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1.
J Chem Phys ; 152(2): 020401, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941294
2.
J Chem Phys ; 151(4): 044307, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370515

RESUMO

We analyze the dynamics of intramolecular singlet fission in a series of pentacene-based dimers consisting of two pentacene-like chromophores covalently bonded to a phenylene linker in ortho, meta, and para positions. The study uses a quantum dynamical approach that employs a model vibronic Hamiltonian whose parameters are obtained using multireference perturbation theory methods. The results highlight the different role of the direct and mediated mechanism in these systems, showing that the population of the multiexcitonic state, corresponding to the first step of the intramolecular singlet fission process, occurs mainly through a superexchange-like mechanism involving doubly excited or charge transfer states that participate in the process in a virtual way. In addition, the systems investigated provide insight into the roles that built-in geometrical constraints and the electronic structure of the spacer play in the intramolecular singlet fission process.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 149(10): 104105, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219023

RESUMO

We relate the memory kernel in the Nakajima-Zwanzig-Mori time-convolution approach to the reduced system propagator which is often used to obtain the kernel in the Tokuyama-Mori time-convolutionless approach. The connection provides a robust and simple formalism to compute the memory kernel for a generalized system-bath model circumventing the need to compute high order system-bath observables, thus streamlining the use of numerically exact solvers for calculating the memory kernel. We illustrate this for a model system with electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings, driven away from equilibrium.

4.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(20): 5979-5986, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257561

RESUMO

We investigate the dynamics of intramolecular singlet fission in a dimer consisting of two pentacene-based chromophores covalently bonded to a phenylene spacer using an approach that combines high-level ab initio multireference perturbation theory methods and quantum dynamical simulations. The results show that the population of the multiexcitonic state, corresponding to the first step of singlet fission, is facilitated by the existence of higher-lying doubly excited and charge transfer states that participate in a superexchange-like way. The important role played by high-frequency ring-breathing molecular vibrations in the process is also discussed.

5.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 4727-4733, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923410

RESUMO

Resonant tunneling is an efficient mechanism for charge transport through nanoscale conductance junctions due to the relatively high currents involved. However, continuous charging and discharging cycles of the nanoconductor during resonant tunneling often lead to mechanical instability. The realization of efficient nanoscale electronic components therefore depends to a large extent on the ability to mechanically stabilize them during resonant transport. In this work, we focus on single-molecule junctions, demonstrating that their mechanical stability during resonant transport can be increased by increasing the bias voltage. This counter-intuitive effect is attributed to the energy dependence of the molecule-lead coupling densities, which promote the rate of transport-induced cooling of molecular vibrations at higher voltages. The required energy dependence is characteristic of realistic electrodes (such as graphene), which cannot be modeled within the commonly invoked wide-band approximation. Our research provides new guidelines for the design of mechanically stable molecular devices operating in the regime of resonant charge transport and demonstrates these guidelines while considering realistic features of single-molecule junctions.

6.
J Chem Phys ; 148(10): 102317, 2018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544278

RESUMO

We extend the broadened classical master equation (bCME) approach [W. Dou and J. E. Subotnik, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 024116 (2016)] to the case of two electrodes, such that we may now calculate non-equilibrium transport properties when molecules come near metal surfaces and there is both strong electron-nuclear and strong metal-molecule coupling. By comparing against a numerically exact solution, we show that the bCME usually works very well, provided that the temperature is high enough that a classical treatment of nuclear motion is valid. Finally, in the low temperature (quantum) regime, we suggest a means to incorporate broadening effects in the quantum master equation (QME). This bQME works well for fairly low temperatures.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 148(3): 030901, 2018 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352777

RESUMO

Molecular junctions, where single molecules are bound to metal or semiconductor electrodes, represent a unique architecture to investigate molecules in a distinct nonequilibrium situation and, in a broader context, to study basic mechanisms of charge and energy transport in a many-body quantum system at the nanoscale. Experimental studies of molecular junctions have revealed a wealth of interesting transport phenomena, the understanding of which necessitates theoretical modeling. The accurate theoretical description of quantum transport in molecular junctions is challenging because it requires methods that are capable to describe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules in a condensed phase environment out of equilibrium, in some cases with strong electron-electron and/or electronic-vibrational interaction. This perspective discusses recent progress in the theory and simulation of quantum transport in molecular junctions. Furthermore, challenges are identified, which appear crucial to achieve a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of transport in these systems.

8.
ACS Nano ; 11(9): 8747-8757, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813143

RESUMO

Self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors (SAMFETs) are not only a promising type of organic electronic device but also allow detailed analyses of structure-property correlations. The influence of the morphology on the charge transport is particularly pronounced, due to the confined monolayer of 2D-π-stacked organic semiconductor molecules. The morphology, in turn, is governed by relatively weak van-der-Waals interactions and is thus prone to dynamic structural fluctuations. Accordingly, combining electronic and physical characterization and time-averaged X-ray analyses with the dynamic information available at atomic resolution from simulations allows us to characterize self-assembled monolayer (SAM) based devices in great detail. For this purpose, we have constructed transistors based on SAMs of two molecules that consist of the organic p-type semiconductor benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (BTBT), linked to a C11 or C12 alkylphosphonic acid. Both molecules form ordered SAMs; however, our experiments show that the size of the crystalline domains and the charge-transport properties vary considerably in the two systems. These findings were confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and semiempirical molecular-orbital electronic-structure calculations, performed on snapshots from the MD simulations at different times, revealing, in atomistic detail, how the charge transport in organic semiconductors is influenced and limited by dynamic disorder.

9.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15171, 2017 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516916

RESUMO

When molecular dimers, crystalline films or molecular aggregates absorb a photon to produce a singlet exciton, spin-allowed singlet fission may produce two triplet excitons that can be used to generate two electron-hole pairs, leading to a predicted ∼50% enhancement in maximum solar cell performance. The singlet fission mechanism is still not well understood. Here we report on the use of time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to probe singlet fission in a pentacene dimer linked by a non-conjugated spacer. We observe the key intermediates in the singlet fission process, including the formation and decay of a quintet state that precedes formation of the pentacene triplet excitons. Using these combined data, we develop a single kinetic model that describes the data over seven temporal orders of magnitude both at room and cryogenic temperatures.

10.
Nanoscale ; 9(21): 7217-7226, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513712

RESUMO

We investigate charge transport in C60-based single-molecule junctions with graphene electrodes employing a combination of density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations and Landauer transport theory. In particular, the dependence of the transport properties on the conformation of the molecular bridge and the type of termination of the graphene electrodes is investigated. Furthermore, electron pathways through the junctions are analyzed using the theory of local currents. The results reveal, in agreement with previous experiments, a pronounced dependence of the transport properties on the bias polarity, which is rationalized in terms of the electronic structure of the molecule. It is also shown that the edge states of zigzag-terminated graphene induce additional transport channels, which dominate transport at low voltages. The importance of the edge states for transport depends profoundly on the interface geometry of the junctions.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 146(12): 124112, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388113

RESUMO

The multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method is applied in an interaction picture to simulate dynamics of the spin-boson model in the reaction-coordinate representation. The use of the interaction picture allows a more effective description of correlation effects, especially when the coupling strength between the reaction coordinate and the bath is very strong. Examples show that in most physical regimes the efficiency is improved significantly, in some cases up to several orders of magnitude. This opens up new avenues for studying quantum dynamical problems.

12.
J Chem Phys ; 145(16): 164105, 2016 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802656

RESUMO

The multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method is implemented in the interaction picture to allow a more effective description of correlation effects. It is shown that the artificial correlation present in the original Schrödinger picture can be removed with an appropriate choice of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian. Thereby, operators in the interaction picture are obtained through time-dependent unitary transformations, which have negligible computational cost compared with other parts of the ML-MCTDH algorithm. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a model of vibrationally coupled charge transport in molecular junctions.

13.
Nanoscale ; 8(19): 10113-23, 2016 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27122097

RESUMO

We show unambiguous and compelling evidence by means of pump-probe experiments, which are complemented by calculations using ab initio multireference perturbation theory, for intramolecular singlet fission (SF) within two synthetically tailored pentacene dimers with cross-conjugation, namely XC1 and XC2. The two pentacene dimers differ in terms of electronic interactions as evidenced by perturbation of the ground state absorption spectra stemming from stronger through-bond contributions in XC1 as confirmed by theory. Multiwavelength analysis, on one hand, and global analysis, on the other hand, confirm that the rapid singlet excited state decay and triplet excited state growth relate to SF. SF rate constants and quantum yields increase with solvent polarity. For example, XC2 reveals triplet quantum yields and rate constants as high as 162 ± 10% and (0.7 ± 0.1) × 10(12) s(-1), respectively, in room temperature solutions.

14.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 11(1): 147-56, 2015 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26574213

RESUMO

The lowest-lying electronic excited states of pentacene and its oligomers are investigated using accurate multireference wave function methods (CASPT2/CASSCF) and the many-body Greens's function approach (GW/BSE). The results obtained for dimers and trimers of different geometry reveal a complex electronic structure, which includes locally excited, charge transfer, and multiexciton states. For singlets of single-excitation character, both approaches yield excitation energies that are in good overall quantitative agreement. While the multiexciton states are located relatively high in energy in all systems investigated, charge transfer states exist in close proximity to the lowest-lying absorbing states. The implications of the results for the mechanisms of singlet fission in pentacene are discussed.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 143(13): 134115, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26450300

RESUMO

We present semiclassical approximations to Green's functions of multidimensional systems, extending Gutzwiller's work to the classically forbidden region. Based on steepest-descent integrals over these functions, we derive an instanton method for computing the rate of nonadiabatic reactions, such as electron transfer, in the weak-coupling limit, where Fermi's golden-rule can be employed. This generalizes Marcus theory to systems for which the environment free-energy curves are not harmonic and where nuclear tunnelling plays a role. The derivation avoids using the Im F method or short-time approximations to real-time correlation functions. A clear physical interpretation of the nuclear tunnelling processes involved in an electron-transfer reaction is thus provided. In Paper II [J. O. Richardson, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 134116 (2015)], we discuss numerical evaluation of the formulae.

16.
Nano Lett ; 15(5): 3512-8, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25923590

RESUMO

On the way to ultraflat single-molecule junctions with transparent electrodes, we present a fabrication scheme based on epitaxial graphene nanoelectrodes. As a suitable molecule, we identified a molecular wire with fullerene anchor groups. With these two components, stable electrical characteristics could be recorded. Electrical measurements show that single-molecule junctions with graphene and with gold electrodes display a striking agreement. This motivated a hypothesis that the differential conductance spectra are rather insensitive to the electrode material. It is further corroborated by the assignment of asymmetries and spectral features to internal molecular degrees of freedom. The demonstrated open-access graphene electrodes and the electrode-insensitive molecules provide a model system that will allow for a thorough investigation of an individual single-molecule contact with additional probes.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(17): 5325-30, 2015 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25858954

RESUMO

Singlet fission (SF) has the potential to supersede the traditional solar energy conversion scheme by means of boosting the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies beyond the 30% Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we show unambiguous and compelling evidence for unprecedented intramolecular SF within regioisomeric pentacene dimers in room-temperature solutions, with observed triplet quantum yields reaching as high as 156 ± 5%. Whereas previous studies have shown that the collision of a photoexcited chromophore with a ground-state chromophore can give rise to SF, here we demonstrate that the proximity and sufficient coupling through bond or space in pentacene dimers is enough to induce intramolecular SF where two triplets are generated on one molecule.

18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(13): 134202, 2015 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25767089

RESUMO

A recently developed methodology to simulate photoinduced electron transfer processes at dye-semiconductor interfaces is outlined. The methodology employs a first-principles-based model Hamiltonian and accurate quantum dynamics simulations using the multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree approach. This method is applied to study electron injection in the dye-semiconductor system coumarin 343-TiO2. Specifically, the influence of electronic-vibrational coupling is analyzed. Extending previous work, we consider the influence of Dushinsky rotation of the normal modes as well as anharmonicities of the potential energy surfaces on the electron transfer dynamics.

19.
J Chem Phys ; 141(7): 074106, 2014 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25149774

RESUMO

There is currently much interest in the development of improved trajectory-based methods for the simulation of nonadiabatic processes in complex systems. An important goal for such methods is the accurate calculation of the rate constant over a wide range of electronic coupling strengths and it is often the nonadiabatic, weak-coupling limit, which being far from the Born-Oppenheimer regime, provides the greatest challenge to current methods. We show that in this limit there is an inherent sign problem impeding further development which originates from the use of the usual quantum flux correlation functions, which can be very oscillatory at short times. From linear response theory, we derive a modified flux correlation function for the calculation of nonadiabatic reaction rates, which still rigorously gives the correct result in the long-time limit regardless of electronic coupling strength, but unlike the usual formalism is not oscillatory in the weak-coupling regime. In particular, a trajectory simulation of the modified correlation function is naturally initialized in a region localized about the crossing of the potential energy surfaces. In the weak-coupling limit, a simple link can be found between the dynamics initialized from this transition-state region and an generalized quantum golden-rule transition-state theory, which is equivalent to Marcus theory in the classical harmonic limit. This new correlation function formalism thus provides a platform on which a wide variety of dynamical simulation methods can be built aiding the development of accurate nonadiabatic rate theories applicable to complex systems.

20.
J Mol Model ; 20(4): 2163, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24633770

RESUMO

A novel mechanism for switching a molecular junction based on a proton transfer reaction triggered by an external electrostatic field is proposed. As a specific example to demonstrate the feasibility of the mechanism, the tautomers [2,5-(4-hydroxypyridine)] and {2,5-[4(1H)-pyridone]} are considered. Employing a combination of first-principles electronic structure calculations and Landauer transport theory, we show that both tautomers exhibit very different conductance properties and realize the "on" and "off" states of a molecular switch. Moreover, we provide a proof of principle that both forms can be reversibly converted into each other using an external electrostatic field.


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