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1.
Food Chem ; 316: 126303, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045813

RESUMO

As the accumulation of mercury ions has a detrimental impact on human health, the design and development of a new type of biosensor that can rapidly, sensitively and selectively detect Hg2+ in aqueous solutions are essential. In this study, we have developed an exonuclease III (ExoIII) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dependent isothermal amplification (ETDA) colorimetric biosensor. The template sequence is a hairpin where -NH2 is labeled at the 3'-end and both termini are T-rich sequences. In the presence of Hg2+, the template formed a blunt end, and the catalytic activity of ExoIII was activated with cleavage of the -NH2 at the 3'-end. TdT enzyme activity was initiated with the formation of a large number of G-rich nucleic acid sequences. G-rich sequences incubated with iron (III)-hemin mimicked peroxidase-like activity, catalyzing the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. The biosensor constructed in this paper had a good linear range, 1-25 nmol/L. Its detection limit was 0.41 nmol/L (3σ), and recovery rates were between 100.5% and 103%. In conclusion, combined with the colorimetric biosensor and double enzyme cyclic amplification reaction, an ultra-sensitivity and strong specificity detection method was developed to detect Hg2+. At the same time, this method also expands the detection method of Hg2+ available in the literature.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(4): 620-632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025210

RESUMO

Since extracellular vesicles (EVs) were discovered in 1983 in sheep reticulocytes samples, they have gradually attracted scientific attention and become a topic of great interest in the life sciences field. EVs are small membrane particles, released by virtually every cell that carries a variety of functional molecules. Their main function is to deliver messages to the surrounding area in both physiological and pathological conditions. Initially, they were thought to be either cell debris, signs of cell death, or unspecific structures. However, accumulating evidence support a theory that EVs are a universal mechanism of communication. Thanks to their biological characteristics and functions, EVs are likely to represent a promising strategy for obtaining pathogen information, identifying therapeutic targets and selecting specific biomarkers for a variety of diseases, such as autoimmune diseases. In this review, we provide a brief overview of recent progress in the study of the biology and functions of EVs. We also discuss their roles in diagnosis and therapy, with particular emphasis on autoimmune diseases.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012255

RESUMO

A subset of patients with initially unresected (Clinical Group III) rhabdomyosarcoma achieve less than a complete response (CR) despite multimodal therapy. We assessed outcome based upon tumor response at the completion of all planned therapy. We studied 601 Clinical Group III participants who completed all protocol therapy without developing progressive disease on two Children's Oncology Group studies ARST0531 (n = 285) and D9803 (n = 316). Response was defined by imaging and categorized by response; complete resolution (CR), partial response (PR) or no response (NR). Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) between response groups were compared using the log-rank test. We found that radiographic response was CR in 393 (65.4%) and PR/NR in 208 (34.6%) patients. Achieving CR status was associated with study D9803, nonparameningeal (PM) primary sites, tumors ≤5 cm, noninvasive tumors and alveolar histology/FOXO fusion-positive tumors. The overall 5-year FFS was 75% for those achieving CR and 66.5% in those with PR/NR (adj. p = 0.094). Patients with PM primary site who achieved CR had significantly improved FFS (adj. p = 0.037) while those with non-PM primary sites had similar outcomes (adj. p = 0.47). Radiographic response was not associated with OS (adj. p = 0.21). Resection of the end-of-therapy mass did not improve FFS (p = 0.12) or OS (p = 0.37). In conclusion, CR status at the end of protocol therapy in patients with PM Clinical Group III RMS was associated with improved FFS but not OS. Efforts to understand the biology and treatment response in patients with PM primary site are under investigation.

4.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043801

RESUMO

The mechanisms of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on gold surfaces are revisited in electrolytes at different pH values by the combination of electrochemical and in-situ Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering measurements. Surprisingly, the in-situ Raman signal of O-O stretching vibration has been detected during ORR process on Au surface unusually by using a 785 nm laser. Both the intermediate products of O 2 - and H 2 O 2 could be detected, indicating that the difficulty of further reduction H 2 O 2 , thus resulting in a lower electron transfer number, especially in neutral and acid electrolytes. The weak absorption ability of HO 2 on Au surface may explain the poor catalytic performances of ORR in neutral and acid electrolytes. This work could not only provide a deep insight to understand the reduction mechanisms of O 2 on Au in electrolytes at different pH values, but also supply a new idea for the selection and optimization of the electrolytes and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114084, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041033

RESUMO

Northern China is a significant source of dust source in Central Asia. Thus, high-resolution analysis of dust storms and comparison of dust sources in different regions of northern China are important to clarify the formation mechanism of East Asian dust storms and predict or even prevent such storms. Here, we analyzed spatiotemporal trends in dust storms that occurred in three main dust source regions during 1960-2007: Taklimakan Desert (western region [WR]), Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts (middle region [MR]), and Otindag Sandy Land (eastern region [ER]). We analyzed daily dust storm frequency (DSF) at the 10-day scale (first [FTDM], middle [MTDM], and last [LTDM] 10 days of a month), and investigated the association of dust storm occurrences with meteorological factors. The 10-day DSF was greatest in the FTDM (accounting for 77.14% of monthly occurrences) in the WR, MTDM (45.85%) in the MR, and LTDM (72.12%) in the ER, showing a clear trend of movement from the WR to the ER. Temporal analysis of DSF revealed trend changes over time at annual and 10-day scales, with mutation points at 1985 and 2000. We applied single-factor and multiple-factor analyses to explore the driving mechanisms of DSF at the 10-day scale. Among single factors, a low wind-speed threshold, high solar radiation, and high evaporation were correlated with a high DSF, effectively explaining the variations in DSF at the 10-day scale; however, temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation poorly explained variations in DSF. Similarly, multiple-factor analysis using a classification and regression tree revealed that maximum wind speed was a major influencing factor of dust storm occurrence at the 10-day scale, followed by relative humidity, evaporation, and solar radiation; temperature and precipitation had weak influences. These findings help clarify the mechanisms of dust storm occurrence in East Asia.

6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952461

RESUMO

Purpose: Uncorrected refractive error (URE) is the leading cause of impaired vision in older adults and has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Here, we investigate the association between URE and frailty in older adults.Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants ≥60 years (1999-2006 cycles). URE was defined as visual acuity worse than 6/12 that can be improved with correction, and prefrailty and frailty were defined as meeting 1-2 and ≥3 of 4 components of a modified physical frailty phenotype. The 5-item phenotype (including slowness) was analyzed in a subset of participants with available data. Propensity score adjustment was used to address the imbalance of potential confounders (including age) between URE groups.Results: In this sample (n = 5,265), 6% of participants had URE (n = 373). In fully adjusted propensity score-based models, individuals with URE were more likely to be prefrail (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0-2.0) and frail (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.3-7.4) than those without URE using the 4-item phenotype. For the 2,486 participants with 5-item phenotype data, individuals with URE were more likely to be frail (OR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.2-7.5); however, the association with prefrailty was not statistically significant (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9-3.6).Conclusion: In this population-based sample, older adults with URE were more likely to be frail than those without URE, even after rigorous control for confounders, including age.

7.
J Proteomics ; 215: 103653, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958640

RESUMO

Selenoprotein F (Selenof) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein. It may be functionally linked to glycoprotein folding in the ER but the detail function is not fully understood. To study the function of Selenof, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate Selenof knockout mice and performed proteomic analysis of hepatic proteins by iTRAQ. Collectively, 83 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in the liver of Selenof knockout mice. The changes of mRNA and protein levels of 6 selected DEPs, Fatty acid synthase, ATP-citrate synthase, Glutathione S-transferase P 1, Transformer-2 protein homolog beta, Pyruvate kinase, Metallothionein-2, were further verified by quantitative real-time PCR or Western blot. The roles of 83 DEPs are mainly related to metabolism and cancer. Consistently, the levels of NADPH and ATP, two molecules closely related to energy metabolism, are significantly changed in the livers of Selenof knockout mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified potential biological pathways and proteins related to Selenof deletion. These findings will provide possible proteins/pathways related to Selenof and help to understand the function of Selenof as well as the relationship between Selenof and certain diseases.

8.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report the indications, visual outcomes, and intra-operative and post-operative complications of iris-sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with inadequate capsular support and complex ocular history. METHODS: A chart review and data analysis of eyes that underwent iris fixation of posterior chamber (PC) IOL for correction of aphakia, dislocated and subluxed IOLs, ectopia lentis, and IOL exchange. Data included clinical risk factors, associated eye conditions, previous surgeries, and concomitant procedures. The pre-operative and post-operative vision, manifest refraction, endothelial cell density, intraocular pressure (IOP), as well as intra-operative and post-operative complications were also recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen eyes from 114 patients were examined with a mean follow-up of 22.4 months. The most common identifiable predisposing risk factor was high myopia in 23 eyes. A significant improvement in uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity compared with baseline was observed. The most common post-operative complications included recurrent IOL subluxation in 16 (13.7%) eyes, IOP spike in 7 (5.9%) eyes, cystoid macular oedema in 5 (4.3%) eyes, and epiretinal membrane formation in 4 (3.4%) eyes. There was one (0.85%) case of sterile endophthalmitis. CONCLUSIONS: Iris suture fixation of PC IOLs is a good treatment option for eyes with inadequate capsular support and complex ocular history.

9.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125334, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995864

RESUMO

Developing novel heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalysts with high efficiency and stability, driven by visible-light rather ultraviolet light at neutral pH has been a major challenge for degradation of organic pollutants. In this work, we successfully synthesized a metalloporphyrin-based porous organic polymer (FePPOP-1) by the Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. UV-vis absorption spectra showed FePPOP-1 exhibits a significant coverage of the natural solar irradiance spectrum. As a result, the prepared FePPOP-1 has a significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity for the visible-light-driven degradation of methylene blue. By using only 4 mg of FePPOP-1 as a catalyst, it was found that 50 mL of organic wastewater containing 70 ppm MB could be totally degraded in 80 min even at neutral pH. The effects of the initial MB, H2O2 concentrations, pH value and common ions on MB degradation were studied in detail. Both the catalytic mechanism of FePPOP-1 and the degradation route of MB were also proposed.

10.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932859

RESUMO

Microvascular complications are prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. However, it is unclear whether above-knee artery calcification relates to microvascular complications. This study was aimed to investigate the role of calcification in superficial femoral arteries (SFA), the major above-knee artery, compared with anterior tibial arteries (ATA) and posterior tibial arteries (PTA), in T2DM-related microvascular complications and explore its risk factors. A single-center and observational study involving 359 T2DM patients was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. SFA calcification was evaluated by ultrasonography. Compared with ATA and PTA calcification, operating characteristics curve analysis showed that SFA calcification was the strongest predictor (63.1% sensitivity and 69.2% specificity) for T2DM-related microvascular complications (diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy). With the severity of SFA calcification increased, age, duration of T2DM, and SBP were significantly elevated, but triglyceride and glucose index and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly reduced (all P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that eGFR (OR 0.953; 95% CI 0.931-0.976; P < 0.001) was an independent risk factor of SFA calcification, especially in young patients with HbA1c > 7.0. We identified SFA calcification as a good predictor of microvascular complications in T2DM patients. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with increased SFA calcification prevalence, especially in young T2DM patients with bad controlled hyperglycemia.

11.
Rejuvenation Res ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985332

RESUMO

The inherited polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion diseases are characterized by progressive accumulation of aggregation-prone polyQ proteins, which may provoke proteostasis imbalance and result in significant neurotoxicity. Using polyQ transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans models, we find that Kai-Xin-San (KXS), a well-known herbal formula traditionally used to treat mental disorders in China, can alleviate polyQ-mediated neuronal death and associated chemosensory deficiency. Intriguingly, KXS does not reduce polyQ aggregation in vitro as demonstrated by Thioflavin-T test, but does inhibit polyQ aggregation in C. elegans models, indicating an indirect aggregation-inhibitory mechanism. Further investigation reveals that KXS can modulate two key arms of the protein quality control system, that is, heat shock response and autophagy, to clear polyQ aggregates, but has little effect on proteasome activity. In addition, KXS is able to reduce oxidative stress, which is involved in proteostasis and neurodegeneration, but has no effect on life span or dietary restriction response. To examine potential interaction of the four component herbs of KXS, a dissection strategy was used to study the effects of differential herbal combinations in C. elegans polyQ models. While the four herbs do contribute additively to KXS function, Panax ginseng is found to be the most effective constituent. Taken together, these findings not only demonstrate the neuroprotective ability of KXS but also suggest its potential as a proteostasis regulator in protein aggregation disorders and provide an insight into the mechanism studies of traditionally used complex prescriptions and their rationality.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1780-1783, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938791

RESUMO

Herein, we disclose the first set of unique selenium-containing SnAP reagents for the direct synthesis of C-substituted selenomorpholines and 1,4-selenazepanes, including their amino acid derivatives from commercially available aldehydes under mild conditions. These elusive N-unprotected heterocycles are not accessible by classical routes. Biological evaluation of these compounds revealed promising activities against clinically relevant fungal strains.

13.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(2): 387-393, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the discordance in frailty classification between the frailty index (FI) and the physical frailty phenotype (PFP) and identify factors discriminating those with discordant frailty classification from each other and from those for whom the assessments agree. METHODS: A prospective observational study of older adults aged 65 and older selected from Medicare eligibility lists in four U.S. communities (n = 5,362). The PFP was measured by the Cardiovascular Health Study PFP. Participants meeting three or more of the five criteria were deemed frail. The FI was calculated as the proportion of deficits in an a priori selected set of 48 measures, and participants were classified as frail if FI is greater than 0.35. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty was 7.0% by the PFP and 8.3% by the FI. Of the 730 deemed frail by either instrument, only 12% were in agreement, whereas 39% were classified as frail by the PFP, but not the FI, and 48% were classified as frail by the FI, but not the PFP. Participants aged 65-72 years or with greater disease burden were most likely to be characterized as being FI-frail, but not PFP-frail. The associations of frailty with age and mortality were stronger when frailty was measured by the PFP rather than the FI. CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable frailty prevalence between the PFP and the FI, there was substantial discordance in individual-level classification, with highest agreement existing only in the most vulnerable subset. These findings suggest that there are clinically important contexts in which the PFP and the FI cannot be used interchangeably.

14.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(1): 145-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour grade, tumour size, resection potential, and extent of disease affect outcome in paediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft-tissue sarcoma (NRSTS), but no risk stratification systems exist and the standard of care is poorly defined. We developed a risk stratification system from known prognostic factors and assessed it in the context of risk-adapted therapy for young patients with NRSTS. METHODS: In this prospective study, eligible patients enrolled in 159 hospitals in three countries were younger than 30 years, had a Lansky (patients ≤16 years) or Karnofsky (patients >16 years) performance status score of at least 50, and a new diagnosis of a WHO (2002 criteria) intermediate (rarely metastasising) or malignant soft-tissue tumour (apart from tumour types eligible for other Children's Oncology Group studies and tumours for which the therapy in this trial was deemed inappropriate), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, non-metastatic and grossly resected dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, or unclassified malignant soft-tissue sarcoma. Each patient was assigned to one of three risk groups and one of four treatment groups. Risk groups were: low (non-metastatic R0 or R1 low-grade, or ≤5 cm R1 high-grade tumour); intermediate (non-metastatic R0 or R1 >5 cm high-grade, or unresected tumour of any size or grade); or high (metastatic tumour). The treatment groups were surgery alone, radiotherapy (55·8 Gy), chemoradiotherapy (chemotherapy and 55·8 Gy radiotherapy), and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (chemotherapy and 45 Gy radiotherapy, then surgery and radiotherapy boost based on margins with continued chemotherapy). Chemotherapy included six cycles of ifosfamide 3 g/m2 per dose intravenously on days 1-3 and five cycles of doxorubicin 37·5 mg/m2 per dose intravenously on days 1-2 every 3 weeks with sequence adjusted on the basis of timing of surgery or radiotherapy. The primary outcomes were event-free survival, overall survival, and the pattern of treatment failure. Analysis was done per protocol. This study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00346164. FINDINGS: Between Feb 5, 2007, and Feb 10, 2012, 550 eligible patients were enrolled, of whom 21 were treated in the incorrect group and excluded from this analysis. 529 evaluable patients were included in the analysis: low-risk (n=222), intermediate-risk (n=227), high-risk (n=80); surgery alone (n=205), radiotherapy (n=17), chemoradiotherapy (n=111), and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (n=196). At a median follow-up of 6·5 years (IQR 4·9-7·9), 5-year event-free survival and overall survival were: 88·9% (95% CI 84·0-93·8) and 96·2% (93·2-99·2) in the low-risk group; 65·0% (58·2-71·8) and 79·2% (73·4-85·0) in the intermediate-risk group; and 21·2% (11·4-31·1) and 35·5% (23·6-47·4) in the high-risk group, respectively. Risk group predicted event-free survival and overall survival (p<0·0001). No deaths from toxic events during treatment were reported. Nine patients had unexpected grade 4 adverse events (chemoradiotherapy group, n=2; neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group, n=7), including three wound complications that required surgery (all in the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group). INTERPRETATION: Pre-treatment clinical features can be used to effectively define treatment failure risk and to stratify young patients with NRSTS for risk-adapted therapy. Most low-risk patients can be cured without adjuvant therapy, thereby avoiding known long-term treatment complications. Survival remains suboptimal for intermediate-risk and high-risk patients and novel therapies are needed. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, Seattle Children's Foundation, American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

15.
Vaccine ; 38(5): 1258-1270, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761502

RESUMO

Globally, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory infection in infants and young children. There are no licensed vaccines despite the high worldwide disease burden. RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein vaccine is the most advanced candidate for maternal immunization. In this report, a baboon maternal immunization model was used to assess the immunogenicity and protection of infants against pulmonary challenge with human RSV/A. Vaccination in the third trimester produced high anti-RSV F IgG titers and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Infants born to immunized females had high levels of serum RSV antibodies that were comparable to maternal levels at birth and persisted for over 50 days with a half-life of 14-24 days. Furthermore, infants from immunized females and challenged with RSV/A were healthy, developed less severe disease, and had only mild pulmonary inflammatory changes whereas infants born to non-vaccinated females developed more severe disease with marked to moderate interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and bronchiolar obstruction. These results support the further development of the RSV F vaccine for maternal immunization.

16.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 992-1005, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808502

RESUMO

Natural compounds are a rich source of effective candidate drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the major water-soluble ingredient isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra, is reported to show anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. However, its effect on CNS demyelinating disease is unclear. In this study, we showed that GA ameliorated the clinical disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially at the chronic stage of clinical EAE. Histological evaluation demonstrated that, in the prophylactic treatment regimen, GA significantly inhibited inflammatory demyelination in the CNS. During the chronic stage when myelin and axon damage has already occurred, GA induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes, thus effectively accelerating remyelination. Evidence from the cuprizone-induced mouse model of de- and remyelination, ex vivo organotypic slice cultures, and in vitro OPC maturation experiments indicated that the observed efficacy of this compound resulted directly from enhanced remyelination rather than immune suppression. Furthermore, we found that GA promoted oligodendrocyte maturation through modulating GSK-3ß signaling pathways. Our data led to the conclusion that GA could be used as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of demyelinating diseases such as MS, which remains refractory to available treatments.

17.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(2): 451-458, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether optical quality could be improved by cylindrical correction for low astigmatic eyes with different amounts and axis orientations in patients with myopia up to - 3.00 diopters (D). METHODS: A cross-sectional study enrolling healthy young eyes with 0 to - 3.00 D myopia and - 0.50 to - 0.75 D myopic astigmatism was implemented. With a repeated-measures design, outcome measures were sequentially obtained for each subject under two correction modalities: spherocylindrical correction and spherical correction. Subjective refraction was used to determine the refractive prescriptions accordingly in the two correction modalities to obtain optimal subject-reported visual acuity. Primary outcomes were optical quality parameters including objective scatter index (OSI), modulation transfer function (MTF) cut-off, Strehl ratio (SR), and a simulated contrast visual acuity-optical quality analysis system (OQAS) values (OV) obtained by a double-pass system. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was measured as a secondary outcome. Outcome comparisons between the two correction modalities were performed by grouping in different amounts (- 0.50 D, - 0.75 D) and axes (with the rule, WTR; against the rule, ATR; oblique, OBL) of astigmatism. RESULTS: A total of 194 eyes of 194 subjects were evaluated. Significantly better CDVA were shown by spherocylindrical correction for all types of astigmatism except for - 0.50 D WTR astigmatism (P = 0.831). For eyes with - 0.50 D WTR astigmatism, better outcome was only shown in OSI with spherocylindrical correction (P = 0.019). For eyes with - 0.50 D ATR and OBL astigmatism, spherocylindrical correction demonstrated better outcomes in all parameters except for SR (P > 0.05). For eyes with - 0.75 D astigmatism, significantly better outcomes in all optical quality parameters were shown with spherocylindrical correction regardless of the axis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with ATR or OBL myopic astigmatism may benefit in optical quality and visual acuity by combining a cylindrical correction even with a low amount down to - 0.50 D. However, optical quality and visual acuity improvement are limited for WTR astigmatic eyes when the amount of astigmatism is less than - 0.75 D.

18.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(1): 618-631, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724308

RESUMO

Proliferation and metastasis are significantly malignant characteristics of human lung cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Chromobox 4 (CBX4), a member of the Polycomb group (PcG) family of epigenetic regulatory factors, enhances cellular proliferation and promotes cancer cell migration. However, the effect of CBX4 in the progression of lung cancer is not fully understood. We found that CBX4 is highly expressed in lung tumours compared with adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of CBX4 significantly promotes cell proliferation and migration in human lung cancer cell lines. The knockdown of CBX4 obviously suppresses the cell growth and migration of human lung cancer cells in vitro. Also, the proliferation and metastasis in vivo are blocked by CBX4 knockdown. Furthermore, CBX4 knockdown effectively arrests cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase through suppressing the expression of CDK2 and Cyclin E and decreases the formation of filopodia through suppressing MMP2, MMP9 and CXCR4. Additionally, CBX4 promotes proliferation and metastasis via regulating the expression of BMI-1 which is a significant regulator of proliferation and migration in lung cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CBX4 is not only a novel prognostic marker but also may be a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.

19.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125154, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675575

RESUMO

The soils in mining lands with cadmium (Cd) contamination usually are deficient in nutrients. Disclosing how P nutrition and N:P stoichiometric ratio influences Cd accumulation and stress tolerance in stems of Populus spp. will facilitate the phytoremediation of mining sites polluted by Cd. In this study, investigations at the anatomical and physiological levels were conducted using a clone of Populus × euramericana. Both phosphorus deficiency and cadmium exposure inhibited xylem development via reducing cell layers in the xylem. Under P-sufficient condition, appropriate P status and balanced N:P ratio in stem promoted xylem development under Cd exposure via stimulating cell division, which enhanced Cd accumulation in stems. Cd accumulation in cell walls of collenchyma tissues of the stem was enhanced by P application due to increased polysaccharide production and cell wall affinity for Cd. The low P concentrations (0.3-0.4 mg g-1) and imbalanced N:P ratio under P deficiency inhibited the production of APX and ascorbate-GSH cycle, which increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation as indicated by high MDA concentration in stem. Under P-sufficient condition, the interactions between phytohormones and antioxidants play crucial roles in the process of antioxidant defense under Cd exposure. In conclusions, appropriate P addition and balanced N:P ratio enhanced secondary xylem development and promoted cadmium accumulation and stress tolerance in Populus stems, which can benefit the phytoextraction of Cd from Cd-contaminated soil.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 78: 106032, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835089

RESUMO

MENK, as an immune adjuvant, has potential immune-regulatory activity on innate and adaptive immune cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the antiviral effect of MENK on influenza virus-infected murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that MENK markedly inhibited influenza A virus (H1N1) replication in pre- and post-MENK treatment, especially in pre-MENK treatment. The mechanisms exploration revealed that MENK (10 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza virus and up-regulated levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-ß compared with those in H1N1 control group. Further experiments confirmed that antiviral effects of MENK was associated with promotion of opioid receptor (MOR) as well as activation of NF-κB p65 inducing cellular antiviral status. The data suggest that MENK should be potential candidate for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment against H1N1 influenza virus.

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