

RESUMO

Importance: Regional lymph node metastasis remains an important prognostic factor in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Although survival among patients with regional metastasis in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC is more favorable compared with patients who are HPV negative, prognostic variables associated with failure in patients with single-node metastasis are not known. Objective: To evaluate recurrence and survival in patients with HPV-related OPSCC with single-lymph node metastasis treated with transoral surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 207 adults with newly diagnosed p16-positive OPSCC and pathology-confirmed single-node disease who underwent surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy at 2 tertiary academic medical centers from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Statistical analysis was performed from September 1, 2018, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Surgery alone (n = 59), surgery with adjuvant radiation (n = 75), or surgery with adjuvant chemoradiation (n = 73). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was regional recurrence. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, any recurrence, and identification of factors associated with regional recurrence and overall survival. Results: Among 207 patients, 178 (86%) were men, with a median age of 57 years (range, 35-82 years) at the time of surgery. Median follow-up was 36.2 months (range, 7-127 months). Regional recurrence occurred in 11 patients (5%). Of these, 1 patient (9%) was lost to follow-up after diagnosis, 1 (9%) was treated with palliative chemotherapy, and 9 (82%) were treated with curative intent. Ultimately, 7 patients received successful salvage treatment, and 3 died with disease. Overall, there were 21 patients (10%) with any recurrence, with 4 patients (19%) experiencing local recurrence, 11 (52%) experiencing regional recurrence, and 6 (29%) experiencing distant metastasis. The 5-year overall survival was 95% (95% CI, 89%-98%) for all patients. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), advanced T stage (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.9-14.0), and positive margins (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.8-67.5) were associated with increased regional recurrence. Extranodal extension (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.8), lymph node size greater than 3 cm (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), and adjuvant therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02-0.4) were associated with decreased regional recurrence. Advanced comorbidities (hazard ratio, 6.20; 95% CI, 1.4-27.7), lymphovascular invasion (hazard ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.0-21.2), and regional recurrence (hazard ratio, 16.0; 95% CI, 3.1-82.0) were associated with worse overall survival. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that patients with HPV-related OPSCC and single-node disease undergoing surgical resection with or without adjuvant treatment have excellent survival. Adjuvant therapy appears to improve regional control. Among patients with regional recurrence of OPSCC, there is a high rate of successful salvage treatment.

7.
Radiother Oncol ; 155: 246-253, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-third of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) present with locally advanced disease involving the regional lymph nodes, but indications for regional lymph node radiation therapy (rLN-RT) are not well established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 72 patients with locally advanced MCC were retrospectively reviewed. Regional lymph nodes were addressed with observation, lymph node dissection (LND) alone, definitive nodal radiotherapy (DnRT), or LND plus adjuvant nodal radiotherapy (AnRT). Cox regression was used to compare treatment modalities in terms of regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: rLN-RT, including both DnRT and AnRT, improved RRFS (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.40, p = 0.003), DRFS (HR: 0.28, CI: 0.11-0.76, p = 0.01), DFS (HR: 0.23, CI: 0.09-0.58, p = 0.002), and DSS (HR: 0.23, CI: 0.06-0.90, p = 0.03). AnRT improved DFS and DSS in high-risk subgroups (e.g., extranodal extension (ENE), ≥ 2 positive lymph nodes, or bulkier lymph nodes). The benefit of AnRT increased with higher disease burden. After controlling for these adverse factors, AnRT significantly improved RRFS (HR: 0.04, CI: 0.01-0.37, p = 0.004), DRFS (HR: 0.14, CI: 0.04-0.50, p = 0.003), DFS (HR: 0.09, CI: 0.02-0.33, p < 0.001), and DSS (HR: 0.21, CI: 0.05-0.89, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: rLN-RT, including both DnRT and AnRT, reduces relapse and death from MCC in patients with node-positive disease. AnRT is particularly beneficial for patients with ENE, multiple involved lymph nodes, or larger nodal foci of disease. These results argue for more liberal use of nodal RT for MCC patients who present with node-positive disease.

8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073342

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current recommendations regarding the size of wide local excision (WLE) margins for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) are not well established. METHODS: WLE and pathologic margins were respectively reviewed from 79 patients with stage I or II MCC, who underwent WLE at Washington University in St Louis from 2005 to 2019. Outcomes included local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), regional recurrence-free survival (RRFS), distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Thirty-two percent of patients received adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT). At 1 year, DFS was 51.3%, 71.4%, and 87.8% for patients with WLE margins < 1 cm, 1-1.9 cm, and ≥ 2 cm, respectively (p = 0.02). At 3 years, the DSS was 57.7%, 82.6%, and 100% for patients with WLE margins < 1 cm, 1-1.9 cm, and ≥ 2 cm, respectively (p = 0.02). Multivariable Cox analysis demonstrated that every 1-cm increase in WLE margins was associated with improved RRFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.75], DRFS (HR 0.30, CI 0.08-0.99), DFS (HR 0.42, CI 0.21-0.86), and DSS (HR 0.16, CI 0.04-0.61). WLE and pathologic margin size were moderately-to-strongly correlated (r = 0.66). Close or positive pathologic margins (< 3 mm) were associated with reduced DRFS (HR 6.83, CI 1.80-25.9), DFS (HR 2.98, CI 1.31-6.75), and DSS (HR 3.52, CI 1.14-10.9). CONCLUSION: Reduced WLE and pathologic margins were associated with higher risk of relapse and death from MCC. Larger WLE margins are important in populations with lower rates of adjuvant radiation.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 102805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust prognostic stratification of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is important for developing individualized treatment plans. This study was conducted to develop and validate a clinically feasible prognostic classifier based on transcriptome-wide gene expression profiles. METHODS: Tumor tissues were collected from 208 OPSCC patients treated at Washington University in St. Louis and 130 OPSCC patients treated at Vanderbilt University, used for model training and validation, respectively. OPSCC patients (n = 70) from the TCGA cohort were also included for independent validation. Based on RNA-seq profiling data, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to identify genes associated with disease outcomes. Then, Lasso-penalized multivariate survival models were constructed to identify biomarker genes for developing a prognostic gene signature. FINDINGS: A 60-gene signature was identified by RNA-seq profiling analysis. Computed risk score of the gene signature was significantly predictive of 5-year overall survival of the training cohort (Hazard ratio (HR) 28·32, P = 4·3E-41). Subgroup analysis stratified by HPV status revealed that the signature was prognostic in HPV-positive OPSCC patients (HR 30·55, P = 7·0E-37) and was independent of clinical features. Importantly, the gene signature was validated in two independent patient cohorts, including the TCGA cohort (HR 3·94, P = 0·0018) and the Vanderbilt cohort (HR 8·50, P = 5·7E-09) for overall survival. INTERPRETATION: The prognostic gene signature is a robust tool for risk stratification of OPSCC patients. The signature remains prognostic among HPV-positive OPSCC patients. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust prognostic stratification of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) may facilitate individualized patient management. This study was conducted to develop and validate a clinically feasible prognostic classifier based on microRNA sequencing (miRNA-seq) analysis. METHODS: Tumor tissues were collected for miRNA-seq analysis from 324 OPSCC patients treated at Washington University in St. Louis and 130 OPSCC patients treated at Vanderbilt University, used for model training and validation, respectively. OPSCC patients (n = 79) from the TCGA were also included for independent validation. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify miRNAs associated with disease outcomes. RESULTS: A 26-miRNA signature was identified by miRNA-seq profiling analysis. Based on computed risk scores of the signature, we classified the patients into low- and high-risk groups. In the training cohort, the high-risk group had much shorter overall survival (OS) compared to the low-risk group [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.80, 95% CI = 2.37-6.10, P < .001]. Subgroup analysis further revealed that the signature was prognostic for HPV-positive OPSCCs (HR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.65-5.71, P < .001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the signature was independent of common clinicopathologic factors for OPSCCs. Importantly, the miRNA signature was a statistically significant predictor of OS in independent validation cohorts (TCGA cohort: HR = 6.05, 95% CI = 2.10-17.37, P < .001; Vanderbilt cohort: HR = 7.98, 95% CI = 3.99-15.97, P < .001; Vanderbilt HPV-positive cohort: HR = 8.71, 95% CI = 2.70-28.14, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The miRNA signature is a robust and independent prognostic tool for risk stratification of OPSCCs including HPV-positive OPSCCs.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(19): 5140-5152, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pembrolizumab improved survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aims of this study were to determine if pembrolizumab would be safe, result in pathologic tumor response (pTR), and lower the relapse rate in patients with resectable human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated HNSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Neoadjuvant pembrolizumab (200 mg) was administered and followed 2 to 3 weeks later by surgical tumor ablation. Postoperative (chemo)radiation was planned. Patients with high-risk pathology (positive margins and/or extranodal extension) received adjuvant pembrolizumab. pTR was quantified as the proportion of the resection bed with tumor necrosis, keratinous debris, and giant cells/histiocytes: pTR-0 (<10%), pTR-1 (10%-49%), and pTR-2 (≥50%). Coprimary endpoints were pTR-2 among all patients and 1-year relapse rate in patients with high-risk pathology (historical: 35%). Correlations of baseline PD-L1 and T-cell infiltration with pTR were assessed. Tumor clonal dynamics were evaluated (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02296684). RESULTS: Thirty-six patients enrolled. After neoadjuvant pembrolizumab, serious (grades 3-4) adverse events and unexpected surgical delays/complications did not occur. pTR-2 occurred in eight patients (22%), and pTR-1 in eight other patients (22%). One-year relapse rate among 18 patients with high-risk pathology was 16.7% (95% confidence interval, 3.6%-41.4%). pTR ≥10% correlated with baseline tumor PD-L1, immune infiltrate, and IFNγ activity. Matched samples showed upregulation of inhibitory checkpoints in patients with pTR-0 and confirmed clonal loss in some patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with locally advanced, HPV-unrelated HNSCC, pembrolizumab was safe, and any pathologic response was observed in 44% of patients with 0% pathologic complete responses. The 1-year relapse rate in patients with high-risk pathology was lower than historical.

12.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104819, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delays in radiation are multifactorial, frequent, and associated with poor outcomes. This study investigates the effect of both primary and adjuvant radiation therapy duration and their interaction with other measures of treatment delay on survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: We built a retrospective cohort using the National Cancer Database, consisting of primary oral cavity, hypopharynx, larynx and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastasis and with at least six weeks of radiation. The primary exposure was the duration of radiation therapy (DRT), and the primary outcome was death. We estimated the association between DRT and 5-year overall survival (OS) using Kaplan-Meier curves and hazard ratios (HRs) with Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: In both primary (definitive) and adjuvant (post-surgical) radiation settings, increased DRT results in decreased survival. In the primary radiation cohort, 5-year OS was 59.7% [59.1%-60.3%] among those with 47-53 days DRT, which decreased significantly with each subsequent week to completion (81+ days: 38.4% [36.2%-40.7%]). In the surgical cohort, survival decreased 16.5% when DRT extended beyond 75 days (40-46 days: 68.2% [67.3%-69.1%] vs. 75+ days: 53.3% [50.1%-56.7%]). Multivariate analyses showed increased hazard of death with increased DRT (primary radiation: 81+ days HR: 1.69 [1.58-1.81]); surgical: 75+ days HR: 1.61 [1.37-1.88]), with effects intensifying when restricting to those receiving full-dose radiation. CONCLUSION: A prolonged DRT was associated with worse OS in head and neck cancer. Radiation treatment delays of even a week lead to a significant survival disadvantage. DRT had a stronger association with survival than time to initiation of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

13.
Cancer ; 126(17): 3900-3906, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478867

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, providers and patients must engage in shared decision making regarding the pros and cons of early versus delayed interventions for localized skin cancer. Patients at highest risk of COVID-19 complications are older; are immunosuppressed; and have diabetes, cancer, or cardiopulmonary disease, with multiple comorbidities associated with worse outcomes. Physicians must weigh the patient's risk of COVID-19 complications in the event of exposure against the risk of worse oncologic outcomes from delaying cancer therapy. Herein, the authors have summarized current data regarding the risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality based on age and comorbidities and have reviewed the literature assessing how treatment delays affect oncologic outcomes. They also have provided multidisciplinary recommendations regarding the timing of local therapy for early-stage skin cancers during this pandemic with input from experts at 11 different institutions. For patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, the authors recommend prioritizing treatment, but a short delay can be considered for patients with favorable T1 disease who are at higher risk of COVID-19 complications. For patients with melanoma, the authors recommend delaying the treatment of patients with T0 to T1 disease for 3 months if there is no macroscopic residual disease at the time of biopsy. Treatment of tumors ≥T2 can be delayed for 3 months if the biopsy margins are negative. For patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, those with Brigham and Women's Hospital T1 to T2a disease can have their treatment delayed for 2 to 3 months unless there is rapid growth, symptomatic lesions, or the patient is immunocompromised. The treatment of tumors ≥T2b should be prioritized, but a 1-month to 2-month delay is unlikely to worsen disease-specific mortality. For patients with squamous cell carcinoma in situ and basal cell carcinoma, treatment can be deferred for 3 months unless the individual is highly symptomatic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Morbidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tempo para o Tratamento
15.
Laryngoscope ; 130(8): 1961-1966, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic significance of smoking in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) when considering American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition (AJCC-8) stage. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Three hundred seventeen HPV-positive OPSCC patients with known AJCC-8 stage and smoking status (<10 or ≥10 pack-years) seen at a tertiary center from 1997 to 2017 were studied. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to compare 5-year overall survival (OS) by smoking status and by clinical AJCC-8 stage and smoking status combined. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression for the independent effects of smoking and AJCC-8 stage. We also studied pathologic stage and estimated the combined effects of smoking and clinical stage. RESULTS: The ≥10 pack-years smokers had worse 5-year OS than <10 pack-years smokers (93.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 89.7-97.8 vs. 82.3%; 95% CI: 76.0%-89.1%). When stratified by AJCC-8 clinical stage, only stage I <10 pack-years smokers (98.7%; 95% CI: 96.3%-100.0%) had significantly better 5-year OS than their ≥10 pack-years (84.8%; 95% CI: 76.4%-94.1%) counterparts. In a multivariable analysis, ≥10 pack-years smoking was associated with increased hazard of death when adjusting for AJCC-8 clinical (HR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.16-5.46) and pathologic (HR: 5.21; 95% CI: 1.47-18.5) stage. In both analyses, stage III patients demonstrated worse survival than stage I, and smoking had greater impact at lower stages. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a negative prognosticator in HPV-positive OPSCC and interacts with AJCC-8 clinical stage. It is important to understand the impact of smoking in HPV-positive disease when considering treatment plans and deintensification trials. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2b Laryngoscope, 130: 1961-1966, 2020.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
16.
Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol ; 5(2): 210-216, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337351

RESUMO

Objectives: We investigated how tonsillectomy during childhood may influence the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cancer of the tonsils in adult life using p16 as a surrogate marker for HPV infection. Study Design: Retrospective observational study. Methods: A total of 280 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and known p16 status were eligible for this study. Each participant was called to obtain the childhood tonsillectomy history. Respondents were subgrouped by p16 status and the primary tumor location. Patient demographic and clinical information was analyzed for association with Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Location of tumor was modeled using univariate (UVA) and multivariate (MVA) logistic regression with associated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of the 280 patients, 115 (41%) were respondents: 104 (90.4%) were p16 positive and 11 (9.6%) were p16 negative. For p16 positive patients, we observed a majority (93%) of intact tonsils in those with tonsil cancer, compared to 45% of intact tonsils in patients with p16 positive cancer elsewhere in the oropharynx (P < .001). MVA logistic regression showed that female gender (OR = 4.16, P = .0675), prior smoking history (OR = 2.6, P = .0367), and intact tonsils (OR = 15.2, P < .0001) were associated with tonsillar OPSCC. Conclusion: We found that patients with p16 positive OPSCC at a non-tonsil site were much more likely to have had prior tonsillectomy vs those with p16 positive OPSCC arising within the tonsil. Nevertheless, we do not advocate tonsillectomies as a public health policy to reduce HPV-related OPSCC. Level of Evidence: 6.

17.
Laryngoscope ; 130(4): 939-945, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the prognostic significance of extranodal extension (ENE) in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-positive OPSCC). METHODS: Retrospective cohort of cases diagnosed with HPV-positive OPSCC from 2010 to 2015 in the National Cancer Database. Inclusion of all OPSCC HPV-positive cases with appropriate International Classification of Diseases-0-3 codes that received surgery with a neck dissection. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. Hazard ratios (HR) for the independent effects of ENE and N stage on overall survival were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Cases that were ENE-negative had the highest 5-year survival (92.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.5%-94.7%). ENE-positive cases had the lowest 5-year survival (84.0%; 95% CI: 80.7%-87.4%). After adjusting for confounding variables, ENE-positivity was associated with almost twice the hazard of death (HR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.35-2.67) compared to ENE-negative cases. Nodal (N) category 1, ENE-positive status was associated with an increased risk of death (HR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.26-2.80) compared with N1, ENE-negative status. Compared to N1/ENE-negative cases, N2/ENE-positive cases had the poorest survival (HR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.94-4.43). Both microscopic and macroscopic ENE were associated with worse outcomes compared to node-positive/ENE-negative status. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition staging system provides a much-improved framework to develop and discuss treatment plans for HPV-positive OPSCC. We feel that careful consideration should be given to the importance of ENE in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:939-945, 2020.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Extensão Extranodal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 146(1): 50-56, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697348

RESUMO

Importance: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) of the base of the tongue (BOT) has not been sufficiently studied. Objective: To investigate the rate of and risk factors for occult contralateral nodal disease in patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC undergoing transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissections. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective case series reviewed the medical records of patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC who underwent transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissections from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2018, at the tertiary care center of Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Patients had a median follow-up of 30.0 months (interquartile range, 11.0-60.4 months). Patients with recurrent disease or multiple synchronous OPSCC primary tumors were excluded for a total of 89 patients. Data were analyzed from January 1 through June 1, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of contralateral occult nodal disease. Secondary outcomes were potential risk factors for contralateral occult nodal disease and regional recurrence rates. Results: Eighty-nine patients were included in the series, of whom 81 (91.0%) were men. The mean (SD) age was 60 (9) years. Overall, 34 patients (38.2%) had pathologic contralateral nodal metastases. Seventy patients had no clinical evidence of contralateral nodal disease. Of these 70, occult nodes were identified in 15 (21.4%). Risk of contralateral disease was higher when the primary tumor crossed midline (odds ratio, 6.23; 95% CI, 1.71-22.77). Of the 55 patients with no occult disease identified, only 2 (3.6%) received radiotherapy to the contralateral neck, and no regional recurrence of disease was noted. Conclusions and Relevance: Given the rate of occult contralateral nodal disease of 21.4%, it appears that contralateral elective neck dissection or radiotherapy should be recommended in patients with HPV-related BOT OPSCC. Patients with a pathologically negative result of contralateral neck dissection may not benefit from radiotherapy to that nodal basin. Future prospective investigations should evaluate functional and oncologic outcomes of contralateral elective neck dissection compared with elective radiotherapy in the contralateral neck for HPV-related BOT OPSCC.

19.
Med Oncol ; 36(11): 93, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595355

RESUMO

In patients with locally advanced human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC), cisplatin and radiation therapy (CisRT) resulted in a local-regional recurrence (LRR) rate of 35%, progression-free survival (PFS) of 49%, and overall survival (OS) of 60%. We, and others, showed that nab-paclitaxel is an active agent in metastatic and locally advanced HNSCC. The aim of this report was to assess the efficacy of nab-paclitaxel-based induction chemotherapy and CisRT in HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We performed a retrospective single-institution analysis of patients treated with nab-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy and CisRT. Key inclusion criteria included stage III-IV HPV-unrelated HNSCC. Induction chemotherapy included nab-paclitaxel and cisplatin (AP), AP + 5-fluorouracil (APF), or APF + Cetuximab (APF-C). Endpoints included LRR, overall relapse, PFS, and OS. Thirty-eight patients were the subject of this analysis. Patient characteristics included median age 59 years (IQR: 54-64) and smoking history in 36 patients (95%). Primary tumor sites included larynx/hypopharynx (27), p16 negative oropharynx (10), and oral cavity (1). Most patients had bulky disease: 82% T3-4 (n = 31) and 74% N2b-3 (n = 28). Median follow-up was 44 months (IQR: 23-59). The three-year LRR rate was 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7-34) and the overall relapse rate was 22% (95% CI 11-41). The three-year PFS was 64% (95% CI 46-77) and OS was 72% (95% CI 54-84). Among patients with HPV-unrelated HNSCC, nab-paclitaxel-based induction chemotherapy and CisRT resulted in a lower-than-expected rate of LRR and more favorable PFS and OS compared to historical results with CisRT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Quimiorradioterapia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(23): 7078-7088, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420360

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies indicate that the benefit of therapy depends on patients' risk for cancer recurrence relative to noncancer mortality (ω ratio). We sought to test the hypothesis that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) with a higher ω ratio selectively benefit from intensive therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed 2,688 patients with stage III-IVB HNC undergoing primary radiotherapy (RT) with or without systemic therapy on three phase III trials (RTOG 9003, RTOG 0129, and RTOG 0522). We used generalized competing event regression to stratify patients according to ω ratio and compared the effectiveness of intensive therapy as a function of predicted ω ratio (i.e., ω score). Intensive therapy was defined as treatment on an experimental arm with altered fractionation and/or multiagent concurrent systemic therapy. A nomogram was developed to predict patients' ω score on the basis of tumor, demographic, and health factors. Analysis was by intention to treat. RESULTS: Decreasing age, improved performance status, higher body mass index, node-positive status, P16-negative status, and oral cavity primary predicted a higher ω ratio. Patients with ω score ≥0.80 were more likely to benefit from intensive treatment [5-year overall survival (OS), 70.0% vs. 56.6%; HR of 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.94; P = 0.016] than those with ω score <0.80 (5-year OS, 46.7% vs. 45.3%; HR of 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92-1.14; P = 0.69; P = 0.019 for interaction). In contrast, the effectiveness of intensive therapy did not depend on risk of progression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HNC with a higher ω score selectively benefit from intensive treatment. A nomogram was developed to help select patients for intensive therapy.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
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