Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 290
Filtrar
1.
Tob Control ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017260

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: This study examines the differential effects of Canadian point-of-sale (POS) tobacco display bans across provinces on quit attempts and smoking cessation, by sex, education and income. METHODS: We analysed survey data from five waves (waves 4-8) of the International Tobacco Control Canada Survey, a population-based, longitudinal survey, where provinces implemented display bans between 2004 and 2010. Primary outcomes were quit attempts and successful cessation. We used generalised estimating equation Poisson regression models to estimate associations between living in a province with or without a POS ban (with a 24-month threshold) and smoking outcomes. We tested whether these associations varied by sex, education and income by including interaction terms. RESULTS: Across survey waves, the percentage of participants in provinces with POS bans established for more than 24 months increased from 5.0% to 95.8%. There was no association between POS bans and quit attempts for provinces with bans in place for 0-24 months or more than 24 months, respectively (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=0.99, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.10; 1.03, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.20). However, we found a differential impact of POS bans on quit attempts by sex, whereby bans were more effective for women than men for bans of 0-24 months. Participants living in a province with a POS ban for at least 24 months had a higher chance of successful cessation (aRR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.05) compared with those in a province without a ban. We found no differences in the association between POS bans and quit attempts or cessation by education or income, and no differences by sex for cessation. CONCLUSION: POS bans are associated with increased smoking cessation overall and more quit attempts among women than men.

3.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882878

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many smokers attempt to stop smoking every year, but the vast majority of quit attempts fail. This study examined prospectively the association between post-quitting experiences and smoking relapse among ex-smokers in Australia and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Data came from 584 adult ex-smokers from Australia and the United Kingdom who participated in Wave 9 of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey and successfully followed up a year later (Wave 10). Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether baseline post-quitting experiences predicted relapse back to smoking at follow-up. RESULTS: Ex-smokers who perceived their stress coping ability had gotten worse since quitting were more likely to relapse back to smoking compared to their counterparts who reported no change (odds ratio = 5.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.64, 20.31, P < 0.01). Ex-smokers who reported their homes had become fresher and cleaner post quitting were less likely to relapse compared to those who did not notice any change (odds ratio = 0.34, 95% confidence interval = 0.13, 0.93, P < 0.05). Perceived changes in life enjoyment, negative affect control, social confidence, work performance, leisure time and financial situation did not independently predict relapse. No country differences were found. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that ex-smokers' relapse risk was elevated if they perceived any negative impact of quitting on their stress coping whereas relapse risk was reduced if they perceived any positive impact of quitting on the home (e.g. fresher and cleaner). Helping ex-smokers to develop alternative stress coping strategies and highlighting the positive impacts of quitting smoking on the homes may help protect against smoking relapse.

4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of countries mandating a nicotine addiction warning label ('warnings') on nicotine vaping products (NVPs) has been increasing. This study examined associations between noticing NVP warnings, perceptions of NVPs, and intentions to use NVPs. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 12,619 adult NVP users, cigarette smokers, concurrent users of both cigarettes and NVPs, and quitters who participated in the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey (England, Australia, Canada, US). Logistic regression analyses examined associations between noticing warnings in the past 30 days and perceptions of nicotine harm, NVP harm relative to cigarettes, and NVP addictiveness relative to cigarettes. Associations were also explored between noticing warnings and intentions to use NVPs. RESULTS: Noticing warnings was higher among NVP users (18.8%) than non-users (2.1%). Noticing warnings was associated with perceiving nicotine to pose little or no harm to health among NVP users, but there was no association among non-users. There was little evidence of an association between noticing warnings and perceptions of NVP harms relative to smoking among NVP users and non-users. Noticing warnings was associated with perceiving NVPs as less addictive than cigarettes among non-users but not NVP users. Among exclusive smokers, noticing warnings was associated with intending to start using NVPs. Among NVP users, there was little evidence of an association between noticing warnings and intentions to continue using/stopping NVPs. CONCLUSIONS: Noticing NVP warnings was not associated with increased NVP and nicotine harm perceptions or decreased intentions to use NVPs among adult smokers and vapers.

5.
Health Educ Res ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849859

RESUMO

E-Cigarette marketing may influence e-cigarette use among youth. This study examined reported exposure to and perceptions of e-cigarette marketing among youth between 2017 and 2019 across countries with varying e-cigarette marketing restrictions. Cross-sectional online surveys were conducted with 35 490 youth aged 16-19 from England, Canada and the United States in 2017, 2018 and 2019. Weighted logistic regression models examined trends in the adjusted prevalence of self-reported exposure to e-cigarette marketing and the perceived appeal of e-cigarette ads between 2017 and 2019, by country and by smoking/vaping status. Reports of frequent exposure to e-cigarette marketing increased between 2017 and 2019 in all countries, but less so in England, where e-cigarette marketing is more restricted. Perceiving e-cigarette marketing as appealing increased from 2017 to 2019 in Canada and the United States, but not in England. In England, exposure to e-cigarette marketing did not increase in prohibited channels between 2017 and 2019. Between 2017 and 2019, never-users' reports increased for exposure to and appeal of e-cigarette marketing. The results suggest some effectiveness of e-cigarette marketing bans in England and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing among youth never users.

6.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling is a globally recommended strategy to encourage healthier food choices. We evaluated the effect of FOP labels on the perceived healthfulness of a sweetened fruit drink in an international sample of adult consumers. DESIGN: Six-arm randomised controlled experiment to examine the impact of FOP labels (no label control, Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights, the Health Star Ratings (HSR), Health Warning Labels, and 'High-in' Warning Labels (HIWL)) on the perceived healthfulness of the drink. Linear regression models by country examined healthfulness perceptions on FOP nutrition labels, testing for interactions by demographic characteristics. SETTING: Online survey in 2018 among participants from Australia, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom (UK) and United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (≥18 years, n 22 140). RESULTS: Compared with control, HIWL had the greatest impact in lowering perceived healthfulness (ß from -0·62 to -1·71) across all countries. The HIWL and the HSR had a similar effect in Australia. Other labels were effective in decreasing the perceived healthfulness of the drink within some countries only, but to a lower extent. The GDA did not reduce perceived healthfulness in most countries. In the UK, the effect of HIWL differed by age group, with greater impact among older participants (> 40 years). There were no other variations across key demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: HIWL, which communicates clear, non-quantitative messages about high levels of nutrients of concern, demonstrated the greatest efficacy to decrease the perceived healthfulness of a sweetened fruit drink across countries. This effect was similar across demographic characteristics.

7.
Addiction ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697845

RESUMO

AIMS: To measure the effects of changing attributes of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs in a country that has already implemented pictorial HWLs. MEASURES: For each choice set, participants were presented with two cigarette packs and asked the following three questions: (1) 'If only these two cigarette packs were available, which would you buy?'; (2) 'Each of these two packs has warnings on the front and back about the health effects of smoking. Which of these warnings best informs you about the dangers from smoking?'; and (3) 'Which warning most makes you think about quitting smoking?'. As recommended for best practices in discrete choice experiments, each of these questions was followed by an 'opt-out' question for participants to indicate whether they really believed there was a difference between the options presented (i.e. 'Would you really choose one of them?'; 'Do you really think that either of these warnings informs you about dangers from smoking?'; or 'Do you really think that either of these warnings would make you think about quitting smoking?', respectively). Each choice set could be viewed for as long as the participant wished. For each choice question (i.e. willingness to buy, informative, motivating to quit), the pack chosen was coded as 1 and the other pack as 0, with both packs being given a value of 0 if the participant 'opted out'. DESIGN: A within-subject discrete choice experiment that involved systematic manipulation of pictorial HWL size [75 versus 30% (current policy)]; inclusion of imagery on the back of the pack [versus none (current policy)]; and color formatting [black on yellow versus yellow on black (current policy)]. SETTING: Mexico, on-line panel. PARTICIPANTS: Adult smokers (n = 705). MEASUREMENTS: For each choice set, participants selected one pack as having the most informative HWL about smoking harms, the one that makes them think the most about quitting and the one they were most willing to buy. We assessed the independent and interactive effects of HWL attributes on choices. FINDINGS: Larger HWL size on the pack front (75 versus 30%) and inclusion of a pictorial image on the pack back were both independently associated with lower willingness to buy a pack [b = -0.228, standard error (SE) = 0.023 and -0.089, SE = 0.016, respectively] and greater perception of an HWL as informative (b = 0.214, SE = 0.022, and 0.191, SE = 0.017, respectively) and motivating to quit (b = 0.251, SE = 0.023 and 0.194, SE = 0.017, respectively). HWL with black text and yellow background were perceived as less informative (b = -0.037, SE = 0.016) and less motivating to quit (b = -0.032, SE = 0.015) compared with yellow text on a black background. CONCLUSIONS: Among adult Mexican smokers, pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packages that are larger or cover both sides of the pack appear more effective at lowering purchase intentions and increasing risk perceptions and motivation to quit than smaller health warning labels or health warning labels with imagery only on the pack front.

8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To analyze the impact of Truth and state-sponsored anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking in the U.S., and their potential to reduce tobacco-related health disparities. METHODS: Our study included data from the 2000-2015 Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally representative survey of youth in 8 th (n=201,913), 10 th (n=194,468), and 12 th grades (n=178,379). Our primary exposure was Gross Ratings Points (GRPS) of Truth or state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertisements, from Nielsen Media Research. Modified Poisson regression was used to assess the impact of a respondent's GRPs on smoking intentions, past 30-day smoking participation, and first and daily smoking initiation. Additive interactions with sex, parental education, college plans, and race/ethnicity were used to test for differential effects of campaign exposure on each outcome. RESULTS: Greater campaign exposure (80 th vs. 20 th GRP percentile) was associated with lower probabilities of smoking intentions among 8 th graders, smoking participation among 8 th and 12 th graders, and initiation among 8 th graders. Greater exposure was associated with a greater reduction in the likelihood of smoking participation among 10 th and 12 th grade males than females; 10 th and 12 th graders with parents of lower education versus those with a college degree; and 12 th graders who did not definitely plan to go to college relative to those who did. CONCLUSIONS: Media campaign exposure was associated with a lower likelihood of youth smoking behaviors. Associations were more pronounced for groups disproportionately affected by smoking, including youth of lower socioeconomic status. Media campaigns may be useful in reducing smoking disparities and improving health equity. IMPLICATIONS: Few recent studies have investigated the impact of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and their potential to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in the U.S. We found media campaigns - specifically state-sponsored media campaigns - reduced the likelihood of several smoking outcomes among youth, with some evidence that they mitigate disparities for disproportionately affected groups.

9.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of research on within-person relationships between tobacco price and cigarette smoking initiation and progression in young adulthood. This project examines the within-person association between cigarette pack price and smoking initiation and progression between age 18 and 21/22, focusing on differences across subgroups. METHODS: Data came from the longitudinal Monitoring the Future (MTF) project. MTF examines drug use behaviors with nationally representative samples of 12th graders annually. Subsamples of 12th graders are annually selected and followed longitudinally. Among 12 th graders from baseline years 2000-2014, we examined past 30-day cigarette smoking initiation among baseline never smokers (N=15,280) and progression to daily smoking among youth who were not daily smokers at baseline (N=26,998). We used hierarchical logistic regression and interaction terms to assess differences across sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education. RESULTS: The within-person relationship between pack price and smoking indicated that a one-dollar increase in pack price corresponded with an 72% decrease in the odds of initiation (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.18, 0.44) and 70% decrease in the odds of progression to daily smoking (AOR=0.30, 95% CI=0.21, 0.44). There was a linear age trend for both smoking initiation and progression. There were no statistically significant interactions between price and demographics, making it difficult to disentangle differences across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to increased cigarette prices during young adulthood was associated with a lower odds of cigarette smoking initiation and progression. Additional policies and programs beyond cigarettes prices could help reduce tobacco-related disparities in smoking initiation and progression among young adults. IMPLICATIONS: There is a strong, within-person relationship between cigarette prices and smoking initiation and progression during the transition to young adulthood: higher prices are associated with decreased odds of both initiation and progression. Cigarette taxation can help to prevent smoking initiation and progression among youth, but it is less clear how taxes are associated with disparities in smoking experienced by certain subgroups. We could not draw definitive conclusions about the impact of cigarette prices on tobacco-related disparities. Tobacco taxes should be increased on a regular basis to ensure young adults experience within-person increases in prices, and complementary programs geared toward reducing tobacco-related disparities among young adults should be promoted.

10.
LGBT Health ; 8(8): 545-553, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619041

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to characterize the patterns of smoking, e-cigarette use, other substance use (alcohol and marijuana), and depression by sexual orientation in a sample of Mexican adult smokers. Methods: Data came from a 2018-2020 (six waves) online survey of adult smokers, recruited from a commercial research panel (92.5% heterosexual, n = 4786; 3.1% lesbian/gay, n = 160; and 4.4% bisexual, n = 229). After stratifying the data by sex, logistic, multinomial, and linear logistic regression models were estimated (depending on the outcome), including as independent variables sexual orientation (i.e., gay/lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual = Reference), age, education, household income, and wave. Results: Being a gay male was independently associated with greater smoking dependence (ß = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02 to 0.39), greater likelihood of preference for flavored capsule cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.33 to 3.28), and depression diagnosis (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.64 to 4.95). Bisexual males had higher e-cigarette dependence (ß = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.68, among dual users only) and were more likely to have been diagnosed with depression (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.30 to 4.18). Lesbian females were more likely to prefer menthol cigarettes (AOR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.60 to 6.86), to have used marijuana more than once (AOR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.83 to 5.72), and to have depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.29). Bisexual females had a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.56) and depression diagnosis (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.43 to 3.42). Conclusion: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual adult smokers in Mexico appear more likely than heterosexual adult smokers to report having depression. Substance use and depression among sexual minority populations need to be addressed further.

11.
Int J Drug Policy ; 99: 103468, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warning labels are a fundamental public health strategy for communicating about tobacco product risks, but effective warning labels for heated tobacco products (HTPs) and e-cigarettes (ECs) are yet to be determined. We examined the effect of two warning label systems for communicating the relative risks of using cigarettes, HTPs, and ECs. METHODS: 1,280 Korean adults were recruited from an online commercial panel, including susceptible non-users of cigarettes, HTPs, or ECs aged 19 to 29 (n = 444) and current users of these tobacco products aged 19 or older (n = 836). Participants viewed packages for cigarettes, HTPs, and ECs in a 2 × 2 between-subject experiment: "dashboard" icons integrated into warnings vs. no dashboard; different-sized warnings (70% of cigarette packages, 50% of HTP packs, 30% of EC packages) vs. current equal-sized warnings (50% of cigarette/HTP/EC packages). RESULTS: Participants exposed to the dashboard warning system were more likely than those who were not to report higher perceived harm of cigarettes than ECs, cigarettes than HTPs, and HTPs than ECs, as well as perceived benefit of switching from cigarettes to HTPs, cigarettes to ECs, and HTPs to ECs. Participants exposed to the different-sized warning system did not report differences in perceived relative harm or benefit compared to those who were not, and no interaction of dashboard warnings with warning sizes was found. CONCLUSION: The use of dashboard icons with texts and colors representing different levels of risk may promote public understanding about the continuum of risk across tobacco products.

12.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little systematic evidence exists about the effectiveness of cigar warnings. This study examined the perceived message effectiveness (PME) of warning statements about different health consequences caused by cigars. PME is a validated self-report scale of how effectively a health message discourages smoking. METHODS: We conducted an online study from April-May 2020 with adults in the United States who used cigars in the past 30 days (n=777). Participants were randomly assigned to view and rate PME (3 items, range 1 to 5) for 7 out of 37 text warning statements about different health consequences from cigar use. Linear mixed effects models evaluated the most effective warning characteristics (e.g., type of health consequence), controlling for repeated measures and participant demographics. RESULTS: Analyses showed that health consequences about the cardiovascular system (B=0.38), mouth (B=0.40), other digestive (B=0.45), respiratory system (B=0.36), and early death (B=0.36) were associated with higher PME scores than reproductive health consequences (all p-values <0.001). Similar results were found for these health consequences compared to addiction (all p-values p<0.001). We also observed that awareness of the health consequence was associated with higher PME scores (B=0.19, p<0.001) and length of the warning message (number of characters) was associated with lower PME scores (B=-0.007, p=0.03). No differences were observed between cancer and non-cancer health consequences (p=0.27) or health consequences that used plain language vs. medical jargon (p=0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence about the perceived effectiveness of different cigar health warning statements and identifies features that may strengthen statements. IMPLICATIONS: Our study with cigar smokers from across the United States provides much-needed evidence concerning the perceived effectiveness of different cigar health warning statements and features that may strengthen such statements. Mandated cigar warnings in the United States could be strengthened by including health consequences that were perceived as more effective in our study (e.g., early death), using health consequences that participants were aware of, and using short warning statements.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682643

RESUMO

Mexico is one of the countries most affected by COVID-19. Studies have found that smoking behaviors have been impacted by the pandemic as well; however, results have varied across studies, and it remains unclear what is causing the changes. This study of an open cohort of smokers recruited from a consumer panel (n = 2753) examined changes in cigarettes per day (CPD), daily vs. non-daily smoking, recent quit attempts, perceived stress, depression, and perceived severity of COVID-19 at two points during the pandemic: March and July 2020. Differences in CPD between waves were estimated with Poisson regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Differences in perceived stress were estimated with linear regression using GEE, and differences in recent quit attempts, depression, and perceived severity of COVID-19 were estimated using separate logistic regression GEE models. Rates of depression were higher in July compared to March (AOR = 1.55, 95% C.I. 1.31-1.85), and the likelihood of recent quit attempt was lower in July compared to March (AOR = 0.85, 95% C.I. 0.75-0.98). There was no statistically significant change in CPD, daily smoking, or perceived stress. Perceived COVID-19 severity for oneself increased significantly (AOR: 1.24, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.52); however, the perceived COVID-19 severity for smokers remained constant. Our study suggests that as the COVID-19 pandemic expanded in Mexico, smoking frequency remained stable, and quit attempts decreased, even as adult smokers increasingly perceived infection with COVID-19 for themselves as severe. These results can aid in the development of health communication strategies to educate smokers about their risk for COVID-19, potentially capitalizing on concerns that stem from this syndemic of communicable and smoking-related non-communicable disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(6): 841-851, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examines whether smoke-free laws are differentially associated with youth smoking outcomes by parental education, race/ethnicity, sex, and college plans in a U.S. METHODS: This study assessed the relationships between smoke-free laws in workplaces and hospitality venues (restaurants/bars) and past 30-day smoking participation, first cigarette initiation, and daily smoking initiation within a repeated cross-sectional sample of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from the Monitoring the Future study. Data were collected between 2001 and 2018 and were analyzed in 2020-2021. Grade-stratified Poisson models were used to calculate prevalence ratios and average marginal effects, incorporating interaction terms to examine differential associations across groups. RESULTS: Hospitality smoke-free laws were significantly associated with lower probabilities of smoking participation in all grades as well as with first cigarette and daily smoking initiation in 8th and 10th grade. Workplace smoke-free laws were associated with lower probabilities of smoking participation among 10th and 12th graders as well as with first cigarette and daily smoking initiation among 10th graders. Average marginal effects ranged from -0.4 percentage points (hospitality laws and daily smoking initiation in 8th and 10th grades) to -2.2 percentage points (workplace laws and smoking participation in 10th grade). Associations between smoke-free laws and a lower probability of smoking participation were most pronounced among students who definitely planned to attend college. Other instances of effect modification suggested more pronounced associations for students who were female and from high-SES households; however, relationships varied by grade. CONCLUSIONS: Smoke-free laws were associated with reduced smoking among youth; however, associations varied by grade, sex, parental education, and college plans.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Produtos do Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Restaurantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding long-term impacts of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and related disparities in the United States. METHODS: We examined longitudinal cohort data from Monitoring the Future (MTF) between 2000 and 2017 in modified Poisson regression models to understand the long-term impacts of televised Truth and state-sponsored ad campaign exposure at baseline (age 18) on first cigarette and daily smoking initiation 1 to 2 years later (at modal ages 19/20). We also used additive interactions to test for potential effect modification between campaign exposure and smoking outcomes by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment. RESULTS: We found no evidence for baseline media campaign exposure to be associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at modal age 19/20. Further, results showed no evidence for effect modification between campaign exposure and first cigarette or daily smoking initiation. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that baseline Truth and state-sponsored ad exposure was associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at follow up, nor did we find any evidence for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, or parental education. We hypothesize that anti-tobacco media campaigns might have had a short-term impact on smoking behaviors, though these effects were not sustained long term.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Addiction ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tobacco control policies may differentially impact smoking initiation among socio-demographic groups. We measured longitudinal associations between exposure to smoke-free laws in grade 12 (modal age 18 years) and patterns of smoking initiation in the United States. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data on US young adults sampled at modal age 18 years from the Monitoring the Future Survey. Baseline data were collected between 2000 and 2017, with the last year of follow-up in 2018. The sample number varied by outcome and time-point, ranging from 7314 to 17 702. MEASUREMENTS: Smoke-free law coverage in work-places and hospitality venues (restaurants/bars) was measured as the percentage of the county population covered by each type of law. We examined associations with any past 30-day smoking initiation and daily smoking initiation at modal ages 19/20, 21/22 and 23/24, using Poisson regression and calculating average marginal effects. We explored effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity and parental education by testing the significance of interaction terms. FINDINGS: Work-place law coverage at modal age 18 was associated with a lower probability of daily smoking initiation at modal ages 21/22 [-2.4 percentage points (p.p.); 95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.9, -0.9] and 23/24 (-2.0 p.p.; 95% CI = -3.9, -0.2). Hospitality law coverage was associated with a lower probability of daily smoking initiation at modal ages 19/20 (-1.6 p.p.; 95% CI = -2.8, -0.4), 21/22 (-2.3 p.p.; 95% CI = -3.7, -0.9) and 23/24 (-1.8 p.p.; 95% CI = -3.6, -0.0). Findings were inconclusive with regard to associations with any past 30-day smoking initiation and with regard to effect modification, after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to smoke-free laws at age 18 appears to be prospectively associated with reduced daily smoking initiation 1-6 years later.

17.
Addiction ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed to reduce nicotine in cigarettes to minimally or non-addictive levels. This study qualitatively explored perceptions of nicotine and addiction, both independently and in response to messages communicating about nicotine reduction. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups. Participants described their perceptions of nicotine and addiction and their responses to messages about the nicotine reduction. SETTING: Atlanta, GA and San Francisco, CA, USA. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted virtually in Spring 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Exclusive smokers (n = 27), dual users (of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes) (n = 25), former smokers (n = 32) and young adult non-smokers (n = 31). MEASUREMENT: Inductive thematic analysis of transcripts was conducted, and results were compared across smoking status groups. FINDINGS: Participants across all smoking status groups associated nicotine with tobacco products, but consistently misperceived that nicotine caused disease. Perceptions of addiction were largely negative and varied by smoking status. Experienced smokers (exclusive smokers, former smokers and dual users) differentiated tobacco use from other addictions and minimized their own experiences of addiction. Perceptions of addiction across experienced smokers included not only the chemical properties of nicotine, but also the behavioral aspects of tobacco use, including oral fixation, having a smoking routine and response to internal and external cues. In response to messages, many believed that removing the nicotine would not make cigarettes less addictive because of the multi-factorial nature of smoking addiction that includes non-pharmacological cues. CONCLUSIONS: Perceptions of nicotine and addiction among non-smokers, former smokers, exclusive smokers and dual users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes vary based on smoking status, but there is a common tendency to believe that nicotine is addictive, that addiction results from more than just nicotine, and that very low nicotine cigarettes will not necessarily reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063735

RESUMO

Many current smokers incorrectly believe that menthol cigarettes are less harmful, likely due to the biological and sensory effects of menthol, which can lead smokers to have favourable sensory experiences. In this study, we measured the extent to which Australian smokers associate certain sensory experiences with smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and their beliefs about how damaging and enjoyable they find cigarettes with each of these sensory experiences. A sample of 999 Australian 18-69-year-old weekly smokers was recruited from a non-probability online panel; this study focuses on the 245 respondents who currently smoked menthol cigarettes at least once per week. Current menthol smokers were four to nine times more likely to experience menthol rather than non-menthol cigarettes as having favourable sensory experiences, including feeling smooth, being soothing on the throat, fresh-tasting and clean-feeling. Menthol smokers perceived cigarettes with these favourable sensations as less damaging and more enjoyable than cigarettes with the opposite more aversive sensory experience. Efforts to correct these misperceptions about risk will likely require messages that provide new information to help smokers understand that these sensations do not indicate a lower level of risk. Banning menthol in tobacco products-as has recently been done in some nations-would also be a timely and justified strategy for protecting consumers.


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Health Commun ; 26(5): 299-311, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156914

RESUMO

Our content analysis of newspaper and television news stories in South Korea examines the quantity and nature of news about novel heated tobacco products (HTPs), which heat instead of burn tobacco and that manufacturers claim are less harmful than cigarettes. The amount of news coverage peaked when the government introduced new regulations, suggesting that HTP news was driven largely by new policies. Indeed, HTPs were more likely to be presented as a policy rather than a health issue. When it comes to news sources, government agencies and HTP manufacturers were referenced most often in the news. As for benefits of HTPs, news stories focused on reduced harm, greater social acceptability, and convenience, while discussions of drawbacks included potentially being equally or more harmful than cigarettes, the possibility of extensive future regulations, and HTPs' unknown health effects. Findings suggested that certain journalistic practices, such as relying heavily on established routine sources, focusing on the stories that could attract large audiences, and representing the perspectives of the publishers and the primary audiences, might have affected the nature of HTP discourse.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , República da Coreia , Televisão , Tabaco
20.
Tob Control ; 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The e-cigarette market has rapidly evolved, with a shift towards higher nicotine concentration and salt-based products, such as JUUL; however, the implications for youth vaping remain unclear. METHODS: Repeat cross-sectional online surveys were conducted in 2017, 2018 and 2019, with national samples of youth aged 16-19 years recruited from commercial panels in Canada (n=12 018), England (n=11 362) and the USA (n=12 110). Regression models examined differences between countries and over time in the types of e-cigarette products used (design and nicotine content), reasons for using brands and differences in patterns of use, sociodemographics and dependence symptoms by brand/nicotine content. RESULTS: In 2019, the use of pod- or cartridge-style e-cigarettes was greater in Canada and the USA than England, with Smok and JUUL the leading brands in all countries. In 2019, youth vapers in England were less likely to report using e-cigarettes with ≥2% nicotine (12.8%) compared with Canada (40.5%; adjusted OR (AOR)=4.96; 95% CI 3.51 to 7.01) and the USA (37.0%; AOR=3.99, 95% CI 2.79 to 5.71) and less likely to report using nicotine salt-based products (12.3%) compared with Canada (27.1%; AOR=2.77, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.99) and the USA (21.9%; AOR=2.00, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.95). In 2019, self-reported use of products with higher nicotine concentration was associated with significantly greater frequency of vaping, urges to vape and perceived vaping addiction (p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The use of high-nicotine salt-based products is associated with greater symptoms of dependence, including JUUL and other higher-nicotine brands. Greater use of high-nicotine salt-based products may account for recent increases in the frequency of vaping among youth in Canada and the USA.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...