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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the long-term differences in survival between multiple arterial grafts (MAG) and single arterial grafts (SAG) in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the SYNTAX study. METHODS: The present analysis included the randomized and registry-treated CABG patients (n = 1509) from the SYNTAX Extended Survival study (SYNTAXES). Patients with only venous (n = 42) or synthetic grafts (n = 1) were excluded. The primary end point was all-cause death at the longest follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics. Sensitivity analysis using propensity matching with inverse probability for treatment weights was performed. RESULTS: Of the 1466 included patients, 465 (31.7%) received MAG and 1001 (68.3%) SAG. Patients receiving MAG were younger and at lower risk. At the longest follow-up of 12.6 years, all-cause death occurred in 23.6% of MAG and 40.0% of SAG patients [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55-0.98); P = 0.038], which was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. MAG in patients with the three-vessel disease was associated with significant lower unadjusted and adjusted all-cause death at 12.6 years [adjusted HR 0.65, 95% CI (0.44-0.97); P = 0.033]. In contrast, no significance was observed after risk adjustment in patients with the left main disease, with and without diabetes, or among SYNTAX score tertiles. CONCLUSIONS: In the present post hoc analysis of all-comers patients from the SYNTAX trial, MAG resulted in markedly lower all-cause death at 12.6-year follow-up compared to a SAG strategy. Hence, this striking long-term survival benefit of MAG over SAG encourages more extensive use of multiple arterial grafting in selected patients with reasonable life expectancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAXES ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050; SYNTAX ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical and/or economic reasons sometimes necessitate the staging of percutaneous coronary intervention (SPCI) procedures in patients with complex coronary artery disease; however, the impact of this on very long-term outcomes is unknown. The aim of the present study is to assess 10-year all-cause mortality in patients with the three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main disease (LM) undergoing SPCI. METHODS: This is a sub-analysis of patients undergoing SPCI in the SYNTAXES study, which investigated 10-year all-cause mortality in patients with 3VD and/or LM in the randomized SYNTAX trial, beyond its original 5-year follow-up. An SPCI was allowed within 72 h or, if renal insufficiency or contrast-induced nephropathy occurred, within 14 days of the index procedure. Mortality was compared between patients having SPCI versus those not having SPCI or undergoing CABG. PCI patients were further stratified according to 3VD or LM. RESULTS: In the SYNTAX PCI population (overall: n = 903, 3VD: n = 546, LM: n = 357), 125 (13.8%) patients underwent SPCI. Patients with SPCI had a higher 10-year mortality compared to those who didn't (40.0% vs 26.6%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.32; p < 0.01) and those having CABG(40.0% vs 24.5%; HR 1.85; 95%CI 1.35-2.53; p < 0.01). Patients having SPCI with 3VD (n = 103) or LM (n = 22) had higher mortality than respective patients not having SPCI (3VD: 37.4% vs 27.1%; HR 1.52; 95%CI 1.05-2.21; p = 0.03 and LM: 51.8% vs 25.9%; HR 2.39; 95%CI 1.27-4.47; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: At 10-year follow-up, SPCI was associated with higher mortality than single-session PCI, so that CABG may be preferable if a staged procedure is anticipated.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 341: 9-12, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significant interaction between major infection and 5-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for complex coronary artery disease (CAD) was observed previously. However, the very long-term outcomes beyond 5 years remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a subgroup analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the randomized SYNTAX trial comparing PCI versus CABG in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) or left-main CAD (LMCAD). Out of 1517 patients enrolled in the SYNTAX trial with available survival status from 5 to 10 years, 140 patients had experienced major infections and survived at 5 years (major infection group). From 5 to 10 years, the mortality of major infection group was 19.8% whereas the mortality of no major infection group was 15.1% (p = 0.157). After the adjustment of other clinical factors, the risk of mortality from 5 to 10 years did not significantly differ between major infection and no major infection groups (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.62-1.96; p = 0.740). When stratified by the presence or absence of periprocedural major infections, defined as a major infection within 60 days after index procedure, there was also no significant difference in 10-year mortality between two groups (30.8% vs. 24.5%; p = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the initial association between major infections and 5 years mortality, postprocedural major infection was not evident in the 10 years follow-up, suggesting that the impact of major infection on mortality subsided over time beyond 5 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAXES ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050 SYNTAX ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405232

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this article was to compare rates of all-cause death at 10 years following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with or without diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SYNTAXES study evaluated up to 10-year survival of 1800 patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) randomized to receive either PCI or CABG in the SYNTAX trial. Ten-year all-cause death according to diabetic status and revascularization strategy was examined. In diabetics (n = 452), the risk of mortality was numerically higher with PCI compared with CABG at 5 years [19.6% vs. 13.3%, hazard ratio (HR): 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96, 2.43, P = 0.075], with the opposite seen between 5 and 10 years (PCI vs. CABG: 20.8% vs. 24.4%, HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.27, P = 0.366). Irrespective of diabetic status, there was no significant difference in all-cause death at 10 years between patients receiving PCI or CABG, the absolute treatment difference was 1.9% in diabetics (PCI vs. CABG: 36.4% vs. 34.5%, difference: 1.9%, 95% CI: -7.6%, 11.1%, P = 0.551). Among insulin-treated patients (n = 182), all-cause death at 10 years was numerically higher with PCI (47.9% vs. 39.6%, difference: 8.2%, 95% CI: -6.5%, 22.5%, P = 0.227). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment effects of PCI vs. CABG on all-cause death at 10 years in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD were similar irrespective of the presence of diabetes. There may, however, be a survival benefit with CABG in patients with insulin-treated diabetes. The association between revascularization strategy and very long-term ischaemic and safety outcomes for patients with diabetes needs further investigation in dedicated trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972 and SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405875

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to compare long-term all-cause mortality between patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using multiple (MAG) or single arterial grafting (SAG). METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study is a post hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival Study, which compared PCI with CABG in patients with three-vessel (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and evaluated survival with ≥10 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at maximum follow-up (median 11.9 years) assessed in the as-treated population. Of the 1743 patients, 901 (51.7%) underwent PCI, 532 (30.5%) received SAG, and 310 (17.8%) had MAG. At maximum follow-up, all-cause death occurred in 305 (33.9%), 175 (32.9%), and 70 (22.6%) patients in the PCI, SAG, and MAG groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple arterial grafting [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.89], but not SAG (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.67-1.03), was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with PCI. In patients with 3VD, both MAG (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37-0.81) and SAG (adjusted HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.91) were associated with significantly lower mortality than PCI, whereas in LMCAD patients, no significant differences between PCI and MAG (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.56-1.46) or SAG (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.81-1.53) were observed. In patients with revascularization of all three major myocardial territories, a positive correlation was observed between the number of myocardial territories receiving arterial grafts and survival (Ptrend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MAG might be the more desirable configuration for CABG to achieve lower long-term all-cause mortality than PCI in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on clinicaltrial.gov. SYNTAXES: NCT03417050 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03417050); SYNTAX: NCT00114972 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00114972).

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 27-38, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of optimal medical therapy (OMT) on 5-year outcomes in patients with 3-vessel disease and/or left main disease after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was demonstrated in the randomized SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis is to assess the impact of the status of OMT at 5 years on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which evaluated for up to 10 years the vital status of patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. OMT was defined as the combination of 4 types of medications: at least 1 antiplatelet drug, statin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, and beta-blocker. After stratifying participants by the number of individual OMT agents at 5 years and randomized treatment, a landmark analysis was conducted to assess the association between treatment response and 10-year mortality. RESULTS: In 1,472 patients, patients on OMT at 5 years had a significantly lower mortality at 10 years compared with those on ≤2 types of medications (13.1% vs 19.9%; adjusted HR: 0.470; 95% CI: 0.292-0.757; P = 0.002) but had a mortality similar to those on 3 types of medications. Furthermore, patients undergoing CABG with the individual OMT agents, antiplatelet drug and statin, at 5 years had lower 10-year mortality than those without. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or CABG, medication status at 5 years had a significant impact on 10-year mortality. Patients on OMT with guideline-recommended pharmacologic therapy at 5 years had a survival benefit. (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; Taxus Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 195, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative graft assessment with tools like Transit Time Flow Measurement (TTFM) is imperative for quality control in coronary surgery. We investigated the variation of TTFM parameters before and after protamine administration to identify new benchmark parameters for graft quality assessment. METHODS: The database of the REQUEST ("REgistry for QUality AssESsmenT with Ultrasound Imaging and TTFM in Cardiac Bypass Surgery") study was retrospectively reviewed. A per graft analysis was performed. Only single grafts (i.e., no sequential nor composite grafts) where both pre- and post-protamine TTFM values were recorded with an acoustical coupling index > 30% were included. Grafts with incomplete data and mixed grafts (arterio-venous) were excluded. A second analysis was performed including single grafts only in the same MAP range pre- and post- protamine administration. RESULTS: After adjusting for MAP, we found a small increase in MGF (29 mL/min to 30 mL/min, p = 0.009) and decrease in PI (2.3 to 2.2, p <  0.001) were observed after the administration of protamine. These changes were especially notable for venous conduits and for CABG procedures performed on-pump. CONCLUSION: The small changes in TTFM parameters observed before and after protamine administration seem to be clinically irrelevant, despite being statistically significant in aggregate. Our data do not support a need to perform TTFM measurements both before and after protamine administration. A single TTFM measurement taken either before or after protamine may suffice to achieve reliable data on each graft's performance. Depending on the specific clinical situation and intraoperative changes, more measurements may be informative. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Number: NCT02385344 , registered February 17th, 2015.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Circulação Coronária , Antagonistas de Heparina/uso terapêutico , Protaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(22): 2761-2773, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal revascularization strategy for the elderly with complex coronary artery disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate 10-year all-cause mortality, life expectancy, 5-year major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and 5-year quality of life (QOL) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in elderly individuals (>70 years old) with 3-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main disease (LMD). METHODS: In the present pre-specified analysis on age of the SYNTAX Extended Survival study, 10-year all-cause death and 5-year MACCE were compared with Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models among elderly or nonelderly patients. Life expectancy was estimated by restricted mean survival time within 10 years, and QOL status according to the Seattle Angina Questionnaire up to 5 years was assessed by linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Among 1,800 randomized patients, 575 patients (31.9%) were elderly. Ten-year mortality did not differ significantly between PCI and CABG in elderly (44.1% vs. 41.1%; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84 to 1.40) and nonelderly patients (21.1% vs. 16.6%; HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.69; pinteraction = 0.332). Among elderly patients, 5-year MACCE was comparable between PCI and CABG (39.4% vs. 35.1%; HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.56), whereas it was significantly higher in PCI over CABG among nonelderly patients (36.3% vs. 23.0%; HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.36 to 2.10; pinteraction = 0.043). There were no significant difference in life expectancy (mean difference: 0.2 years in favor of CABG; 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.7) and 5-year QOL status between PCI and CABG among elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with 3VD and/or LMD had comparable 10-year all-cause death, life expectancy, 5-year MACCE, and 5-year QOL status irrespective of revascularization mode. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050) (SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).

9.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(3): E379-E387, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of total stent length (TSL) and average nominal stent diameter (ASD) on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the SYNTAXES trial. BACKGROUND: TSL and ASD in patients treated with PCI are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. However, the treatment effect of PCI with extensive and/or small stenting as compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for complex coronary artery disease has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: Impacts on mortality of extensive stenting defined as TSL >100 mm and small stenting as ASD <3 mm were analyzed in 893 PCI patients and were compared to 865 CABG patients. RESULTS: TSL as a continuous variable was significantly associated with 10-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.05 [1.01-1.09] per 10 mm increase). PCI patients with extensive stenting had a higher 10 year mortality than CABG patients (adjusted HR, 1.97 [1.41-2.74]) or not- extensive stenting PCI (adjusted HR, 1.94 [1.36-2.77]). Although ASD did not have a significant association with 10 year mortality (adjusted HR, 0.97 [0.85-1.11] per 0.25 mm increase), PCI with small stents was associated with a higher 10 year mortality, compared to CABG (adjusted HR, 1.66 [1.23-2.26]) and PCI performed with large stents (adjusted HR, 1.74 [1.19-2.53]). Patients treated with not-extensive and large stents had similar mortality rates (24.0 versus 23.8%) as those treated with CABG. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive and small stenting were associated with higher 10 year mortality, compared with CABG. When patients have to be treated with extensive or small stenting, revascularization with CABG should be preferred.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 30-38, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049676

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with left-main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) or three-vessel disease (3VD). Patients were stratified according to baseline BMI and/or waist circumference (WC). Out of 1,800 patients, 1,799 (99.9%) and 1,587 (88.2%) had available baseline BMI and WC data, respectively. Of those, 1,327 (73.8%) patients had High BMI (≥25 kg/m2), whereas 705 (44.4%) patients had High WC (>102 cm for men or >88 cm for women). When stratified by both BMI and WC, 10-year mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with Low BMI/Low WC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 2.51), Low BMI/ High WC (adjusted HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.12 to 6.69), or High BMI/High WC (adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.27) compared to those with High BMI/Low WC. In conclusion, the "obesity paradox" following coronary revascularization would be driven by low long-term mortality risk of the High BMI/Low WC group. Body composition should be assessed by the combination of BMI and WC in the appropriate evaluation of the long-term risk of obesity in patients with LMCAD or 3VD.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
11.
Circulation ; 144(2): 96-109, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ten-year all-cause death according to incomplete (IR) versus complete revascularization (CR) has not been fully investigated in patients with 3-vessel disease and left main coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: The SYNTAX Extended Survival study (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]) evaluated vital status up to 10 years in patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. In the present substudy, outcomes of the CABG CR group were compared with the CABG IR, PCI CR, and PCI IR groups. In addition, in the PCI cohort, the residual SYNTAX score (rSS) was used to quantify the extent of IR and to assess its association with fatal late outcome. The rSS of 0 suggests CR, whereas a rSS>0 identifies the degree of IR. RESULTS: IR was more frequently observed in patients with PCI versus CABG (56.6% versus 36.8%) and more common in those with 3-vessel disease than left main coronary artery disease in both the PCI arm (58.5% versus 53.8%) and the CABG arm (42.8% versus 27.5%). Patients undergoing PCI with CR had no significant difference in 10-year all-cause death compared with those undergoing CABG (22.2% for PCI with CR versus 24.3% for CABG with IR versus 23.8% for CABG with CR). In contrast, those with PCI and IR had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death at 10 years compared with CABG and CR (33.5% versus 23.7%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.15-1.91]). When patients with PCI were stratified according to the rSS, those with a rSS≤8 had no significant difference in all-cause death at 10 years as the other terciles (22.2% for rSS=0 versus 23.9% for rSS>0-4 versus 28.9% for rSS>4-8), whereas a rSS>8 had a significantly higher risk of 10-year all-cause death than those undergoing PCI with CR (50.1% versus 22.2%; adjusted hazard ratio, 3.40 [95% CI, 2.13-5.43]). CONCLUSIONS: IR is common after PCI, and the degree of incompleteness was associated with 10-year mortality. If it is unlikely that complete (or nearly complete; rSS<8) revascularization can be achieved with PCI in patients with 3-vessel disease, CABG should be considered. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00114972. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03417050.

12.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(7): 1083-1095, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710385

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on 10-year all-cause death and the treatment effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and COPD. METHODS: Patients were stratified according to COPD status and compared with regard to clinical outcomes. Ten-year all-cause death was examined according to the presence of COPD and the revascularization strategy. RESULTS: COPD status was available for all randomized 1800 patients, of whom, 154 had COPD (8.6%) at the time of randomization. Regardless of the revascularization strategy, patients with COPD had a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death, compared with those without COPD (43.1% vs. 24.9%; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.64; p < 0.001). Among patients with COPD, CABG appeared to have a slightly lower risk of 10-year all-cause death compared with PCI (42.3% vs. 43.9%; HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.59-1.56, p = 0.858), whereas among those without COPD, CABG had a significantly lower risk of 10-year all-cause death (22.7% vs. 27.1%; HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.99, p = 0.041). There was no significant differential treatment effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death between patients with and without COPD (p interaction = 0.544). CONCLUSIONS: COPD was associated with a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death after revascularization for complex coronary artery disease. The presence of COPD did not significantly modify the beneficial effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 529-540, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical benefit after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with total occlusions (TOs) and complex coronary artery disease has not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis was to assess 10-year all-cause mortality in patients with TOs undergoing PCI or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of patients with at least 1 TO in the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which investigated 10-year all-cause mortality in the SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial, beyond its original 5-year follow-up. Patients with TOs were further stratified according to the status of TO recanalization or revascularization. RESULTS: Of 1,800 randomized patients to the PCI or CABG arm, 460 patients had at least 1 lesion of TO. In patients with TOs, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization was not associated with 10-year all-cause mortality, irrespective of the assigned treatment (PCI arm: 29.9% vs. 29.4%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.474 to 2.075; p = 0.982; and CABG arm: 28.0% vs. 21.4%; adjusted HR: 0.656; 95% CI: 0.281 to 1.533; p = 0.330). When TOs existed in left main and/or left anterior descending artery, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization did not have an impact on the mortality (34.5% vs. 26.9%; adjusted HR: 0.896; 95% CI: 0.314 to 2.555; p = 0.837). CONCLUSIONS: At 10-year follow-up, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization did not affect mortality, irrespective of the assigned treatment and location of TOs. The present study might support contemporary practice among high-volume chronic TO-PCI centers where recanalization is primarily offered to patients for the management of angina refractory to medical therapy when myocardial viability is confirmed. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Previsões , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/mortalidade , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/mortalidade
14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(10): 1543-1553, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary bypass artery grafting (CABG) has a higher procedural risk of stroke than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but may offer better long-term survival. The optimal revascularization strategy for patients with prior cerebrovascular disease (CEVD) remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SYNTAXES study assessed the vital status out to 10 year of patients with three-vessel disease and/or left main coronary artery disease enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. The relative efficacy of PCI vs. CABG in terms of 10 year all-cause death was assessed according to prior CEVD. The primary endpoint was 10 year all-cause death. The status of prior CEVD was available in 1791 (99.5%) patients, of whom 253 patients had prior CEVD. Patients with prior CEVD were older and had more comorbidities (medically treated diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, metabolic syndrome, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, impaired renal function, and congestive heart failure), compared with those without prior CEVD. Prior CEVD was an independent predictor of 10 year all-cause death (adjusted HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.04-1.73; p = 0.021). Patients with prior CEVD had a significantly higher risk of 10 year all-cause death (41.1 vs. 24.1%; HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.54-2.40; p < 0.001). The risk of 10 year all-cause death was similar between patients receiving PCI or CABG irrespective of the presence of prior CEVD (p-interaction = 0.624). CONCLUSION: Prior CEVD was associated with a significantly increased risk of 10 year all-cause death which was similar in patients treated with PCI or CABG. These results do not support preferential referral for PCI rather than CABG in patients with prior CEVD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

15.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(2): 417-424, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979478

RESUMO

Due to the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2), an efficient COVID-19 screening strategy is required for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the role of preoperative computed tomography (CT) screening for COVID-19 in a population of COVID-19 asymptomatic patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Between the 29th of March and the 26th of May 2020, patients asymptomatic for COVID-19 underwent a CT-scan the day before surgery, with reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) reserved for abnormal scan results. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of abnormal scans, which was evaluated using the CO-RADS score, a COVID-19 specific grading system. In a secondary analysis, the rate of abnormal scans was compared between the screening cohort and matched historical controls who underwent routine preoperative CT-screening prior to the SARS-Cov-2 outbreak. Of the 109 patients that underwent CT-screening, an abnormal scan result was observed in 7.3% (95% confidence interval: 3.2-14.0%). One patient, with a normal screening CT, was tested positive for COVID-19, with the first positive RT-PCR on the ninth day after surgery. A rate of preoperative CT-scan abnormalities of 8% (n = 8) was found in the unexposed historical controls (P > 0.999). In asymptomatic patients undergoing cardiac surgery, preoperative screening for COVID-19 using computed tomography will identify pulmonary abnormalities in a small percentage of patients that do not seem to have COVID-19. Depending on the prevalence of COVID-19, this results in an unfavorable positive predictive value of CT screening. Care should be taken when considering CT as a screening tool prior to cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(14): 1622-1639, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous definitions for peri-procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary bypass grafting (CABG) surgery exist. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the PMI rates according to various definitions, their clinically relevant association with all-cause mortality at 10 years, and their impact on composite endpoints at 5 years in the SYNTAXES (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) trial. METHODS: PMI was classified as a myocardial infarction occurring within 48 h of the procedure according to definitions of the SYNTAX (TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries), ISCHEMIA (International Study Of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical And Invasive Approaches), and EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trials; the Fourth Universal Definition of MI; and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI). Of the 1,800 patients enrolled, 1,652 with creatine kinase and/or creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) post-procedure were included. The association between PMI and mortality was analyzed by Cox regression. RESULTS: PMI rates according to the SYNTAX and Fourth Universal Definition of MI, both of which required CK-MB elevation and electrocardiographic evidence of permanent myocardial damage, were 2.7% and 3.0%, respectively, in the PCI arm versus 2.4% and 2.1%, respectively, in the CABG arm. PMI rates according to the SCAI or EXCEL definition were higher in the PCI (5.7%) and CABG (16.5%) arms. PMIs according to the SYNTAX and Fourth Universal Definition of MI were more strongly associated with mortality than EXCEL and SCAI PMIs defined by isolated enzyme elevation when CK-MB was more than 10 times ULN. The impact of these "enzyme-driven events" on time-to-event curves and the composite endpoints was greater in the surgical cohort. PMIs after PCI were associated with 10-year mortality regardless of definition, whereas their impact on mortality after CABG was limited to 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of PMI are highly dependent on their definition, which affects time-to-event curves, composite endpoints, and their lethal prognostic relevance. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(8): 889-899, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poorer prognosis of coronary artery disease in females compared with males is related mainly to differences in baseline characteristics. In the SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial, the effect of treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) on mortality at 5 years differed significantly between females and males; however, the optimal revascularization beyond 5 years according to sex has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sex on mortality and sex-treatment interaction at 10 years. METHODS: The SYNTAXES (SYNTAX Extended Survival) study evaluated vital status up to 10 years in 1,800 patients with de novo 3-vessel and/or left main coronary artery disease randomized to treatment with PCI or CABG in the SYNTAX trial. All-cause death at 10 years was separately evaluated in female and male patients with complex coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Of 1,800 patients, 402 (22.3%) were female and 1,398 (77.7%) were males. Females had a higher 10-year mortality rate compared with males (32.8% vs. 24.7%; log-rank p = 0.002), but female sex was not an independent predictor of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.02; 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 1.36). Mortality at 10 years tended to be lower after CABG than after PCI, with a similar treatment effect for female and male patients (adjusted hazard ratio for females: 0.90 [95% confidence interval: 0.54 to 1.51]; adjusted hazard ratio for males: 0.76 [95% confidence interval: 0.56 to 1.02]; p for interaction = 0.952). CONCLUSIONS: Female sex was not an independent predictor of mortality at 10 years in patients with complex coronary artery disease. The interaction between sex and treatment with PCI or CABG that was observed at 5 years was no longer present at 10 years. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES], NCT03417050; SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX], NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Fatores Sexuais , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/diagnóstico , Efeitos Adversos de Longa Duração/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 871-879, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043709

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the impact of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on 3-year outcomes in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the EXCEL trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EXCEL trial randomized patients with LMCAD to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents (n = 948) or CABG (n = 957). Among 1804 patients with known baseline LVEF, 74 (4.1%) had LVEF <40% [heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)], 152 (8.4%) LVEF 40-49% [heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF)] and 1578 (87.5%) LVEF ≥50% (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction). Patients with HFrEF vs. HFmrEF vs. preserved LVEF experienced a longer postoperative hospital stay (9.0 vs. 7.0 vs. 6.0 days, P = 0.02) with greater peri-procedural complications after CABG, while hospital stay after PCI was unaffected by LVEF (1.5 vs. 2.0 vs. 1.0 days, P = 0.20). The composite primary endpoint of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years was 29.3% (PCI) vs. 27.6% (CABG) in patients with HFrEF, 16.2% vs. 15.0% in patients with HFmrEF, and 14.5% vs. 14.6% in those with preserved LVEF, respectively (Pinteraction  = 0.90). Smoothing spline analysis demonstrated that the 3-year risk of all-cause death increased when LVEF decreased, both in patients undergoing CABG and PCI. CONCLUSION: In the EXCEL trial, the composite rate of death, stroke or myocardial infarction at 3 years was significantly higher in patients with HFrEF compared with HFmrEF or preserved LVEF, driven by an increased rate of all-cause death. No significant differences after PCI vs. CABG were observed among patients with HFrEF, HFmrEF and preserved LVEF. Longer-term follow-up could provide important insights on differences in clinical outcomes that might emerge over time. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01205776.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
EuroIntervention ; 16(1): 36-43, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422924

RESUMO

AIMS: Accurate risk prediction in patients undergoing revascularisation is essential. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk models in patients with left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention with everolimus-eluting stents (PCI-EES). METHODS AND RESULTS: The predictive performance of STS risk models for perioperative mortality, stroke and renal failure was evaluated for their discriminative ability (C statistic) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit-test; χ2 and p-values) among patients with LMCAD undergoing PCI-EES (n=935) and CABG (n=923) from the randomised EXCEL trial. STS risk scores, in CABG patients, showed good discrimination for 30-day mortality and average discrimination for stroke (C statistic 0.730 and 0.629, respectively) with average calibration. For PCI, STS risk scores had no discrimination for mortality (C statistic 0.507), yet good discrimination (C statistic 0.751) and calibration for stroke. The predictive performance for renal failure was good for CABG (C statistic 0.82), yet poor for PCI (C statistic 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients with LMCAD from the EXCEL trial, STS risk models showed good predictive performance for CABG yet lacked predictive performance for PCI for perioperative mortality and renal failure. The STS stroke risk model was surprisingly more discriminating in PCI compared to CABG. Improved and procedure-specific risk prediction instruments are needed to accurately estimate adverse events after LMCAD revascularisation by CABG and PCI. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01205776.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Everolimo/farmacologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgiões , Resultado do Tratamento
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