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1.
Hum Gene Ther ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773990

RESUMO

Targeted integration into a genomic safe harbor, such as the AAVS1 locus on chromosome 19, promises predictable transgene expression and reduces the risk of insertional mutagenesis in the host genome. The application of gamma-retroviral LTR-driven vectors, which semi-randomly integrate into the genome, has previously caused severe adverse events in some clinical studies due to transactivation of neighboring proto-oncogenes. Consequently, the site-specific integration of a therapeutic transgene into a genomic safe harbor locus would allow stable genetic correction with a reduced risk of insertional mutagenesis. However, recent studies revealed that transgene silencing, especially in case of weaker cell type-specific promoters, can occur in the AAVS1 locus of human pluripotent stem cells (PSC) and can impede transgene expression during differentiation. In this study, we aimed to correct p47phox-deficiency, which is the second most common cause of chronic granulomatous disease, by insertion of a therapeutic p47phox transgene into the AAVS1 locus of human induced PSC (iPSC) using CRISPR-Cas9. We analyzed transgene expression and functional correction from three different myeloid-specific promoters (miR223, CatG/cFes and MRP8). Upon myeloid differentiation of corrected iPSC clones, we observed that the miR223 and CatG/cFes promoter achieved therapeutic-relevant levels of p47phox expression and NADPH oxidase activity, whereas the MRP8 promoter was less efficient. Analysis of the different promoters revealed high CpG methylation of the MRP8 promoter in differentiated cells, which correlated with the transgene expression data. In summary, we identified the miR223 and CatG/cFes promoters as cell type-specific promoters that allow stable transgene expression in the AAVS1 locus of iPSC-derived myeloid cells. Our findings further indicate that promoter silencing can occur in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in differentiated hematopoietic cells and that a comparison of different promoters is necessary to achieve optimal transgene expression for therapeutic application of iPSC-derived cells.

2.
Am J Transplant ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663273

RESUMO

Combined immune deficiency due to athymia in patients with complete DiGeorge Syndrome can be corrected by allogeneic thymus transplantation. Hypoparathyroidism is a frequent concomitant clinical problem in these patients, which persists after thymus transplantation. Co-transplantation of allogeneic thymus and parental parathyroid tissue has been attempted, but does not achieve durable correction of the patients' hypoparathyroidism due to parathyroid graft rejection. Surprisingly, we observed correction of hypoparathyroidism in one patient after thymus transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridisation confirmed presence of allogeneic parathyroid tissue in the patient's thymus transplant biopsy. Despite a lack of HLA-matching between thymus donor and recipient, the reconstituted immune system displays tolerance towards the thymus donor. Therefore we expect this patient's hypoparathyroidism to be permanently cured. It is recognised that ectopic parathyroid tissue is not infrequently found in the thymus. If such thymuses could be identified, we propose that their use would offer a compelling approach to achieving lasting correction of both immunodeficiency and hypoparathyroidism.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582539

RESUMO

Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is a coactivator of serum response factor and together regulate transcription of actin cytoskeleton genes. MKL1 is associated with hematologic malignancies and immunodeficiency, but its role in B cells is unexplored. Here we examined B cells from monozygotic triplets with an intronic deletion in MKL1, two of whom were previously treated for Hodgkin lymphoma. To investigate MKL1 and B cell responses in HL pathogenesis, we generated Epstein Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from the triplets and two controls. While cells from the Hodgkin lymphoma treated patients had a phenotype close to healthy controls, cells from the undiagnosed triplet had increased MKL1 mRNA, increased MKL1 protein, and elevated expression of MKL1-dependent genes. This was associated with elevated actin content, increased cell spreading, decreased expression of CD11a integrin molecules, and delayed aggregation. Moreover, cells from the undiagnosed triplet proliferated faster, displayed a higher proportion of cells with hyperploidy, and formed large tumors in vivo. This phenotype was reversible by inhibiting MKL1 activity. Interestingly, cells from the triplet treated for Hodgkin lymphoma in 1985 contained two subpopulations: one with high expression of CD11a that behaved like control cells and the other with low expression of CD11a that formed large tumors in vivo similar to cells from the undiagnosed triplet. This implies that pre-malignant cells had re-emerged a long time after treatment. Together, these data suggest that dysregulated MKL1 activity participates in B cell transformation and Hodgkin lymphoma pathogenesis.

4.
Stem Cell Reports ; 13(4): 590-598, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543470

RESUMO

Mutations in the NADPH oxidase, which is crucial for the respiratory burst in phagocytes, result in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The only curative treatment option for CGD patients, who suffer from severe infections, is allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Over 90% of patients with mutations in the p47phox subunit of the oxidase complex carry the deletion c.75_76delGT (ΔGT). This frequent mutation most likely originates via gene conversion from one of the two pseudogenes NCF1B or NCF1C, which are highly homologous to NCF1 (encodes p47phox) but carry the ΔGT mutation. We applied CRISPR/Cas9 to generate patient-like p47-ΔGT iPSCs for disease modeling. To avoid unpredictable chromosomal rearrangements by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage in the pseudogenes, we developed a gene-correction approach to specifically target NCF1 but leave the pseudogenes intact. Functional assays revealed restored NADPH oxidase activity and killing of bacteria in corrected phagocytes as well as the specificity of this approach.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552026

RESUMO

Inherited Primary Immunodeficiency (PID) disorders are associated with increased risk of malignancy that may relate to impaired antitumor immune responses or a direct role for PID germline mutations in tumorigenesis. We recently identified germline loss of function mutations in Janus Associated Kinase 1 (JAK1) causing primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections and associated with early onset, fatal high-grade bladder carcinoma. Somatic mutations in JAK1, required for immune cell signaling in response to interferon gamma (IFNγ), have been associated with several non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cancer cell types but pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that JAK1 is required for the intrinsic IFNγ response of urothelial cells impacting immunogenicity and cell survival. Specifically, JAK1-deficient urothelial cells showed reduced surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) after IFNγ stimulation and were resistant to IFNγ-induced apoptosis and lymphocyte-mediated killing. In addition, we identify a previously unknown role for IFNγ signaling in modulating urothelial differentiation. Together, our findings support a role for urothelial cell JAK1 in immune surveillance and development of bladder cancer. Our results have implications for patients with rare JAK1 PID and, more broadly, inform development of biomarker and targeted therapies for urothelial carcinoma.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11592, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406195

RESUMO

In utero gene therapy (IUGT) to the fetal hematopoietic compartment could be used to treat congenital blood disorders such as ß-thalassemia. A humanised mouse model of ß-thalassemia was used, in which heterozygous animals are anaemic with splenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Intrahepatic in utero injections of a ß globin-expressing lentiviral vector (GLOBE), were performed in fetuses at E13.5 of gestation. We analysed animals at 12 and 32 weeks of age, for vector copy number in bone marrow, peripheral blood liver and spleen and we performed integration site analysis. Compared to noninjected heterozygous animals IUGT normalised blood haemoglobin levels and spleen weight. Integration site analysis showed polyclonality. The left ventricular ejection fraction measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in treated heterozygous animals was similar to that of normal non-ß-thalassemic mice but significantly higher than untreated heterozygous thalassemia mice suggesting that IUGT ameliorated poor cardiac function. GLOBE LV-mediated IUGT normalised the haematological and anatomical phenotype in a heterozygous humanised model of ß-thalassemia.

7.
Hum Gene Ther ; 30(9): 1067-1078, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288584

RESUMO

Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder caused by mutations in SPINK5. It is a debilitating condition with notable mortality in the early years of life. There is no curative treatment. We undertook a nonrandomized, open-label, feasibility, and safety study using autologous keratinocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding SPINK5 under the control of the human involucrin promoter. Six NS subjects were recruited, and gene-modified epithelial sheets were successfully generated in three of five subjects. The sheets exhibited expression of correctly sized lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) protein after modification. One subject was grafted with a 20 cm2 gene-modified graft on the left anterior thigh without any adverse complications and was monitored by serial sampling for 12 months. Recovery within the graft area was compared against an area outside by morphology, proviral copy number and expression of the SPINK5 encoded protein, LEKTI, and its downstream target kallikrein 5, which exhibited transient functional correction. The study confirmed the feasibility of generating lentiviral gene-modified epidermal sheets for inherited skin diseases such as NS, but sustained LEKTI expression is likely to require the identification, targeting, and engraftment of long-lived keratinocyte stem cell populations for durable therapeutic effects. Important learning points for the application of gene-modified epidermal sheets are discussed.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(R1): R15-R23, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297531

RESUMO

Gene therapy is now being trialled as a therapeutic option for an expanding number of conditions, based primarily on the successful treatment over the past two decades of patients with specific primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) including severe combined immunodeficiency and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and metabolic conditions such as leukodystrophy. The field has evolved from the use of gammaretroviral vectors to more sophisticated lentiviral platforms that offer an improved biosafety profile alongside greater efficiency for hematopoietic stem cells gene transfer. Here we review more recent developments including licensing of gene therapies, use of gene corrected autologous T cells as an alternative strategy for some PIDs and the potential of targeted gene correction using various gene editing platforms. Given the promising results of recent clinical trials, it is likely that autologous gene therapies will become standard of care for a number of devastating diseases in the coming decade.

9.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 1986-1998, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235509

RESUMO

IL-6 excess is central to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory conditions and is targeted in clinical practice by immunotherapy that blocks the IL-6 receptor encoded by IL6R We describe two patients with homozygous mutations in IL6R who presented with recurrent infections, abnormal acute-phase responses, elevated IgE, eczema, and eosinophilia. This study identifies a novel primary immunodeficiency, clarifying the contribution of IL-6 to the phenotype of patients with mutations in IL6ST, STAT3, and ZNF341, genes encoding different components of the IL-6 signaling pathway, and alerts us to the potential toxicity of drugs targeting the IL-6R.

10.
JCI Insight ; 4(11)2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167965

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDRecessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe form of skin fragility disorder due to mutations in COL7A1 encoding basement membrane type VII collagen (C7), the main constituent of anchoring fibrils (AFs) in skin. We developed a self-inactivating lentiviral platform encoding a codon-optimized COL7A1 cDNA under the control of a human phosphoglycerate kinase promoter for phase I evaluation.METHODSIn this single-center, open-label phase I trial, 4 adults with RDEB each received 3 intradermal injections (~1 × 106 cells/cm2 of intact skin) of COL7A1-modified autologous fibroblasts and were followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was safety, including autoimmune reactions against recombinant C7. Secondary outcomes included C7 expression, AF morphology, and presence of transgene in the injected skin.RESULTSGene-modified fibroblasts were well tolerated, without serious adverse reactions or autoimmune reactions against recombinant C7. Regarding efficacy, there was a significant (P < 0.05) 1.26-fold to 26.10-fold increase in C7 mean fluorescence intensity in the injected skin compared with noninjected skin in 3 of 4 subjects, with a sustained increase up to 12 months in 2 of 4 subjects. The presence of transgene (codon-optimized COL7A1 cDNA) was demonstrated in the injected skin at month 12 in 1 subject, but no new mature AFs were detected.CONCLUSIONTo our knowledge, this is the first human study demonstrating safety and potential efficacy of lentiviral fibroblast gene therapy with the presence of COL7A1 transgene and subsequent C7 restoration in vivo in treated skin at 1 year after gene therapy. These data provide a rationale for phase II studies for further clinical evaluation.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClincalTrials.gov NCT02493816.FUNDINGCure EB, Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Research Association (UK), UK NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, and Fondation René Touraine Short-Exchange Award.

11.
Stem Cells ; 37(9): 1176-1188, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116895

RESUMO

In utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been proposed as a strategy for the prenatal treatment of congenital hematological diseases. However, levels of long-term hematopoietic engraftment achieved in experimental IUT to date are subtherapeutic, likely due to host fetal HSCs outcompeting their bone marrow (BM)-derived donor equivalents for space in the hematopoietic compartment. In the present study, we demonstrate that amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs; c-Kit+/Lin-) have hematopoietic characteristics and, thanks to their fetal origin, favorable proliferation kinetics in vitro and in vivo, which are maintained when the cells are expanded. IUT of autologous/congenic freshly isolated or cultured AFSCs resulted in stable multilineage hematopoietic engraftment, far higher to that achieved with BM-HSCs. Intravascular IUT of allogenic AFSCs was not successful as recently reported after intraperitoneal IUT. Herein, we demonstrated that this likely due to a failure of timely homing of donor cells to the host fetal thymus resulted in lack of tolerance induction and rejection. This study reveals that intravascular IUT leads to a remarkable hematopoietic engraftment of AFSCs in the setting of autologous/congenic IUT, and confirms the requirement for induction of central tolerance for allogenic IUT to be successful. Autologous, gene-engineered, and in vitro expanded AFSCs could be used as a stem cell/gene therapy platform for the in utero treatment of inherited disorders of hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 2019;37:1176-1188.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 185(4): 647-655, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864154

RESUMO

Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease resulting in recurrent infections, eczema and microthrombocytopaenia. In its classical form, significant combined immune deficiency, autoimmune complications and risk of haematological malignancy necessitate early correction with stem cell transplantation or gene therapy. A milder form, X-linked thrombocytopaenia (XLT), shares similar bleeding risk from thrombocytopaenia but is not associated with other significant clinical features and is generally managed conservatively. Here, we detail our approach to the diagnosis and treatment of classical WAS and XLT.

13.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483599

RESUMO

Background: Mutations of the common cytokine receptor gamma chain (γc) cause Severe Combined Immunodeficiency characterized by absent T and NK cell development. Although stem cell therapy restores these lineages, residual immune defects are observed that may result from selective persistence of γc-deficiency in myeloid lineages. However, little is known about the contribution of myeloid-expressed γc to protective immune responses.  Here we examine the importance of γc for myeloid dendritic cell (DC) function. Methods: We utilize a combination of in vitro DC/T-cell co-culture assays and a novel lipid bilayer system mimicking the T cell surface to delineate the role of DC-expressed γc during DC/T-cell interaction. Results: We observed that γc in DC was recruited to the contact interface following MHCII ligation, and promoted IL-15Rα colocalization with engaged MHCII. Unexpectedly, trans-presentation of IL-15 was required for optimal CD4+T cell activation by DC and depended on DC γc expression. Neither recruitment of IL-15Rα nor IL-15 trans-signaling at the DC immune synapse (IS), required γc signaling in DC, suggesting that γc facilitates IL-15 transpresentation through induced intermolecular cis associations or cytoskeletal reorganization following MHCII ligation. Conclusions: These findings show that DC-expressed γc is required for effective antigen-induced CD4+ T cell activation. We reveal a novel mechanism for recruitment of DC IL-15/IL-15Rα complexes to the IS, leading to CD4+ T cell costimulation through localized IL-15 transpresentation that is coordinated with antigen-recognition.

17.
Hum Gene Ther ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027761

RESUMO

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are a promising platform for in vivo gene therapy. The presence of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against AAV capsids decreases cell transduction efficiency and is a common exclusion criterion for participation in clinical trials. Novel engineered capsids are being generated to improve gene delivery to the target cells and facilitate success of clinical trials; however, the prevalence of antibodies against such capsids remains largely unknown. We therefore assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against a novel synthetic liver-tropic capsid AAV-LK03. We measured seroprevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig)G (i.e., neutralizing and nonneutralizing) antibodies and Nab to AAV-LK03 in a cohort of 323 UK patients (including 260 pediatric) and 52 juvenile rhesus macaques. We also performed comparative analysis of seroprevalence of Nab against wild-type AAV8 and AAV3B capsids. Overall IgG seroprevalence for AAV-LK03 was 39% in human samples. The titer increased with age. Prevalence of Nab was 23%, 35%, and 18% for AAV-LK03, AAV3B, and AAV8, respectively, with the lowest seroprevalence between 3 and 17 years of age for all serotypes. Presence of Nab against AAV-LK03 decreased from 36% in the youngest cohort (birth to 6 months) to 7% in older primary school-age children (9-11 years) and then progressively increased to 54% in late adulthood. Cross-reactivity between serotypes was >60%. Nab seroprevalence in macaques was 62%, 85%, and 40% for AAV-LK03, AAV3B, and AAV8, respectively. When planning for AAV gene therapy clinical trials, knowing the seropositivity of the target population is critical. In the population studied, AAV seroprevalence for AAV serotypes tested was low. However, high cross-reactivity between AAV serotypes remains a barrier for re-injection. Shifts in Nab seroprevalence during the first decade need to be confirmed by longitudinal studies. This possibility suggests that pediatric patients could respond differently to AAV therapy according to age. If late childhood is an ideal age window, intervention at an early age when maternal Nab levels are high may be challenging. Nab-positive children excluded from trials could be rescreened for eligibility at regular intervals because this status may change.

18.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 9: 257-269, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707600

RESUMO

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is caused by mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor γ chain gene (IL2RG), and it is characterized by profound defects in T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell functions. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) genetically corrected with early murine leukemia retrovirus (MLV)-derived gammaretroviral vectors showed restoration of T cell immunity in patients, but it resulted in vector-induced insertional oncogenesis. We developed a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector carrying a codon-optimized human IL2RG cDNA driven by the EF1α short promoter (EFS-IL2RG), and we tested its efficacy and safety in vivo by transplanting transduced Il2rg-deficient Lin- HSPCs in an Il2rg-/-/Rag2-/- mouse model. The study showed restoration of T, B, and NK cell counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood and normalization of thymus and spleen cellularity and architecture. High-definition insertion site analysis defined the EFS-IL2RG genomic integration profile, and it showed no sign of vector-induced clonal selection or skewing in primarily and secondarily transplanted animals. The study enables a phase I/II clinical trial aimed at restoring both T and B cell immunity in SCID-X1 children upon non-myeloablative conditioning.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1779, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725003

RESUMO

Mutations in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) cause autoimmune sequelae including colitis. Yet, how WASP mediates mucosal homeostasis is not fully understood. Here we show that WASP-mediated regulation of anti-inflammatory macrophages is critical for mucosal homeostasis and immune tolerance. The generation and function of anti-inflammatory macrophages are defective in both human and mice in the absence of WASP. Expression of WASP specifically in macrophages, but not in dendritic cells, is critical for regulation of colitis development. Importantly, transfer of WT anti-inflammatory macrophages prevents the development of colitis. DOCK8-deficient macrophages phenocopy the altered macrophage properties associated with WASP deficiency. Mechanistically, we show that both WASP and DOCK8 regulates macrophage function by modulating IL-10-dependent STAT3 phosphorylation. Overall, our study indicates that anti-inflammatory macrophage function and mucosal immune tolerance require both WASP and DOCK8, and that IL-10 signalling modulates a WASP-DOCK8 complex.

20.
Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev ; 29(2): 69-79, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664709

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a debilitating primary immunodeficiency affecting phagocyte function due to the absence of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. The vast majority of CGD patients in the Western world have mutations within the X-linked CYBB gene encoding for gp91phox (NOX2), the redox center of the NADPH oxidase complex (XCGD). Current treatments of XCGD are not entirely satisfactory, and prior attempts at autologous gene therapy using gammaretrovirus vectors did not provide long-term curative effects. A new strategy was developed based on the use of the lentiviral vector G1XCGD expressing high levels of the gp91phox transgene in myeloid cells. As a requisite for a clinical trial approval, standardized non-clinical studies were conducted in vitro and in mice in order to evaluate the pharmacodynamics and biosafety of the vector and the biodistribution of G1XCGD-transduced cells. Transduced CD34+ cells derived from XCGD patients engrafted and differentiated similarly to their non-transduced counterparts in xenograft mouse models and generated therapeutically relevant levels of NADPH activity in myeloid cells expressing gp91phox. Expression of functional gp91phox in hematopoietic cells did not affect their homing properties, which engrafted at high levels in mice. Extensive in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies found no evidence for adverse mutagenesis related to vector treatment. These studies paved the way for the approval of clinical trials in Europe and in the United States for the treatment of XCGD patients with G1XCGD gene-modified autologous hematopoietic cells.

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