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1.
Food Chem ; 406: 135010, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36463601

RESUMO

Levels of its utilization suggest that the host glycosaminoglycan heparin is an important carbohydrate in the human gut microbiota. However, the interaction between heparin and the gut microbiota is not well understood. In this study, an in vitro fermentation system combined with microbiome and metabolome technologies was used to study the interaction between heparin and the gut microbiota. Interestingly, we found that heparin can be used by the gut microbiota, which produce large amounts of short chain fatty acids leading to a decrease in pH. In addition, the addition of heparin increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium and decreased the relative abundance of Escherichia-Shigella. Correlation analysis of the microbiome and metabolome revealed that the catabolism of heparin was accompanied by the biosynthesis of bile acids and tryptophan metabolism. Overall, this study provides new evidence on the role of heparin as a stable carbon source for the gut microbiota and forms a strong basis for the use of heparin to condition the gut microbiota.

2.
J Genet Genomics ; 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356718

RESUMO

The immune regulatory effects of probiotics have been widely recognized to be strain-specific. However it is unknown if there is a species- or genus-dependent manner. In this study, we use an in vitro mesenteric lymph node (MLN) model to systematically evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of gut-derived potential probiotics. The results exhibite an obvious species or genus consensus immune response pattern. RNA-seq shows that T cell-dependent B cell activation and antibody responses may be inherent to this model. Of the five tested genera, Akkermansia spp. and Clostridium butyrium directly activate the immune response in vitro, as indicated by the secretion of interleukin-10. Bifidobacterium spp. and Bacteroides spp. activate immune response with the help of stimuli (anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies). Lactobacillus spp. blunt the immune response with or without stimuli. Further investigations show that the cell surface protein of A. muciniphila AH39, which may serve as a T cell receptor cognate antigen, might evoke an in vitro immune activation. In vivo, oral administration of A. muciniphila AH39 influences the proportion of T regulatory cells (Tregs) in MLNs and the spleen under homeostasis in both specific pathogen-free and germ-free mice. All these findings indicate the distinct effects of different genera or species of potential gut-derived probiotics on intestinal and systemic immunity.

3.
Food Funct ; 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36411976

RESUMO

In 2013, Limosilactobacillus fermentum was regarded as a "generally recognized as safe" organism by the US Food and Drug Administration, and emerging evidence showed that it can exert beneficial health effects on humans. In this study, five L. fermentum strains from different phylogroups of a phylogenetic tree containing 224 L. fermentum strains were chosen, and their protective effects against loperamide-induced constipation in mice were studied. Animal experiments showed that L. fermentum YN54 significantly alleviated weight loss, increased fecal moisture, accelerated intestinal peristalsis, and increased the small intestinal transit rate in mice with constipation by regulating gastrointestinal peptides and increasing the amount of intestinal short-chain fatty acids. However, the other four L. fermentum strains (XJ61, CECT5716, WX115, and GD121) did not relieve constipation in mice treated with loperamide. A comparative genomic analysis of these strains was conducted and "L. fermentum YN54 only" genes were functionally annotated and validated with the other three L. fermentum strains (FJ12, GX51, and ZH1010) that had different functional genes. Finally, the genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acid hydrase, polysaccharides, and cell membranes were identified to be associated with the probiotic effect of L. fermentum on mice with constipation through preliminary experiments in this study.

4.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364939

RESUMO

There is mounting evidence that the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) is critical in the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that probiotic therapy restoring gut microecology may slow down disease progression. In this study, we examined the disease-alleviating effects of Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1067, orally administered for 5 weeks in a PD mouse model. Our study shows that supplementation with the probiotic B. breve CCFM1067 protected dopaminergic neurons and suppressed glial cell hyperactivation and neuroinflammation in PD mice. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the central nervous system was enhanced and oxidative stress was alleviated. Moreover, B. breve CCFM1067 protected the blood-brain and intestinal barriers from damage in the MPTP-induced mouse model. The results of fecal microbiota analysis showed that B. breve CCFM1067 intervention could act on the MPTP-induced microecological imbalance in the intestinal microbiota, suppressing the number of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia-Shigella) while increasing the number of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacterium and Akkermansia) in PD mice. In addition, the increase in short chain fatty acids (acetic and butyric acids) may explain the anti-inflammatory action of B. breve CCFM1067 in the gut or brain of the MPTP-induced PD mouse model. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the probiotic B. breve CCFM1067, which can prevent or treat PD by modulating the gut-brain axis, can be utilized as a possible new oral supplement for PD therapy.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium breve , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina/efeitos adversos , Bifidobacterium , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(12): 393, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329273

RESUMO

Previously, we isolated a novel Phocaeicola strain, Phocaeicola faecalis FXJYN30E22, from the feces of a healthy human from China. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the distribution of FXJYN30E22 differed in the intestinal tract of different hosts. We aimed to determine whether FXJYN30E22 protects against ulcerative colitis by employing a mouse model. In this study, dextran sulfate sodium was used to construct the UC model. The disease activity index, colon length, body weight changes, and histological scores were used as the pathological indicators to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of P. faecalis FXJYN30E22. Further, cytokine levels, tight junction mRNA expression levels, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were also analyzed. Phocaeicola faecalis FXJYN30E22 could reduce the DSS-induced increase in DAI score, and enhance the colon length and body weight. Phocaeicola faecalis FXJYN30E22 could enhance TJ protein concentration and modulate the level of cytokines to reach levels close to those of the control group. FXJYN30E22 could also upregulate the concentrations of SCFA, which include acetate and butyrate. Based on the correlation analysis, four factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1ß levels, and propionate concentration, were related to the protective roles of FXJYN30E22 in UC mice to different degrees. According to an analysis of the genomic information, the potential protective effects of strain FXJYN30E22 may be associated with the secretion of SCFA by specific genes. These findings suggest that oral P. faecalis FXJYN30E22 could help maintain the epithelial barrier by regulating cytokine levels and secreting SCFA.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peso Corporal , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232948

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) is a common mycotoxin in the food industry, and is found in apple products in particular. Consumption of food or feed contaminated with PAT can cause acute or chronic toxicity in humans and animals. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CCFM1287 is a probiotic strain that effectively degrades PAT in PBS and food systems. In this study, it was found that the concentration of PAT (50 mg/L) in MRS medium decreased by 85.09% during the first stages of CCFM1287 growth, and this change was consistent with the first-order degradation kinetic model. Meanwhile, the regulation of oxidative stress by L. plantarum CCFM1287 in response to PAT exposure and metabolic changes that occur during PAT degradation were investigated. The degree of intracellular damage was attenuated after 16 h of exposure compared to 8 h. Meanwhile, metabolomic data showed that 30 and 29 significantly different metabolites were screened intracellularly in the strain after 8 h and 16 h of PAT stress at 50 mg/L, respectively. The results of pathway enrichment analysis suggested that the purine metabolic pathway was significantly enriched at both 8 h and 16 h. However, as is consistent with the performance of the antioxidant system, the changes in Lactiplantibacillus diminished with increasing time of PAT exposure. Therefore, this study helps to further explain the mechanism of PAT degradation by L. plantarum CCFM1287.


Assuntos
Malus , Patulina , Probióticos , Animais , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Malus/metabolismo , Patulina/metabolismo , Patulina/toxicidade , Purinas
7.
Foods ; 11(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230211

RESUMO

Limosilactobacillus fermentum is ubiquitous in traditional fermented vegetables, meat products, and the human gut. It is regarded as a "generally recognized as safe" organism by the US Food and Drug Administration. So far, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. fermentum from the human gut and food remain unknown. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of 224 L. fermentum strains isolated from food and human gut (164 L. fermentum strains isolated from human gut was sequenced in our lab) was performed to access genetic diversity and explore genomic features associated with environment. A total of 20,505 gene families were contained by 224 L. fermentum strains and these strains separated mainly into six clades in phylogenetic tree connected with their origin. Food source L. fermentum strains carried more carbohydrate active enzyme genes (belonging to glycosyltransferase family 2, glycoside hydrolase family 43_11, and glycoside hydrolase family 68) compared with that of human gut and L. fermentum derived from food showed higher ability to degrade xylulose and ribose. Moreover, the number of genes encoding otr(A), tetA(46), lmrB, poxtA, and efrB were more abundant in food source L. fermentum, which was consistent with the number of CRISPR spacers and prophages in L. fermentum of food source. This study provides new insight into the adaption of L. fermentum to the food and intestinal tract of humans, suggesting that the genomic evolution of L. fermentum was to some extent driven by environmental stress.

8.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2022: 6432750, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36193094

RESUMO

Background: The beneficial effects of probiotic supplementation standard antibiotic therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection have been verified, but the ability of probiotic monotherapy to eradicate H. pylori remains unclear. Aim: To evaluate the accuracy and efficacy of specific Lactobacillus strains against H. pylori infection. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with H. pylori infection were treated with strain L. crispatus G14-5M (L. crispatus CCFM1118) or L. helveticus M2-09-R02-S146 (L. helveticus CCFM1121) or L. plantarum CCFM8610 at a dose of 2 g twice daily for one month. 14C-urea breath test, the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale, serum pepsinogen concentrations, and serum cytokine concentrations of patients were measured at baseline and end-of-trial to analyze the effect of the Lactobacillus strains in eradicating H. pylori infection and reducing gastrointestinal discomfort in patients. In addition, the composition and abundance of the intestinal microbiota of patients were also measured at end-of-trial. Results: The 14C-urea breath test value of the three Lactobacillus treatment groups had decreased significantly, and the eradication rate of H. pylori had increased by the end of the trial. In particular, the eradication rate in the G14-5M treatment group was significantly higher than the placebo group (70.59% vs. 15.38%, P=0.0039), indicating that one-month administration of the G14-5M regimen was sufficient to eradicate H. pylori infection. The ingestion of Lactobacillus strains also ameliorated the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale scores, and the serum interleukin-8 concentrations of H. pylori-infected patients appeared to modulate the gut microbiota of patients. However, none of the Lactobacillus strains had a significant effect on general blood physiological characteristics, serum tumor necrosis factor α concentrations, or serum pepsinogen concentrations in the patients. Conclusion: Three Lactobacillus strains significantly alleviate the gastrointestinal discomfort and the gastric inflammatory response of H. pylori-infected patients. The activity of probiotics in eradicating H. pyloriinfection may be species/strain specific.

9.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128763

RESUMO

Aging, a natural and inevitable physiological process, is the primary risk factor for all age-related diseases; it severely threatens the health of individuals and places a heavy burden on the public health-care system. Thus, strategies to extend the lifespan and prevent and treat age-related diseases have been gaining increasing scientific interest. Anthocyanins (ACNs) are a subclass of flavonoids widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Growing evidence suggests that ACNs delay aging and relieve age-related diseases. However, owing to the low bioavailability of ACNs, their gut metabolites have been proposed to play a critical role in mediating health benefits. In this review, we introduce the biological fate of ACNs after consumption and highlight ACNs metabolites (phenolic acids) from intestinal microorganisms. Additionally, ACNs and gut metabolites exhibit outstanding anti-aging ability in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mouse models, probably associated with increasing antioxidation, anti-inflammation, protein homeostasis, antiglycation, mitochondrial function, and inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS). ACNs and gut metabolites have great application prospects as functional foods and drugs to delay aging and manage age-related diseases. Further investigation should focus on the interaction between ACNs and gut microbiota, including clarifying the complex metabolic pathway and maximizing the health effects of ACNs.

10.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111640, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076376

RESUMO

The potential probiotic function of Latilactobacills curvatus has attracted the attention of researchers. To explore the differences in the genomes of L. curvatus, nine strains were isolated from various sources, including feces and fermented vegetables and compared with 25 strains from the NCBI database. The findings indicated that the average genome size, GC content, and CDS of L. curvatus were 1.94 MB, 41.9%, and 1825, respectively. Its core genome is associated with transcription, translation, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and defense functions. The pan-genome of L. curvatus was in a closed state. The genetic diversity of L. curatus is mainly manifested in its ability to use carbohydrates, antibiotic resistance, bacteriocin operon, and polymeric regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas for bacterial immunity. The CRISPR system of 34 strains of L. curvatus was predominantly found to be of the IIA type with a few IIC and IE types. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of this species.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas , Bacteriófagos , Bacteriocinas/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo
11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-18, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35997270

RESUMO

Latilactobacillus sakei is used extensively in industrial production and food fermentations. The species is primarily derived from fermented meat and vegetable products and is also found in human feces. Genomics and metabolomics have revealed unique metabolic pathways in L. sakei and molecular mechanisms underlying its competitive advantages in different habitats, which are mostly attributed to its flexible carbohydrate metabolism, cold tolerance, acid and salt tolerance, ability to cope with oxygen changes, and heme uptake. In recent years, probiotic effects of L. sakei and its metabolites have been identified, including the ability to effectively alleviate metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and atopic dermatitis. This review summarizes the genomic and metabolic characteristics of L. sakei and its metabolites and describes their applications, laying a foundation for their expanded use across the food and healthcare industries.

12.
Food Funct ; 13(18): 9645-9657, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017800

RESUMO

Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) can improve and prevent functional gastrointestinal disorders. However, there has been little discussion in the literature on the difference between spores and vegetative cells for relieving constipation. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of Bacillus coagulans (B. coagulans) vegetative cells and spores against loperamide-induced constipation in mice. According to our findings, B. coagulans vegetative cells and spores differ in their ability to relieve loperamide-induced constipation. Two of the three strains of B. coagulans spores used in this experiment, B. coagulans GBI-30 6086 and B. coagulans 90, were significantly different from the model group in relieving constipation. This mainly manifested as a decreased time required for first black stool defecation (by 52 and 79 min, respectively), and increased counts of the first black stools in 5 h (by 15 and 8, respectively), the small intestine transit rate (by 23.31% and 20.52%, respectively), and the concentration of SCFAs. While the administration of vegetative cells could only relieve some indicators of intestinal transit disorders and dysbacteriosis caused by constipation. Spores of B. coagulans GBI-30 6086 and B. coagulans 90 had higher survival rates in the simulated gastrointestinal tract environment, which indicated that the functional modes of the three strains were different and had a strong relationship with the morphology of the bacteria. B. coagulans GBI-30 6086 and B. coagulans 90 spores alleviate constipation by increasing the abundances of Actinobacteria, Deferribacteres, and Lachnospiraceae UCG-006 (which were positively correlated with SCFAs) and decreasing the abundances of Cyanobateria and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut group (which were negatively correlated with SCFAs) and the levels of Ruminococcaceae UGC-014 and Alistipes. In this study, the effects of probiotics in the form of spore or vegetative cell were compared, and the optimal preparation form was determined, providing a theoretical basis for the application of probiotics of B. coagulans to relieve constipation.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enteropatias , Probióticos , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose , Loperamida , Camundongos , Esporos Bacterianos
13.
Foods ; 11(10)2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627031

RESUMO

Among the nutrients available to the human gut microbiota, the complex carbohydrates and glycosaminoglycans are important sources of carbon for some of the species of human gut microbiota. Glycosaminoglycan (heparin) from the host is a highly preferred carbohydrate for Bacteroides. To explore how gut microbiota can effectively use heparin as a carbon source for growth, we conducted a screening of the Carbohydrate-Active enzymes (CAZymes) database for lytic enzymes of the PL13 family and Research Center of Food Biotechnology at School of Food Science and Technology of Jiangnan University database of Bacteroides to identify novel glycosaminoglycan-degrading bacterial strains. Four Bacteroides species (Bacteroides eggerthii, Bacteroides clarus, Bacteroides nordii, and Bacteroides finegoldii) that degraded heparin were selected for further studies. Analysis of the polysaccharide utilization sites of the four strains revealed that all of them harbored enzyme encoding genes of the PL13 family. Functional analysis revealed the activity of CAZymes in a medium containing heparin as the sole carbon source, suggesting their potential to degrade heparin and support growth. The four enzymes were heterologous expressed, and their enzymatic properties, kinetics, and thermal stability were determined. The lytic enzyme of B. nordii had high enzymatic activity and thermal stability. The features that cause this high thermal stability were elucidated based on an examination of the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Our findings provide an important theoretical basis for the application of glycosaminoglycans and glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes in the medical and biotechnology industries, and an important scientific basis for precision nutrition and medical intervention studies using gut microbiota or enzymes as targets.

14.
Chemosphere ; 301: 134670, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452643

RESUMO

Dose-dependent effects of chronic Pb exposure-induced injuries, especially on the trace elements and gut microbiota in mice, have not been explored. In the present study, we investigated these aspects using C57BL/6 mouse models that were exposed to Pb via drinking water with Pb concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/L for 8 weeks. The results showed that with the increase in chronic Pb exposure dose, the Pb levels in the blood and tissues, Zn levels in the kidney and brain were elevated, and the levels of bone Zn, kidney Fe, brain Mg, Ca, and Fe, renal catalase activity, and glutathione levels, as well as the expression of colonic zonula occludens-1 and occludin, decreased with a strong linear correlation. Moreover, the relative abundance of Marvinbryantia and Ruminococcus 1 increased, while that of Lactobacillus and Roseburia decreased linearly with the Pb exposure dose. PICRUSt analysis revealed that chronic Pb exposure had a greater impact on the metabolism of macronutrients, trace elements, and neurodegenerative injury. These findings suggest that chronic Pb exposure disrupts trace element levels in tissues, especially in the brain, and induces gut dysbiosis in a dose-dependent manner, which is different from the dose-effect of acute Pb toxicity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Oligoelementos , Animais , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
15.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 814284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35387090

RESUMO

The maternal gut is thought to be the principal source of potential probiotic bacteria in the infant gut during the lactation stage. It is not clear whether facultative symbiont lactobacilli strictly follow vertical transmission from mother to infant and display the ethnic specificity in terms of species and strain composition in mother-infant cohorts. In the present study, a total of 16 former Lactobacillus species (365 strains) and 11 species (280 strains) were retrieved from 31 healthy mother-infant pairs of two ethnic groups, which have never intermarried, respectively. The result showed that the composition and number of Lactobacillus species between the two ethnic groups varied. Among 106 Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strains isolated, 64 representative strains were classified into 27 sequence types (ST) by means of multilocus sequence typing (MLST), of which 20 STs derived from 33 Uighur strains and 7 STs from 31 Li strains, and no homologous recombination event of genes was detected between strains of different ethnic groups. A go-EBURST analysis revealed that except for a few mother-infant pairs in which more than one STs were detected, L. paracasei isolates from the same mother-infant pair were found to be monophyletic in most cases, confirming vertical transfer of Lactobacillus at the strain level. More notably, L. paracasei isolates from the same ethnic group were more likely than strains from another to be incorporated into a specific phylogenetic clade or clonal complex (CC) with similar metabolic profile of glycan, supporting the hypothesis of ethnic specificity to a large degree. Our study provides evidence for the development of personalized probiotic tailored to very homogenous localized populations from the perspective of maternal and child health.

16.
Adv Nutr ; 13(5): 1628-1651, 2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348593

RESUMO

It is widely believed that diet and the gut microbiota are strongly related to the occurrence and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the effects of the interaction between dietary patterns and the gut microbiota on IBD have not been well elucidated. In this article, we aim to explore the complex relation between dietary patterns, gut microbiota, and IBD. We first comprehensively summarized the dietary patterns associated with IBD and found that dietary patterns can modulate the occurrence and progression of IBD through various signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and NF-κB. Besides, the gut microbiota performs a vital role in the progression of IBD, which can affect the expression of IBD susceptibility genes, such as dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and APOA-1 , the intestinal barrier (in particular, the expression of tight junction proteins), immune function (especially the homeostasis between effector and regulatory T cells) and the physiological metabolism, in particular, SCFAs, bile acids (BAs), and tryptophan metabolism. Finally, we reviewed the current knowledge on the interaction between dietary patterns and the gut microbiota in IBD and found that dietary patterns modulate the onset and progression of IBD, which is partly attributed to the regulation of the gut microbiota (especially SCFAs-producing bacteria and Escherichia coli). Faecalibacteria as "microbiomarkers" of IBD could be used as a target for dietary interventions to alleviate IBD. A comprehensive understanding of the interplay between dietary intake, gut microbiota, and IBD will facilitate the development of personalized dietary strategies based on the regulation of the gut microbiota in IBD and expedite the era of precision nutritional interventions for IBD.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Oxidases Duais/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Triptofano
17.
Artif Intell Rev ; 55(6): 4485-4521, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125607

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI)-aided general clinical diagnosis is helpful to primary clinicians. Machine learning approaches have problems of generalization, interpretability, etc. Dynamic Uncertain Causality Graph (DUCG) based on uncertain casual knowledge provided by clinical experts does not have these problems. This paper extends DUCG to include the representation and inference algorithm for non-causal classification relationships. As a part of general clinical diagnoses, six knowledge bases corresponding to six chief complaints (arthralgia, dyspnea, cough and expectoration, epistaxis, fever with rash and abdominal pain) were constructed through constructing subgraphs relevant to a chief complaint separately and synthesizing them together as the knowledge base of the chief complaint. A subgraph represents variables and causalities related to a single disease that may cause the chief complaint, regardless of which hospital department the disease belongs to. Verified by two groups of third-party hospitals independently, total diagnostic precisions of the six knowledge bases ranged in 96.5-100%, in which the precision for every disease was no less than 80%.

18.
J Adv Res ; 36: 27-37, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35127162

RESUMO

Introduction: The roles of Bacteroides species in alleviating inflammation and intestinal injury has been widely demonstrated, but few studies have focused on the roles of Bacteroides vulgatus. Objectives: In this study, four B. vulgatus strains were selected, based on their genomic characteristics, to assess their ability to alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute intestinal injury in C57BL/6J mice. Methods: Alterations in the intestinal microbiota, intestinal epithelial permeability, cytokine level, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration, and immune responses were investigated following LPS-induced acute intestinal injury in C57BL/6J mice. Results: Severe histological damage and a significant change in cytokine expression was observed in the mouse colon tissues 24 h after LPS administration. Oral administration of different B. vulgatus strains showed different effects on the assessed parameters of the mice; particularly, only the administration of B. vulgatus FTJS7K1 was able to protect the architectural integrity of the intestinal epithelium. B. vulgatus FTJS7K1 also negated the LPS-induced changes in cytokine mRNA expression in the colon tissues, and in the proportion of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph node. Compared with the LPS group, the B. vulgatus FTJS7K1 group showed significantly increased abundance of Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Bifidobacterium, and decreased abundance of Faecalibaculum. The B. vulgatus FTJS7K1 group also showed significantly increased concentration of SCFAs in fecal samples. The results of genomic analysis showed that these protective roles of B. vulgatus FTJS7K1 may be mediated through specific genes associated with defense mechanisms and metabolism (e.g., the secretion of SCFAs). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the protective role of B. vulgatus FTJS7K1 appear to be via modulation of cytokine production in the colon tissue and regulation of the structure of the gut microbiota. These results provide support for the screening of the Bacteroides genus for next-generation probiotics.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Bacteroides/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 135: 104556, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122783

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the fastest growing cognitive decline-related neurological diseases. To date, effective curative strategies have remained elusive. A growing body of evidence indicates that dietary patterns have significant effects on cognitive function and the risk of developing AD. Previous studies on the association between diet and AD risk have mainly focused on individual food components and specific nutrients, and the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of dietary patterns on AD are not well understood. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, Mediterranean-DASH diet intervention for neurological delay (MIND), ketogenic diet, caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, methionine restriction, and low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet, on cognitive impairment and summarizes the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns attenuate cognitive impairment, especially highlighting the modulation of dietary patterns on cognitive impairment through gut microbiota. Furthermore, considering the variability in individual metabolic responses to dietary intake, we put forward a framework to develop personalized dietary patterns for people with cognitive disorders or AD based on individual gut microbiome compositions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Dieta Mediterrânea , Abordagens Dietéticas para Conter a Hipertensão , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Humanos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055188

RESUMO

In a previous study, we uncovered three immune-responsive patterns of gut microbes using an in vitro mesenteric lymph node cell suspension model, abbreviated as the MLN model hereafter. We used Akkermansia muciniphila and Clostridium butyricum as the first group directly inducing an immune response, Bifidobacterium sp. and Bacteroides sp. as the second group evoking an immune response with the help of stimuli (anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies), and Lactobacillus sp. as the third group blunting the immune response with or without stimuli. Our group previously clarified the immune-activation characteristics of A. muciniphila and linked its in vivo immune induction effect in GF and SPF mice under homeostasis. In the present study, we supplemented the characteristics of C. butyricum and B. bifidum in the in vitro MLN model and addressed the specific elements of the model. Finally, we used an in vivo TNBS-challenge model to show the functional differences between these species with different response patterns in vitro. The results showed that C. butyricum and B. bifidum evoked an immune response in vitro in a dose-dependent and strain-unique manner. Although TLR2, rather than TLR4, is indispensable for immune activation in the present in vitro model, it may not involve interaction between TLR2 and bacterial ligands. Like the PBMC model, the present in vitro MLN model is highly dependent on cell resources and should be given more attention when used to conduct a quantitative comparison. Finally, a mixture of two strong immunogenic strains, A. muciniphila and C. butyricum, significantly increased the mortality of TNBS-challenged (2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, TNBS) mice, indicating a possible link between the in vitro MLN model and in vivo functional evaluation. However, more evidence is needed to clarify the associations and underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/imunologia , Clostridium butyricum/imunologia , Linfonodos/citologia , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico/efeitos adversos , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mesentério , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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