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2.
Nat Rev Genet ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303992

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy has emerged as an effective treatment modality for monogenic disorders of the blood system such as primary immunodeficiencies and ß-thalassaemia. Medicinal products based on autologous HSPCs corrected using lentiviral and gammaretroviral vectors have now been approved for clinical use, and the site-specific genome modification of HSPCs using gene editing techniques such as CRISPR-Cas9 has shown great clinical promise. Preclinical studies have shown engineered HSPCs could also be used to cross-correct non-haematopoietic cells in neurodegenerative metabolic diseases. Here, we review the most recent advances in HSPC gene therapy and discuss emerging strategies for using HSPC gene therapy for a range of diseases.

3.
Elife ; 92020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135633

RESUMO

The actin cytoskeletal regulator Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) has been implicated in maintenance of the autophagy-inflammasome axis in innate murine immune cells. Here, we show that WASp deficiency is associated with impaired rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation and trafficking to lysosomes in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). WASp reconstitution in vitro and in WAS patients following clinical gene therapy restores autophagic flux and is dependent on the actin-related protein complex ARP2/3. Induction of mitochondrial damage with CCCP, as a model of selective autophagy, also reveals a novel ARP2/3-dependent role for WASp in formation of sequestrating actin cages and maintenance of mitochondrial network integrity. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration is suppressed in WAS patient MDMs and unable to achieve normal maximal activity when stressed, indicating profound intrinsic metabolic dysfunction. Taken together, we provide evidence of new and important roles of human WASp in autophagic processes and immunometabolic regulation, which may mechanistically contribute to the complex WAS immunophenotype.

4.
Hum Gene Ther ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935622

RESUMO

With conventional treatments for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), such as allogeneic stem cell transplantation or autologous gene therapy, still facing important challenges, the rapid development of genome editing technologies to more accurately correct the mutations underlying the onset of genetic disorders has provided a new alternative, yet promising platform for the treatment of such diseases. The prospect of a more efficient and specific therapeutic tool has pushed many researchers to apply these editing tools to correct genetic, phenotypic, and functional defects of numerous devastating PIDs with extremely promising results to date. Despite these achievements, lingering concerns about the safety and efficacy of genome editing are currently being addressed in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the progress made toward the development of gene editing technologies to treat PIDs and the optimizations that still need to be implemented to turn genome editing into a next-generation treatment for rare monogenic life-threatening disorders.

5.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(560)2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908003

RESUMO

Recent clinical successes in gene therapy applications have intensified interest in using adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as vectors for therapeutic gene delivery. Although prototypical AAV2 shows robust in vitro transduction of human hepatocyte-derived cell lines, it has not translated into an effective vector for liver-directed gene therapy in vivo. This is consistent with observations made in Fah-/-/Rag2-/-/Il2rg-/- (FRG) mice with humanized livers, showing that AAV2 functions poorly in this xenograft model. Here, we derived naturally hepatotropic AAV capsid sequences from primary human liver samples. We demonstrated that capsid mutations, likely acquired as an unintentional consequence of tissue culture propagation, attenuated the intrinsic human hepatic tropism of natural AAV2 and related human liver AAV isolates. These mutations resulted in amino acid changes that increased binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), which has been regarded as the primary cellular receptor mediating AAV2 infection of human hepatocytes. Propagation of natural AAV variants in vitro showed tissue culture adaptation with resulting loss of tropism for human hepatocytes. In vivo readaptation of the prototypical AAV2 in FRG mice with a humanized liver resulted in restoration of the intrinsic hepatic tropism of AAV2 through decreased binding to HSPG. Our results challenge the notion that high affinity for HSPG is essential for AAV2 entry into human hepatocytes and suggest that natural AAV capsids of human liver origin are likely to be more effective for liver-targeted gene therapy applications than culture-adapted AAV2.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4034, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788576

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency with severe platelet abnormalities and complex immunodeficiency. Although clinical gene therapy approaches using lentiviral vectors have produced encouraging results, full immune and platelet reconstitution is not always achieved. Here we show that a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing strategy allows the precise correction of WAS mutations in up to 60% of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), without impairing cell viability and differentiation potential. Delivery of the editing reagents to WAS HSPCs led to full rescue of WASp expression and correction of functional defects in myeloid and lymphoid cells. Primary and secondary transplantation of corrected WAS HSPCs into immunodeficient mice showed persistence of edited cells for up to 26 weeks and efficient targeting of long-term repopulating stem cells. Finally, no major genotoxicity was associated with the gene editing process, paving the way for an alternative, yet highly efficient and safe therapy.


Assuntos
Edição de Genes , Terapia Genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Linhagem da Célula , Códon/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Células HEK293 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/patologia , Proteína da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
7.
Gene Ther ; 27(9): 459-469, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533104

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder characterised by recurrent and often life-threatening infections and hyperinflammation. It is caused by defects of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase, a multicomponent enzyme system responsible for effective pathogen killing. A phase I/II clinical trial of lentiviral gene therapy is underway for the most common form of CGD, X-linked, caused by mutations in the gp91phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase. We propose to use a similar strategy to tackle p47phox-deficient CGD, caused by mutations in NCF1, which encodes the p47phox cytosolic component of the enzymatic complex. We generated a pCCLCHIM-p47phox lentiviral vector, containing the chimeric Cathepsin G/FES myeloid promoter and a codon-optimised version of the human NCF1 cDNA. Here we show that transduction with the pCCLCHIM-p47phox vector efficiently restores p47phox expression and biochemical NADPH oxidase function in p47phox-deficient human and murine cells. We also tested the ability of our gene therapy approach to control infection by challenging p47phox-null mice with Salmonella Typhimurium, a leading cause of sepsis in CGD patients, and found that mice reconstituted with lentivirus-transduced hematopoietic stem cells had a reduced bacterial load compared with untreated mice. Overall, our results potentially support the clinical development of a gene therapy approach using the pCCLCHIM-p47phox vector.

8.
Nature ; 583(7814): 96-102, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581362

RESUMO

Most patients with rare diseases do not receive a molecular diagnosis and the aetiological variants and causative genes for more than half such disorders remain to be discovered1. Here we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a national health system to streamline diagnosis and to discover unknown aetiological variants in the coding and non-coding regions of the genome. We generated WGS data for 13,037 participants, of whom 9,802 had a rare disease, and provided a genetic diagnosis to 1,138 of the 7,065 extensively phenotyped participants. We identified 95 Mendelian associations between genes and rare diseases, of which 11 have been discovered since 2015 and at least 79 are confirmed to be aetiological. By generating WGS data of UK Biobank participants2, we found that rare alleles can explain the presence of some individuals in the tails of a quantitative trait for red blood cells. Finally, we identified four novel non-coding variants that cause disease through the disruption of transcription of ARPC1B, GATA1, LRBA and MPL. Our study demonstrates a synergy by using WGS for diagnosis and aetiological discovery in routine healthcare.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Alelos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA1/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
10.
Blood ; 136(17): 1933-1945, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599613

RESUMO

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare immunodeficiency caused by mutations in genes affecting the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (FAS, FASL, CASP10). This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and molecular genetic results of 215 patients referred as possibly having ALPS. Double-negative T-cell (DNT) percentage and in vitro apoptosis functional tests were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting; interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-18 and soluble FAS ligand (sFASL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genetic analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing. Clinical background data were collected from patients' records. Patients were categorized into definite, suspected, or unlikely ALPS groups, and laboratory parameters were compared among these groups. Of 215 patients, 38 met the criteria for definite ALPS and 17 for suspected ALPS. The definite and suspected ALPS patient populations showed higher DNT percentages than unlikely ALPS and had higher rates of lymphoproliferation. Definite ALPS patients had a significantly more abnormal in vitro apoptosis function, with lower annexin, than patients with suspected ALPS (P = .002) and patients not meeting ALPS criteria (P < .001). The combination of elevated DNTs and an abnormal in vitro apoptosis functional test was the most useful in identifying all types of ALPS patients; the combination of an abnormal in vitro apoptosis functional test and elevated sFASLs was a predictive marker for ALPS-FAS group identification. Lymphoproliferation, apoptosis functional test, and DNTs are the most sensitive markers; elevated IL-10 and IL-18 are additional indicators for ALPS. The combination of elevated sFASLs and abnormal apoptosis function was the most valuable prognosticator for patients with FAS mutations.

11.
Blood ; 135(15): 1219-1231, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040546

RESUMO

In gene therapy with human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), each gene-corrected cell and its progeny are marked in a unique way by the integrating vector. This feature enables lineages to be tracked by sampling blood cells and using DNA sequencing to identify the vector integration sites. Here, we studied 5 cell lineages (granulocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells) in patients having undergone HSPC gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome or ß hemoglobinopathies. We found that the estimated minimum number of active, repopulating HSPCs (which ranged from 2000 to 50 000) was correlated with the number of HSPCs per kilogram infused. We sought to quantify the lineage output and dynamics of gene-modified clones; this is usually challenging because of sparse sampling of the various cell types during the analytical procedure, contamination during cell isolation, and different levels of vector marking in the various lineages. We therefore measured the residual contamination and corrected our statistical models accordingly to provide a rigorous analysis of the HSPC lineage output. A cluster analysis of the HSPC lineage output highlighted the existence of several stable, distinct differentiation programs, including myeloid-dominant, lymphoid-dominant, and balanced cell subsets. Our study evidenced the heterogeneous nature of the cell lineage output from HSPCs and provided methods for analyzing these complex data.


Assuntos
Células Clonais/citologia , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Hemoglobinopatias/terapia , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Diferenciação Celular , Rastreamento de Células , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinopatias/genética , Humanos , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
12.
Hum Gene Ther ; 31(9-10): 575-589, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000541

RESUMO

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are quickly becoming the vectors of choice for therapeutic gene delivery. To date, hundreds of natural isolates and bioengineered variants have been reported. While factors such as high production titer and low immunoreactivity are important to consider, the ability to deliver the genetic payload (physical transduction) and to drive high transgene expression (functional transduction) remains the most important feature when selecting AAV variants for clinical applications. Reporter expression assays are the most commonly used methods for determining vector fitness. However, such approaches are time consuming and become impractical when evaluating a large number of variants. Limited access to primary human tissues or challenging model systems further complicates vector testing. To address this problem, convenient high-throughput methods based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) are being developed. To this end, we built an AAV Testing Kit that allows inherent flexibility in regard to number and type of AAV variants included, and is compatible with in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo applications. The Testing Kit presented here consists of a mix of 30 known AAVs where each variant encodes a CMV-eGFP cassette and a unique barcode in the 3'-untranslated region of the eGFP gene, allowing NGS-barcode analysis at both the DNA and RNA/cDNA levels. To validate the AAV Testing Kit, individually packaged barcoded variants were mixed at an equal ratio and used to transduce cells/tissues of interest. DNA and RNA/cDNA were extracted and subsequently analyzed by NGS to determine the physical/functional transduction efficiencies. We were able to assess the transduction efficiencies of immortalized cells, primary cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro, as well as in vivo transduction in naïve mice and a xenograft liver model. Importantly, while our data validated previously reported transduction characteristics of individual capsids, we also identified novel previously unknown tropisms for some AAV variants.

13.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 200-206, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988463

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of phagocytic cells1,2. We report the initial results of nine severely affected X-linked CGD (X-CGD) patients who received ex vivo autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell-based lentiviral gene therapy following myeloablative conditioning in first-in-human studies (trial registry nos. NCT02234934 and NCT01855685). The primary objectives were to assess the safety and evaluate the efficacy and stability of biochemical and functional reconstitution in the progeny of engrafted cells at 12 months. The secondary objectives included the evaluation of augmented immunity against bacterial and fungal infection, as well as assessment of hematopoietic stem cell transduction and engraftment. Two enrolled patients died within 3 months of treatment from pre-existing comorbidities. At 12 months, six of the seven surviving patients demonstrated stable vector copy numbers (0.4-1.8 copies per neutrophil) and the persistence of 16-46% oxidase-positive neutrophils. There was no molecular evidence of either clonal dysregulation or transgene silencing. Surviving patients have had no new CGD-related infections, and six have been able to discontinue CGD-related antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary objective was met in six of the nine patients at 12 months follow-up, suggesting that autologous gene therapy is a promising approach for CGD patients.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X , Terapia Genética/métodos , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Adolescente , Antígenos CD34/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Inativação Gênica , Genes Reguladores , Vetores Genéticos , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Segurança do Paciente , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Gene Ther ; 31(3-4): 199-210, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773990

RESUMO

Targeted integration into a genomic safe harbor, such as the AAVS1 locus on chromosome 19, promises predictable transgene expression and reduces the risk of insertional mutagenesis in the host genome. The application of gamma-retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven vectors, which semirandomly integrate into the genome, has previously caused severe adverse events in some clinical studies due to transactivation of neighboring proto-oncogenes. Consequently, the site-specific integration of a therapeutic transgene into a genomic safe harbor locus would allow stable genetic correction with a reduced risk of insertional mutagenesis. However, recent studies revealed that transgene silencing, especially in case of weaker cell type-specific promoters, can occur in the AAVS1 locus of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and can impede transgene expression during differentiation. In this study, we aimed to correct p47phox deficiency, which is the second most common cause of chronic granulomatous disease, by insertion of a therapeutic p47phox transgene into the AAVS1 locus of human induced PSCs (iPSCs) using CRISPR-Cas9. We analyzed transgene expression and functional correction from three different myeloid-specific promoters (miR223, CatG/cFes, and myeloid-related protein 8 [MRP8]). Upon myeloid differentiation of corrected iPSC clones, we observed that the miR223 and CatG/cFes promoters achieved therapeutically relevant levels of p47phox expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, whereas the MRP8 promoter was less efficient. Analysis of the different promoters revealed high CpG methylation of the MRP8 promoter in differentiated cells, which correlated with the transgene expression data. In summary, we identified the miR223 and CatG/cFes promoters as cell type-specific promoters that allow stable transgene expression in the AAVS1 locus of iPSC-derived myeloid cells. Our findings further indicate that promoter silencing can occur in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in differentiated hematopoietic cells and that a comparison of different promoters is necessary to achieve optimal transgene expression for therapeutic application of iPSC-derived cells.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 20(5): 1447-1450, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663273

RESUMO

Combined immune deficiency due to athymia in patients with complete DiGeorge syndrome can be corrected by allogeneic thymus transplantation. Hypoparathyroidism is a frequent concomitant clinical problem in these patients, which persists after thymus transplantation. Cotransplantation of allogeneic thymus and parental parathyroid tissue has been attempted but does not achieve durable correction of the patients' hypoparathyroidism due to parathyroid graft rejection. Surprisingly, we observed correction of hypoparathyroidism in one patient after thymus transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of allogeneic parathyroid tissue in the patient's thymus transplant biopsy. Despite a lack of HLA-matching between thymus donor and recipient, the reconstituted immune system displays tolerance toward the thymus donor. Therefore we expect this patient's hypoparathyroidism to be permanently cured. It is recognised that ectopic parathyroid tissue is not infrequently found in the thymus. If such thymuses could be identified, we propose that their use would offer a compelling approach to achieving lasting correction of both immunodeficiency and hypoparathyroidism.

16.
Haematologica ; 105(5): 1339-1350, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582539

RESUMO

Megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) is a coactivator of serum response factor and together they regulate transcription of actin cytoskeleton genes. MKL1 is associated with hematologic malignancies and immunodeficiency, but its role in B cells is unexplored. Here we examined B cells from monozygotic triplets with an intronic deletion in MKL1, two of whom had been previously treated for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To investigate MKL1 and B-cell responses in the pathogenesis of HL, we generated Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines from the triplets and two controls. While cells from the patients with treated HL had a phenotype close to that of the healthy controls, cells from the undiagnosed triplet had increased MKL1 mRNA, increased MKL1 protein, and elevated expression of MKL1-dependent genes. This profile was associated with elevated actin content, increased cell spreading, decreased expression of CD11a integrin molecules, and delayed aggregation. Moreover, cells from the undiagnosed triplet proliferated faster, displayed a higher proportion of cells with hyperploidy, and formed large tumors in vivo This phenotype was reversible by inhibiting MKL1 activity. Interestingly, cells from the triplet treated for HL in 1985 contained two subpopulations: one with high expression of CD11a that behaved like control cells and the other with low expression of CD11a that formed large tumors in vivo similar to cells from the undiagnosed triplet. This implies that pre-malignant cells had re-emerged a long time after treatment. Together, these data suggest that dysregulated MKL1 activity participates in B-cell transformation and the pathogenesis of HL.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552026

RESUMO

Inherited Primary Immunodeficiency (PID) disorders are associated with increased risk of malignancy that may relate to impaired antitumor immune responses or a direct role for PID germline mutations in tumorigenesis. We recently identified germline loss of function mutations in Janus Associated Kinase 1 (JAK1) causing primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections and associated with early onset, fatal high-grade bladder carcinoma. Somatic mutations in JAK1, required for immune cell signaling in response to interferon gamma (IFNγ), have been associated with several non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cancer cell types but pathogenic mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that JAK1 is required for the intrinsic IFNγ response of urothelial cells impacting immunogenicity and cell survival. Specifically, JAK1-deficient urothelial cells showed reduced surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) after IFNγ stimulation and were resistant to IFNγ-induced apoptosis and lymphocyte-mediated killing. In addition, we identify a previously unknown role for IFNγ signaling in modulating urothelial differentiation. Together, our findings support a role for urothelial cell JAK1 in immune surveillance and development of bladder cancer. Our results have implications for patients with rare JAK1 PID and, more broadly, inform development of biomarker and targeted therapies for urothelial carcinoma.

19.
Stem Cell Reports ; 13(4): 590-598, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543470

RESUMO

Mutations in the NADPH oxidase, which is crucial for the respiratory burst in phagocytes, result in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). The only curative treatment option for CGD patients, who suffer from severe infections, is allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Over 90% of patients with mutations in the p47phox subunit of the oxidase complex carry the deletion c.75_76delGT (ΔGT). This frequent mutation most likely originates via gene conversion from one of the two pseudogenes NCF1B or NCF1C, which are highly homologous to NCF1 (encodes p47phox) but carry the ΔGT mutation. We applied CRISPR/Cas9 to generate patient-like p47-ΔGT iPSCs for disease modeling. To avoid unpredictable chromosomal rearrangements by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage in the pseudogenes, we developed a gene-correction approach to specifically target NCF1 but leave the pseudogenes intact. Functional assays revealed restored NADPH oxidase activity and killing of bacteria in corrected phagocytes as well as the specificity of this approach.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11592, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406195

RESUMO

In utero gene therapy (IUGT) to the fetal hematopoietic compartment could be used to treat congenital blood disorders such as ß-thalassemia. A humanised mouse model of ß-thalassemia was used, in which heterozygous animals are anaemic with splenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Intrahepatic in utero injections of a ß globin-expressing lentiviral vector (GLOBE), were performed in fetuses at E13.5 of gestation. We analysed animals at 12 and 32 weeks of age, for vector copy number in bone marrow, peripheral blood liver and spleen and we performed integration site analysis. Compared to noninjected heterozygous animals IUGT normalised blood haemoglobin levels and spleen weight. Integration site analysis showed polyclonality. The left ventricular ejection fraction measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in treated heterozygous animals was similar to that of normal non-ß-thalassemic mice but significantly higher than untreated heterozygous thalassemia mice suggesting that IUGT ameliorated poor cardiac function. GLOBE LV-mediated IUGT normalised the haematological and anatomical phenotype in a heterozygous humanised model of ß-thalassemia.

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