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1.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919985

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the T2DM incidence with DNA methylation of thioredoxin-interacting protein gene (TXNIP) and its interaction with environmental factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study included 286 incident T2DM cases and 286 non-T2DM controls matched by sex, age, marital status, race, and residence village nested in the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the association of DNA methylation at TXNIP with T2DM risk. Also, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were used to investigate the interaction between TXNIP methylation and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Methylation levels of all five CpG loci at TXNIP were significantly lower in T2DM than controls (all P < 0.001). With increasing methylation level, risk of T2DM was significantly decreased (odds ratio 95% confidence interval 0.80, 0.69-0.94 for CpG1; 0.80, 0.69-0.93 for CpG2; 0.70, 0.56-0.88 for CpG3; 0.78, 0.66-0.92 for CpG4; and 0.76; 0.60-0.97 for CpG5). Additionally, the essential interactions among TXNIP methylation, obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia were identified by CART and MDR analyses. On logistic regression analysis, the risk of T2DM was reduced with terminal node 5 (CpG3 methylation ≥72%, non-obesity, normal TG level, and CpG4 methylation ≥83%) vs terminal node 1 (CpG3 methylation <72%) (odds ratio 95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.10-0.40). CONCLUSIONS: TXNIP methylation was associated with T2DM incidence in a Chinese population. Interaction between TXNIP methylation and environmental factors may influence T2DM risk and needs more investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies reported an inconsistent association between stage 1 hypertension (SBP 130-139 mmHg or DBP 80-89 mmHg) defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association hypertension guidelines and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. In addition, the proportion of CVD events that could be prevented with effective control of stage 1 hypertension is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between stage 1 hypertension and CVD events and estimate the population etiologic fraction. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched from 1 January 2017 to 22 September 2019. Normal BP was considered SBP less than 120 mmHg and DBP less than 80 mmHg. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled by using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We included 11 articles (16 studies including 3 212 447 participants and 65 945 events) in the analysis. Risk of CVD events was increased with stage 1 hypertension versus normal BP (hazard ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.28-1.49). On subgroup analyses, stage 1 hypertension was associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) (hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.20-1.41), stroke (1.39, 1.27-1.52), CVD morbidity (1.42, 1.32-1.53), and CVD mortality (1.34, 1.05-1.71). The population etiologic fraction for the association of CVD events, CHD, stroke, CVD morbidity, and CVD mortality with stage 1 hypertension was 12.90, 10.48, 12.71, 14.03, and 11.69%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Stage 1 hypertension is associated with CVD events, CVD morbidity, CVD mortality, CHD, and stroke. Effective control of stage 1 hypertension could prevent more than 10% of CVD events.

3.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-30, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791429

RESUMO

Metabolically healthy obesity refers to a subset of obese people with a normal metabolic profile. We aimed to explore the association between metabolically healthy and obesity status and risk of hypertension among Chinese adults from The Rural Chinese Cohort Study. This prospective cohort study enrolled 9137 Chinese adults without hypertension, type 2 diabetes, or treatment for lipid abnormality at baseline (2007-2008) and followed up during 2013-2014. Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the risk of hypertension by different metabolically healthy and obesity status, estimating relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 6 years of follow-up, we identified 1734 new hypertension cases (721 men). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and other confounding factors, risk of hypertension was increased with metabolically healthy general obesity (MHGO) defined by body mass index (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02-3.00) and metabolically healthy abdominal obesity (MHAO) defined by waist circumference (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.12-2.04) as compared with metabolically healthy non-obesity. The associations between metabolically healthy and obesity status and hypertension outcome were consistent after stratifying by sex, age, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Both MHGO and MHAO were associated with increased risk of hypertension. Obesity control programs should be implemented to prevent or delay the development of hypertension in rural China.

4.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 105913, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838255

RESUMO

The optimal systolic blood pressure (SBP) treatment target in elderly people is full of challenge, and non-adherence is one major cause of uncontrolled BP. The Strategy of Blood Pressure Intervention in the Elderly Hypertensive Patients (STEP) trial is a multi-center, randomized controlled trial that aims to examine whether an intensive treatment (110 ≤ SBP < 130 mmHg) will provide more benefits in lowering cardiovascular events than a mild treatment (130 ≤ SBP < 150 mmHg) among people aged 60-80 years. From January 10, 2017 to December 31, 2017, 8511 patients with primary hypertension were recruited at 42 clinical centers throughout China and randomly assigned to the intensive or standard treatment in 1:1 ratio, in which clinical sites are considered as a stratification factor in randomization. Participants will be followed for an average of four years. All participants used the same validated home BP device and all centers used the same validated office BP device which can automatically upload the readings to a data center. The hospitals were randomly classified as the smartphone-based App center or usual care center in 1:1 ratio for the secondary purpose to study the effect of App management on BP control. In this trial, mean age of participants was 66.2 ±â€¯4.8 years, 24.1% were in the range of 70-80 years, and 65% were at high-risk with the 10-year Framingham risk score ≥ 15%. In conclusion, STEP will provide evidence not only to address appropriate target of BP control among hypertensive patients aged 60-80 years, but also to assess an effective model of App management for hypertension. Trial Registration number: ClinicalTrials. gov. Unique identifier: NCT03015311.

5.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively evaluate the dose-response association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched up to December 12, 2018 for articles that assessed the OSA-T2DM association. Random effects models were used to analyze the quantitative association between OSA and risk of T2DM. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the dose-response association between apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI), used to assess the severity of OSA according to events/hr, and risk of T2DM. RESULTS: We included 16 cohort studies in our meta-analysis. During a median follow-up of 10.5 years (range 3.0-22.0), 19 355 T2DM cases were reported among 338 912 study participants. The pooled relative risk (RR) of T2DM was 1.40 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.48) for OSA in the binary meta-analysis and 1.08 (1.01-1.14) for each 5-events/hr increase in AHI value. We found a positive linear association between OSA and T2DM risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our dose-response meta-analysis revealed a linear association between OSA and T2DM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4495-4503, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872638

RESUMO

The analysis of Forsythia suspensa was performed on Waters Symmetry C18 column( 4. 6 mm×250 mm,5 µm) and mobile phase was methanol( A)-0. 1% formic acid aqueous solution( B) with the elution gradient. Column temperature was maintained at 30℃,and the flow rate was 1. 0 m L·min-1 with detection wavelength 265 nm. The HPLC-PDA fingerprint of F. suspensa was optimized.Chemical constituents in F. suspensa were analyzed by UFLC-Q-TOF-MS in positive and negative ion mode. The quality of 48 batches of F. suspensa from different habitats,processing methods and specifications was evaluated by similarity evaluation and cluster analysis.The 18 common peaks were confirmed. The similarity of F. suspensa from different habitats was more than 0. 98,and 56 chemical constituents were identified. Different processing methods had great influence on the quality of F. suspensa. Compared with boiled and direct drying,the quality of F. suspensa processed by sun-drying was obviously decreased. The similarity was about 0. 58. Different specifications of F. suspensa also had obvious distinction,and the similarity was about 0. 78. The effective components of grown F. suspensa,such as forsythoside A and phillyrin,were significantly reduced. The results of cluster analysis were basically consistent with the results of similarity evaluation. The establishment of fingerprint and the recognition of chemical pattern of F. suspensa can provide a more comprehensive reference for the quality control of herbs.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 79: 106090, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869774

RESUMO

Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The mortality rate of in-hospital patients whose conditions are complicated by sepsis remains high in spite of intensive-care treatment, therefore placing a significant financial burden on the health care system. In recent years, progranulin (PGRN), a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), has been found to play a crucial role in sepsis. PGRN participates in the pathogenesis of sepsis via diverse pathways, including bacterial clearance, cell growth and survival, tissue repair, and the regulation of inflammation. PGRN knockout mice suffer from serious infectious processes, whereas therapeutic administration of recombinant PGRN to such mice enhances bacterial clearance and reduces organ injury and mortality rate. Even though PGRN plays an important role in regulating sepsis, its potential mechanisms have not been completely clarified. In this review, we summarize the most recent research advances in the study of PGRN and its role in sepsis.

8.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691493

RESUMO

Despite their important roles in host nutrition and metabolism, and potential to cause disease, our knowledge of the fungal community in the mammalian gut is quite limited. To date, diversity and composition of fungi in swine gut still remains unknown. Therefore, the first internal transcribed spacer of fungi in faecal samples from three breeds of pigs (10 pigs for each breed) was sequenced based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, and the relationship between the fungal community and the concentrations of main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was also analysed. Results indicated that Chenghua (local, higher body fat rate), Yorkshire (foreign, higher lean meat and growth rate) and Tibetan (plateau, stronger disease resistance) pigs harboured distinct fungal community. The Basidiomycota and Ascomycota presented as the two predominant phyla, with Loreleia, Russula and Candida as the top three genera in all samples. Network analysis revealed a total of 35 correlations among different fungal genera, with 27 (77.14%) positive and 8 (22.86%) negative pairwise interactions. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that fungi in the faeces of pigs were more correlated to the concentration of acetate and butyrate rather than propionate. Spearman's correlation further showed that Tomentella was positively correlated to both acetate and butyrate, and Loreleia was positively correlated to propionate (P < 0.05), while Nephroma and Taiwanofungus were negatively correlated to acetate and propionate (P < 0.05). These findings expanded our knowledge on the intestinal fungi in pigs with different genotypes and phenotypes, indicating that fungi may play an indispensable role during the metabolism of host and the maintenance of intestinal health. The cross-feeding between fungi and other microorganisms may be crucial during the digestion of dietary carbohydrates and the associated physiological processes, which is worthy to be further studied.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 939, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection. The epidemiology of IC in hospitalized patients has been widely investigated in many metropolitan cities; however, little information from medium and small cities is known. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective study was carried out to analyze the prevalence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, risk factors and mortality of inpatients with invasive Candida infection in a regional tertiary teaching hospital in Southwest China. RESULTS: A total of 243 inpatients with invasive Candida infection during the five-year study period were identified, with a mean annual incidence of 0.41 cases per 1000 admissions and a 30-day mortality rate of 12.3%. The species distributions of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species was 45.3, 30.0, 15.2, 4.9, 2.1 and 2.5%, respectively. The total resistance rates of fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC) were 18.6, 23.1 and 18.5%, respectively. Respiratory dysfunction, pulmonary infection, cardiovascular disease, chronic/acute renal failure, mechanical ventilation, abdominal surgery, intensive care in adults, septic shock and IC due to C. albicans were associated with 30-day mortality (P < 0.05) according to the univariate analyses. Respiratory dysfunction [odds ratio (OR), 9.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.24-29.63; P < 0.001] and IC due to C. albicans (OR, 3.35; 95% CI, 1.13-9.92; P = 0.029) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This report shows that the incidence and mortality rates are lower and that the resistance rates to azoles are higher in medium and small cities than in large cities and that the species distributions and risk factors in medium and small cities are different from those in large cities in China. It is necessary to conduct epidemiological surveillance in medium and small cities to provide reference data for the surveillance of inpatients with IC infections.

10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4548-4556, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603198

RESUMO

The objectives of the current study were to explore the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation in the diets of sow and (or) their offspring on intestinal bacteria, intestinal and systemic inflammation in the piglet. A total of 60 multiparous sows (4 ± 1 parity; Landrace × Yorkshire) were fed either control diet (sCON, n = 30) or a diet containing 400 mg kg-1 MOS (sMOS, n = 30) from day 86 of gestation until weaning (day 20 of postpartum). On day 7 of age, offspring (Duroc × Landrace Yorkshire) were assigned within sow treatments and fed control diet (pCON) or diet containing 800 mg kg-1 MOS (pMOS) for 28 d (end at 35 d of age), resulting in four piglet diet groups (n = 15 litters per diet group): sCON-pCON, sCON-pMOS, sMOS-pCON, and sMOS-pMOS. Results found that piglet diet MOS increased or tend to increase Lactobacillus amount in the ileum digesta (P < 0.01) and jejunum digesta (P = 0.07), respectively; while tend to decrease Escherichia coli amount in jejunum digesta (P =0.06) and cecum digesta (P = 0.08). Both sow and piglet diets add MOS (sMOS-pMOS) increased Lactobacillus amount but decreased E. coli amount in jejunum digesta (P < 0.05) compared with the sCON-pCON diet group. In addition, sow diet MOS (rather than piglet diet MOS) increased sIgA content in piglet jejunum mucosa compared with control (P = 0.04). Sow diet MOS decreased toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA levels (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA level (P = 0.07) in piglet intestinal lymphatic. The interaction effects between sow and piglet diets were found on the mRNA levels of NF- κB p65 (P = 0.03) and IL-8 (P = 0.02) in piglet jejunum. Finally, the sow diet MOS decreased proinflammatory cytokines IL-2 (P < 0.01) and IL-4 (P < 0.01) concentrations in piglet serum. Piglets diet MOS decreased the contents of IL-2 (P = 0.03), IL-4 (P = 0.01) and interferon (IFN)-γ (P < 0.01) while increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (P < 0.01) content in serum. The interaction effects between sows and piglet diets on IL-4 (P = 0.02), IL-10 (P < 0.01), and IFN-γ (P = 0.08) were observed. In conclusion, sow and/or piglet diet MOS could improve intestinal microbiota, enhance intestinal mucosal immune competence, and suppress intestinal and systemic inflammation in the piglet.

11.
J Hypertens ; 37(12): 2354-2360, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether hypertriglyceridemic waist-to-height ratio (HWHtR) and its dynamic status was associated with hypertension (HTN). METHODS: We examined data for 10 312 nonhypertensive participants aged at least 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study at the baseline examination who were followed until 2014 with a median follow-up of 6 years. HWHtR was defined by combined triglyceride level and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the probability of incident HTN according to HWHtR and its transformation, estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 127 men and 225 women with high triglyceride level and high WHtR (HTHWH) had incident HTN during follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, the probability of HTN was increased with HTHWH for men [OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.01-2.20)] but this association was not significant for women [1.21 (0.88-1.66)]. The results of the sensitivity analyses were robust for men and women. The ORs were generally consistent on subgroup analysis by age,BMI, SBP and DBP for men. As compared with persistent normal triglyceride level and normal WHtR (NTNWH), the transformation from baseline NTNWH to follow-up HTHWH was associated with increased probability of HTN for men [OR 4.16 (95% CI 2.21-7.84)]. However, for women, the association of changed HWHtR from baseline to follow-up with probability of HTN was not significant for almost all transformation groups. CONCLUSION: HWHtR and its dynamic status was associated with incident HTN for rural Chinese men. From this cohort study, HWHtR may be an indicator for interventions aiming to reduce HTN among these men.

12.
Cardiology ; 144(3-4): 90-96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is one of the important risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is always accompanied by obesity. Therefore, this study was designed to elucidate the relationship between NAFLD and CHD in obese and nonobese populations. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 454 Chinese patients diagnosed with CHD. Patients were grouped into non-NAFLD + nonobese, non-NAFLD + obese, NAFLD + nonobese, and NAFLD + obese based on the presence or absence of both NAFLD and obesity. RESULTS: The mean Gensini score was significantly higher in patients with fatty liver compared to those without. Logistic regression analysis found that fatty liver, uric acid, and blood glucose levels were risk factors for a high Gensini score. CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the presence of obesity, NAFLD is a risk factor for CHD, and the clinical effect of nonobese fatty liver (especially in women) should be carefully considered.

13.
PeerJ ; 7: e7910, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637140

RESUMO

This work was aimed to investigate the effects of the different particle size of ground alfalfa hay on caecal microbial and archeal communities of rabbits. One hundred-twenty New Zealand rabbits (950.3 ± 8.82 g) were allocated into four treatments, with five replicates in each treatment and six rabbits in each replicate. The particle sizes of the alfalfa meal in the four treatment diets were 2,500, 1,000, 100 and 10 µm respectively, while the other ingredients were ground through a 2.5 mm sieve. High-throughput sequencing technology was applied to examine the differences in bacteria and methanogenic archaea diversity in the caecum of the four treatment groups of rabbits. A total of 745,946 bacterial sequences (a mean of 31,081 ± 13,901 sequences per sample) and 539,227 archaeal sequences (a mean of 22,468 ± 2,443 sequences per sample) were recovered from twenty-four caecal samples, and were clustered into 9,953 and 2,246 OTUs respectively. A total of 26 bacterial phyla with 465 genera and three archaeal phyla with 10 genera were identified after taxonomic summarization. Bioinformatic analyses illustrated that Firmicutes (58.69% ∼ 68.50%) and Bacteroidetes (23.96% ∼ 36.05%) were the two most predominant bacterial phyla and Euryarchaeota (over 99.9%) was the most predominant archaeal phyla in the caecum of all rabbits. At genus level, as the particle size of alfalfa decreased from 2,500 to 10 µm, the relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae UCG-014 (P < 0.001) and Lactobacillus (P = 0.043) were increased and Ruminococcaceae UCG-005 (P = 0.012) was increased first and then decreased when the alfalfa particle size decreased, while Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group (P = 0.016), Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 (P = 0.044), Christensenellaceae R-7 group (P = 0.019), Lachnospiraceae other (Family) (P = 0.011) and Ruminococcaceae UCG-013 (P = 0.021) were decreased. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter was increased from 62.48% to 90.40% (P < 0.001), whereas the relative abundance of Methanosphaera was reduced from 35.47% to 8.62% (P < 0.001). In conclusion, as the particle size of alfalfa meal decreased, both the bacterial and archaeal population in the caecum of rabbit experienced alterations, however archaea response earlier than bacteria to the decrease of alfalfa meal particle size.

14.
Br J Nutr ; 122(10): 1081-1090, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637977

RESUMO

The present study compared the protective effect of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on heat stress (HS)-invoked porcine IPEC-J2 cellular damage and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoprotein. Cells were cultured at 37°C until 80 % confluence and then subjected to four different conditions for 24 h: at 37°C (control), 41·5°C (HS), 41·5°C supplied with 0·42 µmol Se/L SS (SS), or SeMet (SeMet). HS significantly decreased cell viability, up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and down-regulated mRNA and protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (claudin-1 (CLDN-1) and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)). HS-induced cell injury was associated with the up-regulation (P < 0·05) of six inflammation-related genes and fourteen selenoprotein encoding genes and down-regulation (P < 0·05) of two inflammation-related genes and five selenoprotein encoding genes. Compared with the HS group, SS and SeMet supplementation resulted in an increase (P < 0·05) in cell viability, decreased (P < 0·05) mRNA expression of HSP70 and six inflammation-related genes and rescue (P < 0·05) of mRNA and protein levels of CLDN-1 and ZO-1. SS and SeMet supplementation changes the expressions of nineteen selenoprotein encoding genes in cells affected by HS. Both Se supplementation significantly recovered the protein level of glutathione peroxidase-1 and increased selenoprotein P in the IPEC-J2 cells under HS, respectively. In summary, Se supplementation alleviated the negative impact of HS on IPEC-J2 cells, and their cellular protective effect was associated with regulation expression of selenoproteins, and SeMet exhibited a better protective effect.

15.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 10: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534715

RESUMO

Background: This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels and amino acids supplementation patterns in low protein diets on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and nitrogen excretion in growing-finishing pigs.Forty-two barrows (25.00 ± 0.39 kg) were randomly assigned to 7 diets. Diet 1: the high crude protein diet with balanced for 10 essential amino acids (EAAs). Diet 2: the medium crude protein diet with 2% (approx) decreased protein level of Diet 1 and balanced 10 EAAs. Diet 3: the low crude protein diet with 4% decreased protein level of Diet 1 and balanced 10 EAAs. The protein levels of Diet 4, 5, 6 and 7 were the same as that of Diet 3. Diet 4 was only balanced for lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr) and tryptophan (Trp); Diet 5 and 6 were further supplemented with extra isoleucine (Ile) or valine (Val), respectively; Diet 7 was further supplemented with extra Ile + Val. Results: Over the 112 days trial, the reduction of dietary protein by 2% or 4% with balanced10 EAAs significantly decreased nitrogen excretion (P <  0.05), but had no effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). In low protein diet, Val supplementation significantly increased body weight gain at 25-50 kg phase (P <  0.05), while Ile supplementation at 75-100 kg phase and 100-125 kg phase significantly reduced the ratio of feed to gain (P <  0.05). No effect of different dietary protein levels and amino acids supplementation patterns in low protein diets on carcass characteristics was observed (P > 0.05). The total N excretion of pigs supplemented with only Lys, Met, Thr and Trp was numerically higher than that of pigs fed with extra Ile, or Val, or Ile + Val diets. Conclusion: In low protein diet, Val is more required than Ile in the early growing phage (25-50 kg), while Ile becomes more required in the late growing and finishing phage (75-125 kg).

16.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470565

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary aged maize with supplementation of different levels of oxidized fish oil on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum antioxidant activity and gut health in piglets. Forty-two piglets were arranged in 2 × 3 factorial treatments in a complete randomized block design with seven replicates per treatment and one pig per replicate for 28 d. Diets included twp types of maize (normal maize or aged maize) and three levels of oxidized fish oil (OFO) (3% non-oxidized fish oil (0% OFO), 1.5% OFO and 1.5% non-oxidized fish oil (1.5% OFO), and 3% OFO (3% OFO). Results showed that dietary aged maize did not affect growth performance, diarrhea, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in piglets (p > 0.05). However, aged maize increased malonaldehyde (MDA) content and decreased total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum on both 14th and 28th days (p < 0.05) compared to the normal maize groups. Meanwhile, compared with normal maize, dietary aged maize showed a slight, but not significant (p > 0.10) decrease in total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity and VE content in serum on the 14th day. In addition, aged maize significantly decreased GLUT2 mRNA expression (p < 0.05) and tended to increase (p < 0.10) TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in jejunal mucosa. Compared with non-oxidized fish oil, oxidized fish oil resulted in the decrease of the 14-28 d and 0-28 d ADG, as well as the ATTD of dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), organic matter (OM) (p < 0.05), whereas the increase in diarrhea index (p < 0.05) and F/G of the whole period (p < 0.05). Oxidized fish oil decreased serum T-AOC on both the 14th and the 28th days (p < 0.05), and decreased serum T-SOD activity and VE content on the 28th day (p < 0.05), whereas increased serum MDA content on the 28th day (p < 0.05) and 14th day (p < 0.10) compared with fresh fish oil. Meanwhile, MUC2 (p < 0.05) and SGLT1 (p < 0.10) mRNA expression in jejunal mucosa were decreased compared with non-oxidized fish oil. In addition, dietary oxidized fish oil tended to decrease 14-28 d ADFI and the ATTD of CP (p < 0.10), and piglets fed oxidized fish oil significantly decreased 14-28 d ADFI, the ATTD of CP, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA expressions in jejunal mucosa when piglet also fed with aged maize (p < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicated that dietary oxidized fish oil decreased growth performance and nutrients digestibility of piglets fed with aged maize. This nutrient interaction may be mediated by inhibiting intestinal nutrient transporter, inducing intestinal inflammation, and reducing antioxidant capacity.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 9(9)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470619

RESUMO

We conducted this experiment to determine if feeding 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) to weaned pigs would alleviate porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection and immune response. Forty-two weaned pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary 25(OH)D3 treatments (5.5, 5.5, 43.0, 80.5, 118.0, 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg diet) for 26 days. On day 22 of the trial, all the treatments were orally administrated with PEDV except for one of the 5.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg treatments, which was challenged with the same volume of sterile saline and served as control. Another 5.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg group for PEDV challenge was named CON-PEDV. Average daily gain (p < 0.05) was reduced by PEDV infection. PEDV administration also induced severe diarrhea (p < 0.05), reduction of villous height and the ratio of villous height to crypt depth, and increase of crypt depth and serum diamine oxidase activity (p < 0.05). Serum IgM and complement component 4 levels were increased by PEDV challenge. However, 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg supplementation alleviated intestinal damage (p < 0.05) compared with CON-PEDV. Furthermore, 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg supplementation downregulated the mRNA abundance of inflammatory cytokines and interferon signal pathway-related genes (p < 0.05) compared with CON-PEDV. These results suggested that dietary supplementation of 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg could alleviate intestinal damage and protect against PEDV-induced inflammatory status.

18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432444

RESUMO

Dietary zinc status was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on liver health, and zinc deficiency results in hepatic injury caused by fat deposition, inflammation, and oxidant stress, but the effect of zinc on hepatic lipid metabolism and liver injury in meat duck has not been well defined. To determine the hepatoprotective effects of graded zinc glycine in meat ducks. A total of 384 1-day-old male meat ducks were subjected to 5 weeks feeding program with three experimental diets: (1) low-zinc diet, (2) adequate-zinc diet, and (3) high-zinc diet. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analysis, gene expression analysis, and histopathological study. Diet with low zinc increased hepatic lipid content and triglyceride concentration. Meat ducks fed low-zinc diet exhibited considerably increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity than birds fed other diets among all groups (P < 0.05). Low zinc administration also notably induced hepatocyte apoptosis and stimulated hepatic inflammatory gene expression. Adequate or high zinc supplementation increased hepatic zinc level, reduced hepatic lipid deposition and hepatosomatic indices through suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes including fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of both fatty acid secretion and ß-oxidation, including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) (P < 0.05). Dietary zinc addition also declined hepatic mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, diets with adequate or high zinc significantly decreased serum ALT activity and hepatocyte apoptosis. These data revealed that supplementing adequate- or high-zinc glycine efficiently protects liver injury by attenuating lipid deposition and hepatic inflammation.

20.
J Hypertens ; 37(12): 2325-2332, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of prehypertension (SBP 120-139 mmHg and/or DBP 80-89 mmHg) and total cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles published up to 7 November 2018. Normal range BP was considered SBP less than 120 mmHg and DBP less than 80 mmHg. RRs and 95% CIs were pooled using fixed-effects models. Meta-regression was conducted to estimate the heterogeneity among subgroups. RESULTS: We included 27 articles (47 studies including 491 666 study participants) in the analysis. Prehypertension was associated with total CVDs (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.34-1.46), CHD (1.40, 1.28-1.52), MI (1.86, 1.50-2.32), and stroke (1.66, 1.56-1.76). Risk of total CVDs, MI, and stroke was increased with low-range prehypertension (low-range: SBP 120-129 mmHg and/or DBP 80-84 mmHg) versus normal BP - RR 1.42 (95% CI 1.29-1.55), 1.43 (1.10-1.86), and 1.52 (1.27-1.81), respectively - and risk of total CVDs, CHD, MI, and stroke was increased with high-range prehypertension (high-range: SBP 130-139 mmHg and/or DBP 85-89 mmHg) - RR 1.81 (95% CI 1.56-2.10), 1.65 (1.13-2.39), 1.99 (1.59-2.50), and 1.99 (1.68-2.36), respectively. The population-attributable risk for the association of total CVDs, CHD, MI, and stroke with prehypertension was 12.09, 13.26, 24.60, and 19.15%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Prehypertension, particularly high-range, is associated with increased risk of total CVDs, CHD, MI, and stroke. Effective control of prehypertension could prevent more than 10% of CVD cases.

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