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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3924, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477731

RESUMO

The serotonergic system and in particular serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) are implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we demonstrated that 5-HT1AR is palmitoylated in human and rodent brains, and identified ZDHHC21 as a major palmitoyl acyltransferase, whose depletion reduced palmitoylation and consequently signaling functions of 5-HT1AR. Two rodent models for depression-like behavior show reduced brain ZDHHC21 expression and attenuated 5-HT1AR palmitoylation. Moreover, selective knock-down of ZDHHC21 in the murine forebrain induced depression-like behavior. We also identified the microRNA miR-30e as a negative regulator of Zdhhc21 expression. Through analysis of the post-mortem brain samples in individuals with MDD that died by suicide we find that miR-30e expression is increased, while ZDHHC21 expression, as well as palmitoylation of 5-HT1AR, are reduced within the prefrontal cortex. Our study suggests that downregulation of 5-HT1AR palmitoylation is a mechanism involved in depression, making the restoration of 5-HT1AR palmitoylation a promising clinical strategy for the treatment of MDD.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10018, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468715

RESUMO

Pathological cardiac overload induces myocardial protein synthesis and hypertrophy, which predisposes to heart failure. To inhibit hypertrophy therapeutically, the identification of negative regulators of cardiomyocyte protein synthesis is needed. Here, we identified the tumor suppressor protein TIP30 as novel inhibitor of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. Reduced TIP30 levels in mice entailed exaggerated cardiac growth during experimental pressure overload, which was associated with cardiomyocyte cellular hypertrophy, increased myocardial protein synthesis, reduced capillary density, and left ventricular dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis improved these defects. Our results are relevant for human disease, since we found diminished cardiac TIP30 levels in samples from patients suffering from end-stage heart failure or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, therapeutic overexpression of TIP30 in mouse hearts inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and improved left ventricular function during pressure overload and in cardiomyopathic mdx mice. Mechanistically, we identified a previously unknown anti-hypertrophic mechanism, whereby TIP30 binds the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) to prevent the interaction with its essential co-factor eEF1B2 and translational elongation. Therefore, TIP30 could be a therapeutic target to counteract cardiac hypertrophy.

4.
J Physiol ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291008

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure (HF) are only partly understood. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been reported to control function and signalling routes in the myocardium. As ncRNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) or circular RNAs (circRNAs) can be selectively targeted via pharmacological approaches, this opens new avenues for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we review the main ncRNA classes and how they influence cardiac biology. In addition we provide insight into the role of ncRNAs in chemotherapy-induced cardiac dysfunction. To provide a better understanding of ncRNAs in cardiovascular biology we present an outlook on specialized functions such as chromatin remodelling, biomarker potential and the recently discovered ncRNA-derived micropeptides.

5.
J Biomed Opt ; 24(7): 1-11, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286726

RESUMO

To refine animal research, vital signs, activity, stress, and pain must be monitored. In chronic studies, some measures can be assessed using telemetry sensors. Although this methodology provides high-precision data, an initial surgery for device implantation is necessary, potentially leading to stress, wound infections, and restriction of motion. Recently, camera systems have been adapted for animal research. We give an overview of parameters that can be assessed using imaging in the visible, near-infrared, and thermal spectrum of light. It focuses on heart activity, respiration, oxygen saturation, and motion, as well as on wound analysis. For each parameter, we offer recommendations on the minimum technical requirements of appropriate systems, regions of interest, and light conditions, among others. In general, these systems demonstrate great performance. For heart and respiratory rate, the error was <4 beats / min and 5 breaths/min. Furthermore, the systems are capable of tracking animals during different behavioral tasks. Finally, studies indicate that inhomogeneous temperature distribution around wounds might be an indicator of (pending) infections. In sum, camera-based techniques have several applications in animal research. As vital parameters are currently only assessed in sedated animals, the next step should be the integration of these modalities in home-cage monitoring.

6.
Mol Ther ; 27(8): 1350-1363, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324392

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a subclass of non-coding RNAs that lack free 3' and 5' ends and, thus, exist as continuous loop RNAs. Such circular transcripts have been identified for thousands of genes, are regulated in developmental stages and pathophysiological conditions, and are often expressed in a tissue- or cell-type-specific manner. For a long time, circular transcripts were considered as aberrant splicing by-products. However, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and focused molecular characterization of individual circRNAs uncovered their ubiquity. Evidence emerges suggesting circRNAs are functional molecules. In this review, we illustrate the current knowledge of circRNA formation and circRNA detection methods. We summarize different molecular mechanisms of action and highlight circRNAs with specific roles in cardiovascular disease. Finally, we describe a number of tools for circRNA manipulation, which may be exploited for circRNA-based therapeutic interventions in the future.

7.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186539

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally and are associated with increasing financial expenditure. With the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies since the early 2000s, non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs have been assessed as potential therapeutic targets for numerous diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. In this Review, we summarize current approaches employed to screen for novel coding and non-coding RNA candidates with diagnostic and therapeutic potential in cardiovascular disease, including next-generation sequencing, functional high-throughput RNA screening and single-cell sequencing technologies. Furthermore, we highlight viral-based delivery tools that have been widely used to evaluate the therapeutic utility of both coding and non-coding RNAs in the context of cardiovascular disease. Finally, we discuss the potential of using oligonucleotide-based molecular products such as modified RNA, small interfering RNA and RNA mimics/inhibitors for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Given that many non-coding RNAs have not yet been functionally annotated, the number of potential RNA diagnostic and therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases will continue to expand for years to come.

9.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005897, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104495

RESUMO

Background Identifying the mechanistic pathways potentially associated with incident heart failure (HF) may provide a basis for novel preventive strategies. Methods and Results To identify proteomic biomarkers and the potential underlying mechanistic pathways that may be associated with incident HF defined as the first hospitalization for HF, a nested-matched case-control design was used with cases (incident HF) and controls (without HF) selected from 3 cohorts (>20 000 individuals). Controls were matched on cohort, follow-up time, age, and sex. Two independent sample sets (a discovery set with 286 cases and 591 controls and a replication set with 276 cases and 280 controls) were used to discover and replicate the findings. Two hundred fifty-two circulating proteins in the plasma were studied. Adjusting for the matching variables age, sex, and follow-up time (and correcting for multiplicity of tests), 89 proteins were found to be associated with incident HF in the discovery phase, of which 38 were also associated with incident HF in the replication phase. These 38 proteins pointed to 4 main network clusters underlying incident HF: (1) inflammation and apoptosis, indicated by the expression of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-family members; (2) extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis and growth, indicated by the expression of proteins associated with collagen metabolism, endothelial function, and vascular homeostasis; (3) blood pressure regulation, indicated by the expression of natriuretic peptides and proteins related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; and (4) metabolism, associated with cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Conclusions Clusters of biomarkers associated with mechanistic pathways leading to HF were identified linking inflammation, apoptosis, vascular function, matrix remodeling, blood pressure control, and metabolism. These findings provide important insight on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to HF. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02556450.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

12.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(6): 3927-3939, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950172

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in physiological processes as well as in diseases. Currently miRs are already used to find novel mechanisms involved in diseases and in the future, they might serve as diagnostic markers. To identify miRs that play a role in glomerular diseases urinary miR-screenings are a frequently used tool. However, miRs that are detected in the urine might simply be filtered from the blood stream and could have been produced anywhere in the body, so they might be completely unrelated to the diseases. We performed a combined miR-screening in pooled urine samples from patients with different glomerular diseases as well as in cultured human podocytes, human mesangial cells, human glomerular endothelial cells and human tubular cells. The miR-screening in renal cells was done in untreated conditions and after stimulation with TGF-ß. A merge of the detected regulated miRs led us to identify disease-specific, cell type-specific and cell stress-induced miRs. Most miRs were down-regulated following the stimulation with TGF-ß in all cell types. Up-regulation of miRs after TGF-ß was cell type-specific for most miRs. Furthermore, urinary miRs from patients with different glomerular diseases could be assigned to the different renal cell types. Most miRs were specifically regulated in one disease. Only miR-155 was up-regulated in all disease urines compared to control and therefore seems to be rather unspecific. In conclusion, a combined urinary and cell miR-screening can improve the interpretation of screening results. These data are useful to identify novel miRs potentially involved in glomerular diseases.

13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843048

RESUMO

AIMS: Delayed re-endothelialization after balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease impairs vascular healing and leads to neointimal proliferation. In the present study, we examined the effect of RNA-binding motif protein 38 (Rbm38) during re-endothelialization in a murine model of experimental vascular injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left common carotid arteries of C57BL/6 mice were electrically denudated and endothelial regeneration was evaluated. Profiling of RNA-binding proteins revealed dysregulated expression of Rbm38 in the denudated and regenerated areas. We next tested the importance of Rbm38 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and analyzed its effects on cellular proliferation, migration und apoptosis. Rbm38 silencing in vitro demonstrated important beneficial functional effects on migratory capacity and proliferation of endothelial cells. In vivo, local silencing of Rbm38 also improved re-endothelialization of denuded carotid arteries. Luciferase reporter assay identified miR-98 and let-7f to regulate Rbm38 and the positive proliferative properties of Rbm38 silencing in vitro and in vivo were mimicked by therapeutic overexpression of these miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: The present data identified Rbm38 as an important factor of the regulation of various endothelial cell functions. Local inhibition of Rbm38 as well as overexpression of the upstream regulators miR-98 and let-7f improved endothelial regeneration in vivo and thus may be a novel therapeutic entry point to avoid endothelial damage after balloon angioplasty.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840186

RESUMO

Calcification of aortic valves leads to aortic stenosis mainly in elderly individuals, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not understood. Here, we studied microRNA (miR, miRNA) expression and function in healthy and stenotic human aortic valves. We identified miR-21, miR-24, and miR-143 to be highly upregulated in stenotic aortic valves. Using luciferase reporter systems, we found direct binding of miR-143 to the 3'UTR region of the matrix gla protein (MGP), which in turn is a key factor to sustain homeostasis in aortic valves. In subsequent experiments, we demonstrated a therapeutic potential of miRNA regulation during calcification in cardiac valvular interstitial cells. Collectively, our data provide evidence that deregulated miR expression contributes to the development of stenotic valve disease and thus form novel therapeutic opportunities of this severe cardiovascular disease.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1302, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718600

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction is a common cardiovascular complication of CKD. MicroRNA-212 (miR-212) has been demonstrated previously to be a crucial regulator of pathologic LVH in pressure-overload-induced heart failure via regulating the forkhead box O3 (FOXO3)/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) pathway. Here we aimed to investigate whether miR-212 and its hypertrophy-associated targets including FOXO3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) play a role in the development of HFpEF in CKD. CKD was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in male Wistar rats. Echocardiography and histology revealed LVH, fibrosis, preserved systolic function, and diastolic dysfunction in the CKD group as compared to sham-operated animals eight and/or nine weeks later. Left ventricular miR-212 was significantly overexpressed in CKD. However, expressions of FOXO3, AMPK, and ERK2 failed to change significantly at the mRNA or protein level. The protein kinase B (AKT)/FOXO3 and AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are also proposed regulators of LVH induced by pressure-overload. Interestingly, phospho-AKT/total-AKT ratio was increased in CKD without significantly affecting phosphorylation of FOXO3 or mTOR. In summary, cardiac overexpression of miR-212 in CKD failed to affect its previously implicated hypertrophy-associated downstream targets. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the development of LVH in CKD seems to be independent of the FOXO3, ERK1/2, AMPK, and AKT/mTOR-mediated pathways indicating unique features in this form of LVH.

17.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

19.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617994

RESUMO

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is one of the important elements of central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to play a role in many CNS disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. MiR-212/132 are highly expressed in the CNS but their role at the BBB has not been characterized yet. Thus, we analyzed the expression of miR-212/132 in hypoxic mouse and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) as well as in posttraumatic mouse and human brain tissue and serum exosomes. MiR-212/132 expression was detected in brain capillaries by in situ hybridization and was increased up to ten times in hypoxic BMEC. Over-expression of pre-miR-212/132 in BMEC decreased barrier properties and reduced migration of BMEC in the wound healing assay. We identified and validated tight junction proteins claudin-1 (Cldn1), junctional adhesion molecule 3 (Jam3), and tight junction-associated protein 1 (Tjap1) as potential miR-212/132 targets. Over-expression of miRs led to a decrease in mRNA and protein expression of Cldn1, Jam3, and Tjap1, which could be rescued by a respective anti-miR. In conclusion, our study identifies miR-212/132 as critical players at the hypoxic BBB. In addition, we propose three new direct miR-212/132 targets to be involved in miR-212/132-mediated effects on BBB properties.

20.
Hypertension ; 73(4): 820-828, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686085

RESUMO

The plasma levels of long noncoding RNA LIPCAR are elevated in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction and associated with left ventricular remodeling and poor outcomes. We studied whether the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate value <60mL/(min·1.73m2) modified the associations of plasma LIPCAR with left ventricular remodeling and outcomes in HF patients. Two hundred and thirty-four patients (mean age 74 [9.14] years, 50% male) were enrolled and followed for 4.73 (0.24-7.25) years. Plasma LIPCAR was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. LIPCAR was increased ( P=0.005) in patients compared with 17 age- and sex-matched controls, directly correlated with age ( P=0.001) and with the maximal early transmitral flow velocity to the mean peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus displacement ratio ( P=0.001) and inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate ( P<0.001). LIPCAR was associated with hospitalization for HF, cardiovascular death, and a composite of hospitalization for HF or cardiovascular death ( P≤0.010), these associations being dependent of estimated glomerular filtration rate. The interactions between estimated glomerular filtration rate and LIPCAR with respect to these outcomes were statistically significant or of borderline significance ( P≤0.060). LIPCAR was increased in CKD patients compared with non-CKD patients ( P=0.021). LIPCAR was independently associated with hospitalization for HF ( P≤0.039) only in non-CKD patients, but its addition to traditional risk factors did not improve risk prediction in these patients. In conclusion, plasma LIPCAR prognosticates outcomes in elderly HF patients without CKD. Thus, there is an effect modification of CKD on the association of circulating LIPCAR with outcomes in HF patients.

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