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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5520059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484562

RESUMO

Due to the increase of stress-related memory impairment accompanying with the COVID-19 pandemic and financial crisis, the prevention of cognitive decline induced by stress has gained much attention. Based on the evidence that an anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk demonstrated the cognitive enhancing effect, we hypothesized that it should be able to enhance memory in working-age volunteers who are exposed to working stress. This study is an open-label, two-arm randomized study. Both men and women volunteers at age between 18 and 60 years old were randomly assigned to consume the tested product either 1 or 2 servings daily for 6 weeks. All subjects were assessed for cortisol, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A), and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) in saliva, and their working memory was determined both at baseline and at a 6-week period. The results showed that the working memory of subjects in both groups was enhanced at the end of the study period together with the reduction of saliva cortisol. The suppression of AChE, MAO, and MAO-A was also observed in subjects who consumed the tested product 2 servings daily. Therefore, we suggest the memory enhancing effect of an anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk. The possible mechanism may occur primarily via the suppression of cortisol. In addition, the high dose of mulberry milk also suppresses AChE, MAO, and MAO-A.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus , Estresse Ocupacional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoaminoxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Morus/química
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5305437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774678

RESUMO

The prevalence of ischemic stroke in metabolic syndrome (MetS) is continually increasing and produces a great impact on both qualities of life and annual healthcare budget. Due to the efficiency limitation of the current therapeutic strategy, the poor availability of polyphenol substances induced by the first pass effect and the beneficial effects of mulberry fruit and ginger on brain and MetS-related diseases together with the synergistic concept, the neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke in MetS condition of phytosome containing the combined extract of mulberry fruit and ginger (PMG) has been considered. To explore the neuroprotective effect and possible underlying mechanism of PMG on brain damage in cerebral ischemic rat with MetS, male Wistar rats were induced MetS by high-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HCHF) for 16 weeks and subjected to the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) at the right middle cerebral artery (Rt. MCAO). PMG at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were orally fed with for 21 days, and they were assessed brain damage, neurological deficit score, and the changes of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers, PPARγ expression, and epigenetic modification via DNMT-1 were performed. All doses of PMG significantly improved brain infarction, brain edema, and neurological deficit score. In addition, the reduction in DNMT-1, MDA level, NF-κB, TNFα, and C-reactive protein together with the increase in SOD, CAT, and GPH-Px activities, and PPARγ expression in the lesion brain were also observed. The current data clearly revealed the neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia with MetS condition. The possible underlying mechanism might occur partly via the suppression of DNMT-1 giving rise to the improvement of signal transduction via PPARγ resulting in the decreasing of inflammation and oxidative stress. In conclusion, PMG is the potential neuroprotectant candidate against ischemic stroke in the MetS condition. However, the clinical trial is still essential.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/dietoterapia , Frutas/química , Gengibre/química , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 3096826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802263

RESUMO

The prevalence of dementia following cerebral ischemia in metabolic syndrome (MetS) condition is increasing, and most of the cases are often severe. Unfortunately, no effective strategy for treating this condition is available. Based on the positive modulation effect of a polyphenol-rich substance on dementia and the improvement in bioavailability and stability of polyphenols induced by the phytosome technique together with the use of the synergistic concept, we hypothesized that a phytosome containing the combined extract of mulberry fruit and ginger (PMG) should mitigate dementia and memory impairment following ischemic stroke in MetS. MetS was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g by exposure to a 16-week feeding period of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet. MetS rats were orally given PMG at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg-1 BW 21 days before and 21 days after the occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (Rt. MCAO). Then, their spatial memory was determined and the possible underlying mechanisms explored via the alterations of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), neuron density, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and signal transduction via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. It was found that PMG significantly enhanced memory. It also decreased AChE, IL-6, and MDA but increased SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, neuron density, and phosphorylation of ERK. These data suggested the cognitive enhancing effect of PMG. The possible underlying mechanisms might occur partly via the improvement of cholinergic function via the ERK pathway together with the decrease in neurodegeneration induced by the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. However, a subchronic toxicity study is also required to assure the safety of PMG consumption before moving forward to a clinical trial study.


Assuntos
Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Gengibre/química , AVC Isquêmico/complicações , AVC Isquêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Morus/química , Animais , Demência/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos
4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6123759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685097

RESUMO

Currently, cognitive enhancers are considered necessary because they play a critical role in daily and social behaviors. The cognitive-enhancing effect of mulberry milk has gained attention due to the cognitive-enhancing effect of this anthocyanin-rich substance and the cognitive-enhancing effect of mulberry fruit in animal models. However, the effect of anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk in clinical trials especially in children is still unknown. This study was a randomized double-blind crossover intervention. A total of forty-six healthy, normal, cognitive subjects aged 6-12 years old were provided mulberry milk (containing mulberry 10 g) or placebo milk (50 mL). Attention and cognitive function were assessed using the auditory odd ball paradigm of event-related potential, whereas working memory was assessed using a computerized battery test. The assessment was performed at baseline and then at 1.5 and 3 hours postdosing. At the end of study period, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) together with that of saliva cortisol were determined. Following mulberry milk intervention, the decreased N100 latency and the increased P300 amplitude were increased both at 1.5 and 3 hours after dosing. The decreased response time of digit updating was observed both at 1.5 and 3 hours after dosing, whereas the decreased response time of picture updating was observed at 3 hours after dosing. In addition, the reduction of saliva cortisol was also observed at both periods. The improvement of attention and cognitive processing capabilities together with the working memory suggests the cognitive-enhancing potential of mulberry milk for school-age children. The possible underlying mechanism may be associated partly with the reduction of cortisol, a stress hormone.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , Animais , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5972575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827683

RESUMO

Due to the antimetabolic syndrome effect of mulberry and ginger together with the advantages of the synergistic effect and phytosome encapsulation technique, we hypothesized that phytosome containing the combined extracts of mulberry and ginger (PMG) should be able to manage MetS. PMG was developed and assessed the phenolic content and biological activities associated with the pathophysiology of MetS. The antimetabolic syndrome effect and the possible underlying mechanisms in the animal model of MetS were also assessed. Male Wistar rats induced MetS by subjecting to a 16-week high-carbohydrate high-fat diet. MetS rats were orally given PMG at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 21 days. They were determined metabolic parameter changes in serum, histomorphology changes of adipose tissue, the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α, oxidative stress status, PPAR-γ, and HDAC3 in adipose tissue. Our in vitro data showed that PMG increased phenolic contents and biological activities. PMG significantly improved MetS parameters including body weight gain, lipid profiles, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, and ACE. In addition, the density and size of adipocyte, adiposity index, and weights of adipose tissues were also improved. Moreover, the decrease in TNF-α and IL-6, oxidative stress status, and HDAC3 expression together with the increase in PPAR-γ expression in adipose tissue was also observed. These data suggest that PMG exhibit antimetabolic syndrome and the possible underlying mechanism may be associated partly with the modulation effect on HDAC3, PPAR-γ, and adipose tissue. In addition, PMG also improves oxidative stress and inflammation in MetS. Therefore, PMG can be served as the potential supplement to manage MetS. However, a clinical trial study is essential to confirm this health benefit.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Glicemia/análise , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Gengibre/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Morus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5360560, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182993

RESUMO

Currently, the therapeutic strategy against metabolic syndrome and its complications is required due to the increasing prevalence and its impact. Due to the benefits of both mulberry fruit extract and encapsulation technology, we hypothesized that encapsulated mulberry fruit extract (MME) could improve metabolic parameters and its complication risk in postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, female Wistar rats were induced experimental menopause with metabolic syndrome by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet. Then, they were orally given MME at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks and the parameters, such as percentage of body weight gain, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, atherogenic index, fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose area under the curve, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), oxidative stress status, histology, and protein expression of PPAR-γ, TNF-α, and NF-κB in adipose tissues were determined. MME improved body weight gain, adiposity index, glucose intolerance, lipid profiles, atherogenic index, ACE, oxidative stress status, and protein expression of TNF-α and NF-κB. Moreover, MME attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy and enhanced PPAR-γ expression. Taken altogether, MME decreased metabolic syndrome and its complication via the increased PPAR-γ expression. Therefore, MME is the potential candidate for improving metabolic syndrome and its related complications. However, further research in clinical trial is still necessary.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9089035, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937145

RESUMO

Despite the increase in cognitive deficit following stroke in metabolic syndrome (MetS) condition, the therapeutic strategy is still limited. Since oxidative stress and neuroinflammation play the crucial roles on the pathophysiology of aforementioned conditions, the cognitive enhancing effect of the combined extract of Oryza sativa and Anethum graveolens was considered based on their antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and neuroprotective effects together with the synergistic effect concept. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were induced metabolic syndrome-like condition by using a high-carbohydrate high-fat diet (HCHF diet). Then, reperfusion injury following cerebral ischemia was induced by the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery and treated with the combined extract of O. sativa and A. graveolens (OA extract) at doses of 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg BW once daily for 21 days. Spatial memory was assessed every 7 days throughout the experimental period. At the end of the study, neuron and glial fibrillary acidic protein- (GFAP-) positive cell densities, the oxidative stress status, AChE, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) in the hippocampus were determined. The results showed that OA extract at all doses used in this study significantly improved memory together with the reductions of MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, AChE, and density of GFAP-positive cell but increased neuron density in the hippocampus. Taken together, OA is the potential cognitive enhancer in memory impairment following stroke in MetS condition. The possible underlying mechanism may occur partly via the reductions of oxidative stress status, GFAP-positive cell density, and neuroinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 together with the suppression of AChE activity in the hippocampus. This study suggests that OA is the potential functional ingredient to improve the cognitive enhancer. However, further clinical research is required.


Assuntos
Anethum graveolens/química , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Oryza/química , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 1459141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915346

RESUMO

Anacardium occidentale L. leaf demonstrates sexual enhancement effect. Therefore, it can be used as the potential supplement and functional ingredient. However, the ethanolic leaf extract of this plant is a modified form of traditional application and the toxicity evaluation is required. To assess cytotoxicity of the extract, RAW 264.7 cells were treated with A. occidentale leaf extract in the concentration range between 0.625 and 10 mg/mL. Our results showed that the extract showed more than 90% cell viability at the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL after 24-hour exposure. To assure the consumption safety, the acute and subchronic toxicity must be studied. Acute toxicity showed that the extract is safe even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg in both sexes of Wistar rats. No changes in behavior, physiology, gross pathology, and histology were observed. To determine the subchronic toxicity of extract, both sexes of Wistar rats were orally given the extract at doses of 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg once daily for 90 days. No changes in body weight, food, and water intake, motor coordination, behavior, and mental alertness were observed. The significant reduction of white blood cell, platelet, and cholesterol together with increase in MCHC was observed in male rats. The reductions of white blood cell and platelet together with the elevations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were also observed in female rats. However, all changes were in normal range. The current results revealed that an ethanolic extract of A. occidentale leaf was well tolerated via oral consumption up to dose of 500 mg/kg BW for 90 days and did not produce any toxicity. Our in vitro cytotoxicity test also confirmed this safety.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Afrodisíacos/administração & dosagem , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Anacardium/toxicidade , Animais , Afrodisíacos/química , Afrodisíacos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 6452965, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498760

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to assess the effect and possible underlying mechanism of Anacardium occidentale leaves extract on male sexual behaviors in stress-exposed rats. Male Wistar rats were orally given A. occidentale extract at doses of 25, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW before 12-hour-immobilization exposure for 14 days. Sexual behaviors, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, TH-positive cells density in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), MAO-B activity in NAc and medial preoptic area (MPOA), testis histology together with phosphodiesterase type-5 ( PDE-5) activity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in penis were evaluated after treatment. All doses of extract improved male sexual behaviors, suppressed MAO-B in NAc, enhanced TH-positive cells density in NAc, suppressed PDE-5 in penis, and enhanced interstitial cell of Leydig. The increase of serum testosterone, TH-positive cells density in VTA, eNOS expression in penis, and the decreased serum corticosterone were observed at some doses. Therefore, the sexual enhancing effect of extract occurred mainly via the improved dopaminergic and testicular functions. PDE-5 suppression in penis also played the role especially in the increased intromission behavior. Therefore, A. occidentale leaves extract is the potential protective agent against sexual dysfunction. However, further researches are necessary.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Dopamina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Corticosterona/sangue , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Masculino , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402127

RESUMO

Currently, the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation is considered as the treatment targets of spinal cord injury due to their roles on the hindrance of recovery process. Since laser acupuncture decreased oxidative stress and enhanced the survival of neurons from oxidative stress damage and GV2 stimulation was selected as one stimulated acupoint in order to enhance the recovery of spinal cord injury, we hypothesized that laser acupuncture at GV2 should enhance the recovery of spinal cord injury. To test this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were induced spinal cord injury at T10 level and they were exposed to a 10 minute-stimulation at GV2 by yellow laser. Laser acupuncture was performed at 0.25 and 1, 2, 6, and 12 hours after spinal cord injury. Then, the stimulation was performed once daily for 7 days. Locomotor assessment was carried out on days 3 and 7 after injury. At the end of study period, the densities of polymorphonuclear of leukocyte, Bax, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, and BDNF positive stained cells in ventral horn of spinal cord were determined. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and oxidative stress status was also assessed. The results showed that laser acupuncture at GV2 increased BBB score, gross motor score, and densities of Bcl-2 and BDNF positive stained cells but decreased density with polymorphonuclear leukocyte, the densities of Bax and Caspase-3 positive stained cells, COX-2 level, and oxidative stress status in ventral horn of the lesion spinal cord. The reduction of serum COX-2 was also decreased. Therefore, GV2 stimulation by yellow laser might enhance the recovery of spinal cord via the increase in BDNF and the decrease in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress status in the lesion spinal cord.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 1039364, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765488

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the protective effects against cerebral ischemia and osteoporosis of Morinda citrifolia extract in experimental menopause. The neuroprotective effect was assessed by giving M. citrifolia leaf extract at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg BW to the bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 7 days. Then, they were occluded in the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90 minutes. The neurological score, brain infarction volume, oxidative stress status, and ERK1/2 and eNOS activities were assessed 24 hours later. M. citrifolia improved neurological score, brain infarction, and brain oxidative stress status in the cortex of OVX rats plus the MCAO. No changes in ERK 1/2 signal pathway and NOS expression were observed in this area. Our data suggested that the neuroprotective effect of the extract might occur partly via the improvement of oxidative stress status in the cortex. The antiosteoporotic effect in OVX rats was also assessed after an 84-day intervention of M. citrifolia. The serum levels of calcium, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase and osteoblast density in the tibia were increased, but the density of osteoclast was decreased in OVX rats which received the extract. Therefore, the current data suggested that the extract possessed antiosteoporotic effect by increasing bone formation but decreasing bone resorption.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Morinda/química , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Modelos Teóricos , Osteoporose/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 2962316, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158872

RESUMO

Currently, the neuroprotectant and memory-enhancing agent for menopausal women with metabolic syndrome is required. Based on the advantages of polyphenolics on numerous changes observed in menopause with metabolic syndrome and the encapsulation method, we hypothesized that microencapsulated mulberry fruit extract (MME) could protect brain damage and improve memory impairment in an animal model of menopause with metabolic syndrome. To test this hypothesis, MME at doses of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg was given to female Wistar rats which were induced experimental menopause with metabolic syndrome by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and fed with high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks. Spatial memory together with neuron density, oxidative stress status, acetylcholinesterase, and phosphorylation of Erk in the hippocampus was assessed at the end of the study. It was found that MME decreased memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and AChE activity but increased neuron density and Erk phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Therefore, the neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects of MME might partly involve the enhanced cholinergic function and Erk phosphorylation but decreased oxidative stress status in hippocampus. Therefore, MME is the potential novel neuroprotectant and memory-enhancing agent for menopause with metabolic syndrome. However, further research especially clinical trial is still necessary.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Morus/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 5290161, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904737

RESUMO

The novel protectant against diabetic cataract and diabetic retinopathy is currently required due to the increased prevalence and therapeutic limitation. Based on the advantage of polyphenol on diabetic eye complications, we hypothesized that the combined extract of mango seed Vietnamese coriander (MPO), a polyphenol-rich substance, should possess anticataractogenesis and antiretinopathy in streptozotocin- (STZ-) diabetic rats. MPO at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg·BW were orally given to STZ-diabetic rats for 10 weeks. Lens opacity was evaluated every week throughout a study period whereas the evaluation of cataract severity and histological changes of both rat lens epithelium and retina together with the biochemical assays of oxidative stress status, aldose reductase, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and VEGF were performed at the end of experiment. Our data showed that MPO improved cataract and retinopathy in STZ-diabetic rats. The improved oxidative stress status and the decreased p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and VEGF were also observed. Therefore, anticataractogenesis and antiretinopathy of MPO might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress status and the suppression of aldose reductase, p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and VEGF. This study points out that MPO is the potential candidate protectant against diabetic cataract and diabetic retinopathy. However, the exploration for possible active ingredient (S) still requires further researches.


Assuntos
Catarata/tratamento farmacológico , Coriandrum/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Mangifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Contagem de Células , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Jejum/sangue , Cristalino/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalino/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Estreptozocina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 6135023, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457029

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the protective effect of cashew nut-derived protein hydrolysate with high dietary fiber (AO) in cerebral ischemic rats induced by the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO). Acute toxicity was determined and data showed that LD50 of AO > 5000 mg/kg BW. To determine the cerebroprotective effect of AO, male Wistar rats were orally given AO at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg for 14 days and subjected to Rt.MCAO. Brain infarction volume, neurological score, spatial memory, serum lipid profiles, and C-reactive protein together with the brain oxidative stress status were assessed. All doses of AO significantly decreased brain infarction in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum together with the decreased oxidative stress status. The improvement of spatial memory and serum C-reactive protein were also observed in MCAO rats which received AO at all doses. In addition, the decreased serum cholesterol, TG, and LDL but increased HDL were observed in MCAO rats which received high dose of AO. Taken all together, AO is the potential protectant against cerebral ischemia. The improvement of oxidative stress, inflammation, and dyslipidemia might play roles in the actions. However, further researches are required to understand the precise underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Anacardium/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
J Med Assoc Thai ; 99 Suppl 5: S161-72, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906071

RESUMO

Objective: Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress on physical performance and muscular strength, we aimed to determine the effect of a 12 week-consumption period of cashew apple juice, a substance possessing antioxidant effect, on the physical fitness and oxidative stress status of the middle aged and the elderly. Material and Method: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design was performed. Forty-five healthy middle-age and elderly volunteers received 1,000 ml of either cashew apple juice (120 and 240 mg/day) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. The changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes in the plasma together with the health related-physical fitness was assessed every four weeks throughout the 12-week consumption period and four weeks after the cessation of the consumption. Results: The subjects who consumed the cashew apple juice at dose of 240 mg/day showed improved oxidative stress status and enhanced performance in 30-second chair stand test and 6-minute walk test. These data suggested that a 12-week consumption period of cashew apple juice consumption enhance muscle strength of lower extremities and the cardiopulmonary endurance. Conclusion: The possible underlying mechanism might occur partly via the improved oxidative stress status. Therefore, cashew apple fruit juice may be a potential candidate to enhance the health-related physical fitness for the middle aged and elderly volunteers. However, further research is required to provide better understanding about the precise underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Aptidão Física , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
16.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 8(1): 23-9, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25660441

RESUMO

Currently, the therapeutic strategy against memory deficit induced by alcoholism is not satisfactory and is expensive. Therefore, an effective, low-cost strategy is required. On the basis of the memory-enhancing effect of stimulation of the HT7 acupoint, we aimed to determine whether acupuncture at the HT7 acupoint can reduce alcoholism-induced memory impairment. The possible underlying mechanism was also explored. Alcoholism was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g. The alcoholic rats received either acupuncture at HT7 or sham acupuncture for 1 minute bilaterally once daily for 14 days. Their spatial memory was assessed after 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days of treatment. At the end of the study, the malondialdehyde level and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the hippocampus were determined using colorimetric assays. The results showed that acupuncture at HT7 significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity and the malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in the hippocampus. These results suggest that acupuncture at HT7 can effectively reduce the alcoholism-induced memory deficit. However, further studies concerning the detailed relationships between the location of the HT7 acupoint and the changes in the observed parameters are required.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Alcoolismo/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/enzimologia , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2014: 579305, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25478061

RESUMO

Due to the limitation of osteoporosis therapy, the alternative therapies from natural sources have been considered. In this study, we aimed to determine the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract of Morus alba and Polygonum odoratum leaves. Ovariectomized rats, weighing 200-220 g, were orally given the combined extract at doses of 5, 150, and 300 mg·kg(-1) BW for 3 months. At the end of study, blood was collected to determine serum osteocalcin, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase level. In addition, tibia bone was isolated to determine bone oxidative stress markers, cortical bone thickness, and density of osteoblast. The combined extract decreased oxidative stress and osteoclast density but increased osteoblast density and cortical thickness. The elevation of serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin was also observed. These results suggested the antiosteoporotic effect of the combined extract via the increased growth formation together with the suppression of bone resorption. However, further studies concerning chronic toxicity and the underlying mechanism are required.


Assuntos
Morus/química , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polygonum/química , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2014: 132097, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24672632

RESUMO

To date, the effective preventive paradigm against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is required. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether Mangifera indica fruit extract, a substance possessing antioxidant and cognitive enhancing effects, could improve memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, and oxidative stress damage in animal model of mild cognitive impairment. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given the extract at doses of 12.5, 50, and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW for 2 weeks before and 1 week after the bilateral injection of AF64A (icv). At the end of study, spatial memory, cholinergic neurons density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px enzymes in hippocampus were determined. The results showed that all doses of extract could improve memory together with the decreased MDA level and the increased SOD and GSH-Px enzymes activities. The increased cholinergic neurons density in CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus was also observed in rats treated with the extract at doses of 50 and 200 mg · kg(-1) BW. Therefore, our results suggested that M. indica, the potential protective agent against MCI, increased cholinergic function and the decreased oxidative stress which in turn enhanced memory. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible active ingredients and detail mechanism.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Álcoois , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/complicações , Fitoterapia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2014: 789406, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25614778

RESUMO

Based on the crucial roles of oxidative stress and aldose reductase on diabetic complications and the protective effect against diabetic eye complication of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG) together with the synergistic effect concept, we aimed to determine anticataract and antiretinopathy effects of the combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG). The streptozotocin diabetics with the blood glucose levels >250 mg·dL(-1) were orally given the extract at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg·BW(-1) for 10 weeks. Then, lens opacity and histopathology of retina were determined. The changes of MDA together with the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AR in lens were also determined using biochemical assays. All doses of PWCG decreased lens opacity, MDA, and AR in the lens of diabetic rats. The elevation of CAT and GPx activities was also observed. The antiretinopathy property of the combined extract was also confirmed by the increased number of neurons in ganglion cell layer and thickness of total retina and retinal nuclear layer in diabetic rats. PWCG is the potential functional food to protect against diabetic cataract and retinopathy. However, further studies concerning toxicity and clinical trial are still essential.


Assuntos
Catarata/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
J Acupunct Meridian Stud ; 6(5): 247-51, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24139462

RESUMO

The burden of Alzheimer's disease is continually rising globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Unfortunately, the efficacy of the therapeutic strategy is still very limited. Because the effect of acupuncture at HT7 can improve learning and memory, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture, a noninvasive form of acupuncture, at HT7 on memory improvement in patients with Alzheimer's disease has been a focus of research. To elucidate this issue, we used AF64A, a cholinotoxin, to induce memory impairment in male Wistar rats, which weighed 180-220 g. Then, the animals were treated with laser acupuncture either at HT7 or at a sham acupoint once daily for 10 minutes for a period of 14 days. Spatial memory assessments were performed at 1, 7, and 14 days after AF64A administration and at the end of the experiment, and the changes in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in the hippocampus were recorded. The results showed that laser acupuncture significantly suppressed AChE activity in the hippocampus. Although laser acupuncture enhanced SOD and CAT activities, no reduction in MDA level in this area was observed. Therefore, laser acupuncture at HT7 is a potential strategy to attenuate memory impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, further research, especially on the toxicity of laser acupuncture following repetitive exposure, is essential.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Transtornos da Memória/terapia , Memória/efeitos da radiação , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/química , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos da radiação , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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