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1.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226991

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) neurodegeneration is defined by a complex series of pathological processes that ultimately lead to death. The precise etiology of these disorders remains unknown. Recent efforts show that a mechanistic understanding of the malfunctions underpinning disease progression will prove requisite in developing new treatments and cures. Transition metals and lanthanide ions display unique characteristics (i.e., magnetism, radioactivity, and luminescence), often with biological relevance, allowing for direct application in CNS focused imaging modalities. These techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and luminescent-based imaging (LumI). In this Tutorial Review, we have aimed to highlight the various metal-based imaging techniques developed in the effort to understand the pathophysiological processes associated with neurodegeneration. Each section has been divided so as to include an introduction to the particular imaging technique in question. This is then followed by a summary of key demonstrations that have enabled visualization of a specific neuropathological biomarker. These strategies have either exploited the high binding affinity of a receptor for its corresponding biomarker or a specific molecular transformation caused by a target species, all of which produce a concomitant change in diagnostic signal. Advantages and disadvantages of each method with perspectives on the utility of molecular imaging agents for understanding the complexities of neurodegenerative disease are discussed.

2.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242739

RESUMO

Objective: Forgiveness carries a different significance for individuals, especially older people. Few studies have focused on the effect of forgiveness on life satisfaction among older people and the mediating role of perceived social support and depressive symptoms. The current study tested the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction, and the mediating effects of perceived social support and depressive symptoms in the relationship.Method: The sample of the study consisted of 713 older people (>56 years, M=64.89, SD=1.31)were recruited from Jiangsu province in China. Bootstrap estimation of multiple mediation analysis was used to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support and depressive symptoms in the relationship between forgiveness and life satisfaction.Results: Forgiveness of others and oneself have positively associated with life satisfaction, and multiple mediation analyses indicated that perceived social support and depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between forgiveness of others and oneself and life satisfaction.Conclusion: Forgiveness of others and self is linked with life satisfaction not only through perceived social support but also depressive symptoms. Forgiveness can enhance life satisfaction of older people. It can also enhance the effects of social support on their social relationships and reduce depressive symptoms, which lead to higher life satisfaction.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8780253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190685

RESUMO

Objective: The relationship between serum progesterone and the first trimester pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion is still controversial. Therefore, we aimed to further study the association between these two parameters. Methods: The present study is an observational retrospective cohort study. A total of 726 participants who had threatened abortion from a hospital in Guangdong, China, were included in this study from 17th August 2011 to 30th October 2018. The exposure variable and the outcome variable were serum progesterone measured at baseline and early pregnancy outcome, respectively. Covariates involved in this study included patients' basic demographics, obstetric history, and clinical information. Results: A negative association and a saturation effect were detected between serum progesterone and the first trimester pregnancy outcome. When progesterone <90.62 nmol/L, an increase in 1 nmol/L of serum progesterone was associated with 3% decrease of the risk of miscarriage (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98). Conclusion: There was a greater risk of abortion when the serum progesterone level was less than 90.62 nmol/L. Our findings can better assist the clinician in understanding patients' conditions and making medical decisions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215825

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a high-risk pregnancy, and placental dysfunction is the main cause of FGR. The upregulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is linked to FGR pathology, but the mechanism needs to be investigated. METHODS: The levels of ADMA and other related molecules were measured in human biological samples. We further used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to reveal the mechanism of ADMA-induced FGR in vitro. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, FGR patients had higher placental resistance, and ADMA levels were increased in the maternal blood, cord blood, and placenta; additionally, nitric oxide (NO) production decreased, accompanied by a decreased expression of endogenous NO synthase (eNOS). The expression of vascular growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PLGF) in the maternal blood during the third trimester and umbilical cord of the FGR group was lower than the control group. The PLGF levels in the placentas of the FGR group were also reduced, while the expression of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) increased. In in vitro cell experiments, NO production was obviously lower when the cells were exposed to 100 µM of ADMA, with no difference in eNOS expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in PLGF expression with increasing doses of ADMA, and the levels of sFlt-1 increased. Moreover, we confirmed that tube formation in HUVECs was lower after ADMA treatment compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The accumulation of ADMA during pregnancy has an adverse effect on fetal development via interference with placental endothelial function and angiogenesis.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112072

RESUMO

We first described the 2019 novel coronavirus infection in 10 children occurring in areas other than Wuhan. The coronavirus diseases in children are usually mild and epidemiological exposure is a key clue to recognize pediatric case. Prolonged virus shedding is observed in respiratory tract and feces at the convalescent stage.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160366

RESUMO

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on CuII/I bipyridyl or phenanthroline complexes as redox shuttles have achieved very high open-circuit voltages (VOC , more than 1 V). However, their short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC ) has remained modest. Increasing the JSC is expected to extend the spectral response of sensitizers to the red or NIR region while maintaining efficient electron injection in the mesoscopic TiO2 film and fast regeneration by the CuI complex. Herein, we report two new D-A-π-A-featured sensitizers termed HY63 and HY64, which employ benzothiadiazole (BT) or phenanthrene-fused-quinoxaline (PFQ), respectively, as the auxiliary electron-withdrawing acceptor moiety. Despite their very similar energy levels and absorption onsets, HY64-based DSSCs outperform their HY63 counterparts, achieving a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.5 %. PFQ is superior to BT in reducing charge recombination resulting in the near-quantitative collection of photogenerated charge carriers.

7.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186849

RESUMO

Thermoacoustic (TA) effect has been discovered for more than 130 years. However, limited by the material characteristics, the performance of a TA sound source could not be compared with magnetoelectric and piezoelectric loudspeakers. Recently, graphene, a two-dimensional material with the lowest heat capacity per unit area, was discovered to have a good TA performance. Compared with a traditional sound source, graphene TA sound sources (GTASSs) have many advantages, such as small volume, no diaphragm vibration, wide frequency range, high transparency, good flexibility, and high sound pressure level (SPL). Therefore, graphene has a great potential as a next-generation sound source. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging can also be applied to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases using the photothermo-acoustic (PTA) effect. Therefore, in this review, we will introduce the history of TA devices. Then, the theory and simulation model of TA will be analyzed in detail. After that, we will talk about the graphene synthesis method. To improve the performance of GTASSs, many strategies such as lowering the thickness and using porous or suspended structures will be introduced. With a good PTA effect and large specific area, graphene PA imaging and drug delivery is a promising prospect in cancer treatment. Finally, the challenges and prospects of GTASSs will be discussed.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088950

RESUMO

With the purpose to achieve panchromatic absorption for constructing efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the cosensitization approach of using two dyes with complementary absorption has been developed with great success. However, this approach usually requires time-consuming optimization of a number of parameters for controlling the ratio and distribution of the two coadsorbed dyes on TiO2 film, which limits the potentials of this strategy. We herein report an alternative approach for developing efficient DSSCs by designing a class of "concerted companion dyes" with two complementary dye components linked covalently. Thus, a newly synthesized organic dye Z2 was linked to a recently reported doubly strapped porphyrin dye XW51 through flexible chains with various lengths to afford XW60-XW63. These dyes exhibit excellent absorption and efficiencies in the range of 8.8%-11.7%. Notably, upon coadsorption with chenodeoxycholic acid, XW61 affords an impressive efficiency of 12.4%, a record for iodine electrolyte-based DSSCs, to the best of our knowledge. In addition, these dyes also exhibit the advantages of easy cell fabrication, simple optimization, as well as excellent photostability.

9.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027117

RESUMO

Single-crystal (SC) perovskite is currently a promising material due to its high quantum efficiency and long diffusion length. However, the reported perovskite photodetection range (<800 nm) and response time (>10 µs) are still limited. Here, to promote the development of perovskite-integrated optoelectronic devices, this work demonstrates wider photodetection range and shorter response time perovskite photodetector by integrating the SC CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) perovskite on silicon (Si). The Si/MAPbBr3 heterojunction photodetector with an improved interface exhibits high-speed, broad-spectrum, and long-term stability performances. To the best of our knowledge, the measured detectable spectrum (405-1064 nm) largely expands the widest response range reported in previous perovskite-based photodetectors. In addition, the rise time is as fast as 520 ns, which is comparable to that of commercial germanium photodetectors. Moreover, the Si/MAPbBr3 device can maintain excellent photocurrent performance for up to 3 months. Furthermore, typical gray scale face imaging is realized by scanning the Si/MAPbBr3 single-pixel photodetector. This work using an ultrafast photodetector by directly integrating perovskite on Si can promote advances in next-generation integrated optoelectronic technology.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 793, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034152

RESUMO

Fluorescence-based technologies have revolutionized in vivo monitoring of biomolecules. However, significant technical hurdles in both probe chemistry and complex cellular environments have limited the accuracy of quantifying these biomolecules. Herein, we report a generalizable engineering strategy for dual-emission anti-Kasha-active fluorophores, which combine an integrated fluorescein with chromene (IFC) building block with donor-π-acceptor structural modification. These fluorophores exhibit an invariant near-infrared Kasha emission from the S1 state, while their anti-Kasha emission from the S2 state at around 520 nm can be finely regulated via a spirolactone open/closed switch. We introduce bio-recognition moieties to IFC structures, and demonstrate ratiometric quantification of cysteine and glutathione in living cells and animals, using the ratio (S2/S1) with the S1 emission as a reliable internal reference signal. This de novo strategy of tuning anti-Kasha-active properties expands the in vivo ratiometric quantification toolbox for highly accurate analysis in both basic life science research and clinical applications.

11.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042163

RESUMO

Extracellular potassium concentration affects the membrane potential of neurons, and, thus, neuronal activity. Indeed, alterations of potassium levels can be related to neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, and, therefore, selectively detecting extracellular potassium would allow the monitoring of disease. However, currently available optical reporters are not capable of detecting small changes in potassium, in particular, in freely moving animals. Furthermore, they are susceptible to interference from sodium ions. Here, we report a highly sensitive and specific potassium nanosensor that can monitor potassium changes in the brain of freely moving mice undergoing epileptic seizures. An optical potassium indicator is embedded in mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which are shielded by an ultrathin layer of a potassium-permeable membrane, which prevents diffusion of other cations and allows the specific capturing of potassium ions. The shielded nanosensor enables the spatial mapping of potassium ion release in the hippocampus of freely moving mice.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e1904415, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090416

RESUMO

Topologically protected magnetic states have a variety of potential applications in future spintronics owing to their nanoscale size (<100 nm) and unique dynamics. These fascinating states, however, usually are located at the interfaces or surfaces of ultrathin systems due to the short interaction range of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Here, magnetic topological states in a 40-unit cells (16 nm) SrRuO3 layer are successfully created via an interlayer exchange coupling mechanism and the interfacial DMI. By controlling the thickness of an antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layer, interfacial ionic polarization, as well as the transformation between ferromagnetic and magnetic topological states, can be modulated. Using micromagnetic simulations, the formation and stability of robust magnetic skyrmions in SrRuO3 /BiFeO3 heterostructures are elucidated. Magnetic skyrmions in thick multiferroic heterostructures are promising for the development of topological electronics as well as rendering a practical approach to extend the interfacial topological phenomena to bulk via antiferromagnetic order.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096593

RESUMO

Supramolecular polymers that can heal themselves automatically usually exhibit weakness in mechanical toughness and stretchability. Here we exploit a toughening strategy for a dynamic dry supramolecular network by introducing ionic cluster-enhanced iron-carboxylate complexes. The resulting dry supramolecular network simultaneous exhibits tough mechanical strength, high stretchability, self-healing ability, and processability at room temperature. The excellent performance of these distinct supramolecular polymers is attributed to the hierarchical existence of four types of dynamic combinations in the high-density dry network, including dynamic covalent disulfide bonds, noncovalent H-bonds, iron-carboxylate complexes and ionic clustering interactions. The extremely facile preparation method of this self-healing polymer offers prospects for high-performance low-cost material among others for coatings and wearable devices.

14.
Life Sci ; 245: 117351, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981629

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the specific therapeutic effect of zinc on spinal cord injury (SCI) and its specific protective mechanism. MAIN METHODS: The effects of zinc ions on neuronal cells were examined in a mouse SCI model and in vitro. In vivo, neurological function was assessed by Basso Mouse Scaleat (BMS) at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after spinal cord injury. The number of neurons and histomorphology were observed by nissl staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). The chromatin and mitochondrial structure of neurons were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related antioxidant protein and NLRP3 inflammation-related protein were detected in vivo and in vitro by western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence (IF), respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Zinc treatment promoted motor function recovery on days 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after SCI. In addition, zinc reduces the mitochondrial void rate in spinal neuronal cells and promotes neuronal recovery. At the same time, zinc reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in spinal cord tissue after SCI, while increasing superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase production. Zinc treatment resulted in up-regulation of Nrf2/Ho-1 levels and down-regulation of nlrp3 inflammation-associated protein expression in vitro and in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: Zinc has a protective effect on spinal cord injury by inhibiting oxidative damage and nlrp3 inflammation. Potential mechanisms may include activation of the Nrf 2/Ho-1 pathway to inhibit nlrp3 inflammation following spinal cord injury. Zinc has the potential to treat SCI.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Zinco/farmacologia
15.
J Org Chem ; 85(5): 3879-3886, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948228

RESUMO

A facile synthesis of nitrogen-containing six-membered benzofuzed phosphacycles has been described. This cyclization reaction triggered by Tf2O provides an expedient protocol of phosphacycles with a simple operation at mild conditions. The preliminary photophysical studies of these novel materials reveal that the fluorescence intensity enhances with the molecular aggregation in the solid state and that the introduction of the sterically bulky phenanthrene group into the phosphacycles allows a significant increase in the fluorescence quantum yield.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 158, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919416

RESUMO

Regulating the fluorescent properties of organic small molecules in a controlled and dynamic manner has been a fundamental research goal. Although several strategies have been exploited, realizing multi-color molecular emission from a single fluorophore remains challenging. Herein, we demonstrate an emissive system by combining pyrene fluorophore and acylhydrazone units, which can generate multi-color switchable fluorescent emissions at different assembled states. Two kinds of supramolecular tools, amphiphilic self-assembly and γ-cyclodextrin mediated host-guest recognition, are used to manipulate the intermolecular aromatic stacking distances, resulting in the tunable fluorescent emission ranging from blue to yellow, including a pure white-light emission. Moreover, an external chemical signal, amylase, is introduced to control the assembly states of the system on a time scale, generating a distinct dynamic emission system. The dynamic properties of this multi-color fluorescent system can be also enabled in a hydrogel network, exhibiting a promising potential for intelligent fluorescent materials.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 488, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980618

RESUMO

Metallic lithium anodes are highly promising for revolutionizing current rechargeable batteries because of their ultrahigh energy density. However, the application of lithium metal batteries is considerably impeded by lithium dendrite growth. Here, a biomacromolecule matrix obtained from the natural membrane of eggshell is introduced to control lithium growth and the mechanism is motivated by how living organisms regulate the orientation of inorganic crystals in biomineralization. Specifically, cryo-electron microscopy is utilized to probe the structure of lithium at the atomic level. The dendrites growing along the preferred < 111 > crystallographic orientation are greatly suppressed in the presence of the biomacromolecule. Furthermore, the naturally soluble chemical species in the biomacromolecules can participate in the formation of solid electrolyte interphase upon cycling, thus effectively homogenizing the lithium deposition. The lithium anodes employing bioinspired design exhibit enhanced cycling capability. This work sheds light on identifying substantial challenges in lithium anodes for developing advanced batteries.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(15): 2260-2263, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984387

RESUMO

Herein, we report a modular synthetic approach of (C-10 to C-13)-substituted 9,14-diaryl-9,14-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazine derivatives. This synthetic route enables the aromatic substitution in a predictable and programmed manner to obtain products in synthetically useful isolated yield.

19.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 33(4): 623-633, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Substituting starch with digestible fiber (dF) can improve digestive health of rabbits and reduce costs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a criterion for dF and starch supply. Effects of the dietary dF-to-starch ratio on pellet quality, growth and cecal microbiota of Angora rabbits were evaluated. METHODS: Five isoenergetic and isoproteic diets with increasing dF/starch ratios (0.59, 0.66, 0.71, 1.05, and 1.44) were formulated. A total of 120 Angora rabbits with an average live weight of 2.19 kg were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates. At the end of 40 day feeding trial, cecal digesta were collected to analyse microbiota. RESULTS: The results showed that the dF/starch ratio had linear effects on pellet variables (p<0.01). When the dF/starch ratio was 1.44, the pellets had the lowest powder and highest durability. The dF/starch ratio had unfavorable linear effects on growth variables (p<0.001). When analyzed by quadratic regression, the optimal dF/starch ratios for average weight gain and feed/gain were 0.59 and 0.74, respectively. There were differences in wool yield, fiber length and fiber diameter caused by the dF/starch ratio (p<0.05), and the dF/starch ratios that ranged from 0.66 to 1.06 were appropriate for good results. The cecal microbiota operational taxonomic unit (OTU) number index in the 1.05 dF/starch treatment was higher than that in the 0.66 and 0.71 dF/starch treatments. The higher dF/starch ratio resulted in a higher cecal microbiota OTU number index (p<0.05). The proportion of Ruminococcus in the 0.71 dF/starch treatment was higher than that in the 0.59 dF/starch treatment (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The most suitable dF/starch ratio for feed pellet quality is 1.44, and for rabbit growth the optimal range of ratios is from 0.59 to 0.74. With combination of the wool growth, output cost, and cecal microbiota, we suggest that a dietary dF/starch ratio ranging from 0.74 to 1.06 is optimal.

20.
J Invest Surg ; 33(2): 134-140, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29883213

RESUMO

ABSTRACTPurpose: To measure the projection of the most anterior line of the spinal canal on lateral radiographs of the vertebra (C3-L5) and evaluate the efficacy of the safety line (SL) in preventing intraspinal cement leakage in percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) and percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Materials and Methods: Fifteen adult dry-bone spine specimens were analyzed. The projection of the SL was viewed on lateral radiographs. The distance between the SL and the posterior vertebral body line (PVBL) was measured. Two groups of patients were treated by PKP, and cement injection was stopped either before the PBVL (group 1) or before the SL (group 2) under lateral fluoroscopy. The rate of cement leakage was compared between the two groups. Results: The largest distance between the SL and PVBL was at L1 (5.22 ± 0.62 mm). From L1 to L5, the distance decreased progressively to 1.05 ± 0.64 mm. Similar variation was also observed from L1 to T1 (0.19 ± 0.18 mm). The postoperative computed tomography scan was more sensitive and accurate in detecting intraspinal leakage than radiography in group 1 (p = 0.000); however, there was no significant difference in sensitivity or accuracy between methods in group 2 (p = 0.063). The rate of intraspinal cement leakage was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2 (p = 0.000). Conclusions: The operator should frequently check to ensure that cement injection has stopped upon reaching the SL. Surgeons may benefit from this quantitative anatomical study of PKP and PVP.

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