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1.
Bioact Mater ; 7: 154-166, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466724

RESUMO

Zinc is generally considered to be one of the most promising materials to be used in biodegradable implants, and many zinc alloys have been optimized to improve implant biocompatibility, degradation, and mechanical properties. However, long-term degradation leads to the prolonged presence of degradation products, which risks foreign body reactions. Herein, we investigated the in vivo biocompatibility and degradation of a biodegradable Zn-Mg-Fe alloy osteosynthesis system in the frontal bone, mandible, and femur in beagles for 1 year. Results of the routine blood, biochemical, trace element, and histological analyses of multiple organs, peripheral blood CD4/CD8a levels, and serum interleukin 2 and 4 levels showed good biocompatibility of the Zn-Mg-Fe alloy. Zinc content analysis revealed zinc accumulation in adjacent bone tissue, but not in the liver, kidney, and spleen, which was related to the degradation of the Zn-Mg-Fe alloy. The alloy demonstrated a uniform slowing degradation rate in vivo. No degradation differences in the frontal bone, mandible, and femur were observed. The degradation products included zinc oxide [ZnO], zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2], hydrozincite [Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2], and hopeite [Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O]. The good biocompatibility and degradation properties of the Zn-Mg-Fe alloy render it a very attractive osteosynthesis system for clinical applications.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150131, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788940

RESUMO

Microbial communities from rhizosphere (rhizomicrobiomes) have been significantly impacted by domestication as evidenced by a comparison of the rhizomicrobiomes of wild and related cultivated rice accessions. While there have been many published studies focusing on the structure of the rhizomicrobiome, studies comparing the functional traits of the microbial communities in the rhizospheres of wild rice and cultivated rice accessions are not yet available. In this study, we used metagenomic data from experimental rice plots to analyze the potential functional traits of the microbial communities in the rhizospheres of wild rice accessions originated from Africa and Asia in comparison with their related cultivated rice accessions. The functional potential of rhizosphere microbial communities involved in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, methane metabolism, carbon fixation pathways, citrate cycle (TCA cycle), pyruvate metabolism and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathways were found to be enriched in the rhizomicrobiomes of wild rice accessions. Notably, methane metabolism in the rhizomicrobiomes of wild and cultivated rice accessions clearly differed. Key enzymes involved in methane production and utilization were overrepresented in the rhizomicrobiome samples obtained from wild rice accessions, suggesting that the rhizomicrobiomes of wild rice maintain a different ecological balance for methane production and utilization compared with those of the related cultivated rice accessions. A novel assessment of the impact of rice domestication on the primary metabolic pathways associated with microbial taxa in the rhizomicrobiomes was performed. Results indicated a strong impact of rice domestication on methane metabolism; a process that represents a critical function of the rhizosphere microbial community of rice. The findings of this study provide important information for future breeding of rice varieties with reduced methane emission during cultivation for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Oryza , Domesticação , Metano , Oryza/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rizosfera
3.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774537

RESUMO

Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is characterized by a background of chronic inflammation, where malignant CTCL cells escape immune surveillance. To study how miRNAs (miRs) regulate T cell exhaustion, we performed miRseq analysis, qRT-PCR, and in situ hybridization on 45 primary CTCL samples, 3 healthy skin samples, and CTCL cell lines, identifying miR-155-5p, -130b-3p and -21-3p. Moreover, miR-155-5p, -130b-3p, and -21-3p positively correlated with immune checkpoint gene expression in lesional skin samples and were enriched in the IL6/JAK/STAT signaling pathway by gene set enrichment analysis. Further gene sequencing analysis demonstrated decreased mRNA expression of the major negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling, SOCS, PIAS and PTPN. Transfection of MyLa and HuT78 cells with anti-miR-155-5p, -21-3p, and -130b revealed a considerable increase in SOCS proteins along with a significant decrease in the levels of activated STAT3 and IC surface protein expression, as well as decreased cell proliferation. Downregulation of miR-155, -130 and -21 in CTCL cell lines decreased CTCL cell growth and facilitated CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxic activity, with concordant production of IFNγ and CD107a expression. Our results describe the mechanisms of miR-induced T cell exhaustion, which provide a foundation for developing synthetic anti-miRs to therapeutically target the tumor microenvironment in CTCL.

4.
Ophthalmol Ther ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822140

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common eye condition that causes excessive evaporation of tears by changing the tear film composition. Current treatments often fail to produce satisfactory results, which is mostly due to poor patient adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the MiBoFlo Thermoflo® on both subjective symptoms and objective signs in Chinese patients with MGD. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial included 108 eyes of 54 patients with MGD who were recruited in Beijing Tongren Hospital and randomized 1:1 to MiBoFlo (n = 54 eyes) or LipiFlow® (n = 54 eyes) treatment group. In the MiBoFlo group, patients received three 10-min treatments, each spaced 2 weeks apart, and the treatment was followed by eyelid compression each time. Patients in the LipiFlow group received a single 12-min treatment. The primary parameters measured included changes in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, Meibomian Glands Yielding Liquid Secretion (MGYLS) score, and Meibomian Glands Secretion (MGS) score from baseline to 2 months. The secondary parameters included tear meniscus height (TMH), non-invasive keratograph break-up time (NIKBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), and meibomian glands (MG) loss from baseline to 2 months. Safety parameters include visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior segment, and facial skin. RESULTS: The OSDI, MGYLS, and MGS scores all improved from baseline to 1 month in both MiBoFlo and LipiFlow groups, and these improvements were maintained at 2 months. CFS score, NIKBUT, and MG loss showed no significant change in both groups. CONCLUSION: As a portable and comfortable device, MiBoFlo can improve the treatment of MGD and achieve a sustained improvement in both symptoms and meibomian gland function lasting at least 2 months.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813706

RESUMO

Most plant fungal pathogens that cause worldwide crop losses are understudied due to various technical challenges. With the increasing availability of sequenced whole genomes of these non-model fungi, effective genetic analysis methods are highly desirable. Here we describe a newly developed pipeline, which combines forward genetic screening with high-throughput next-generation sequencing to enable quick gene discovery. We applied this pipeline in the notorious soilborne phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and identified 32 mutants with various developmental and growth deficiencies. Detailed molecular studies of three melanisation-deficient mutants provide a proof of concept for the effectiveness of our method. A master transcription factor was found to regulate melanisation of sclerotia through the DHN (1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene) melanin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, these mutants revealed that sclerotial melanisation is important for sclerotia survival under abiotic stresses, sclerotial surface structure, and sexual reproduction. Foreseeably, this pipeline can be applied to facilitate efficient in-depth studies of other non-model fungal species in the future.

7.
Opt Express ; 29(22): 35078-35118, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808951

RESUMO

This Roadmap article on digital holography provides an overview of a vast array of research activities in the field of digital holography. The paper consists of a series of 25 sections from the prominent experts in digital holography presenting various aspects of the field on sensing, 3D imaging and displays, virtual and augmented reality, microscopy, cell identification, tomography, label-free live cell imaging, and other applications. Each section represents the vision of its author to describe the significant progress, potential impact, important developments, and challenging issues in the field of digital holography.

8.
Eye Vis (Lond) ; 8(1): 44, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the dynamic corneal response (DCR) and tomographic parameters of thin normal cornea (TNC) with thinnest corneal thickness (TCT) (≤ 500 µm), forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC) and mild keratoconus (MKC) had their central corneal thickness (CCT) matched by Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam) and corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (Corvis ST). METHODS: CCT were matched in 50 eyes with FFKC, 50 eyes with MKC, and 53 TNC eyes with TCT ≤ 500 µm. The differences in DCR and tomographic parameters among the three groups were compared. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic significance of these parameters. Back propagation (BP) neural network was used to establish the keratoconus diagnosis model. RESULTS: Fifty CCT-matched FFKC eyes, 50 MKC eyes and 50 TNC eyes were included. The age and biomechanically corrected intraocular pressure (bIOP) did not differ significantly among the three groups (all P > 0.05). The index of height asymmetry (IHA) and height decentration (IHD) differed significantly among the three groups (all P < 0.05). IHD also had sufficient strength (area under the ROC curves (AUC) > 0.80) to differentiate FFKC and MKC from TNC eyes. Partial DCR parameters showed significant differences between the MKC and TNC groups, and the deflection amplitude of the first applanation (A1DA) showed a good potential to differentiate (AUC > 0.70) FFKC and MKC from TNC eyes. Diagnosis model by BP neural network showed an accurate diagnostic efficiency of about 91%. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the tomographic and DCR parameters differed among the three groups. The IHD and partial DCR parameters assessed by Corvis ST distinguished FFKC and MKC from TNC when controlled for CCT.

9.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 8087-8095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795515

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies reported the utility of serum tumor markers (such as CEA, CA12-5 and CA19-9) and gastrin-17 in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). However, the value of these serum markers for diagnosing GC is still under debate. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of gastrin-17, CEA, CA12-5 and CA19-9 in the diagnosis of GC. Methods: The level of CEA, CA12-5, CA19-9 and gastrin-17 was tested in 230 GC patients and 99 healthy people. The value of the four markers for diagnosing GC was analyzed. Results: The positive rate of Gastrin-17, CEA, CA19-9 and CA12-5 was much higher in GC group (22.61%, 22.61%, 20.00% and 8.26%, respectively) than that of healthy control group (5.05%, 2.02%, 1.01% and 2.02%, respectively). The sensitivity of Gastrin-17, CEA, CA12-5 and CA19-9 in the diagnosis of GC was 22.61%, 22.61%, 6.96% and 20.00%, respectively, and the corresponding specificity was 94.95%, 97.98%, 98.99% and 98.99%, respectively. By using the optimal cut-off value derived from the area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic curve, the AUC of gastrin-17, CEA, CA12-5, CA19-9 increased to 0.72, 0.64, 0.61 and 0.65, respectively. After combining the four markers, the AUC increased to 0.79 (95% CI: 0.75-0.84), and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 65.22% (95% CI: 58.70-71.40%) and 84.85% (95% CI: 76.20-91.30%), respectively, which were significantly higher than those of separate markers (P < 0.05). Conclusion: CEA, CA12-5, CA19-9 and gastrin-17 were all valuable in the diagnosis of GC, and gastrin-17 had the best diagnostic value among the four markers. Gastrin-17 combined with CEA, CA12-5 and CA19-9 could improve the diagnostic value of GC significantly. Prospective, multi-center studies are needed to validate our findings.

10.
Hum Immunol ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785098

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.

11.
Chemosphere ; : 132817, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752837

RESUMO

Indirect electrochemical oxidation by hydroxyl radicals is the predominant degradation mechanism in electrolysis with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. However, this electrochemical method exhibits low reactivity in removal of hydrophilic aromatic pollutants owing to mass transfer limitation. In this study, the combination of ultraviolet light and BDD electrolysis could increase the degradation rate of hydrophilic aromatic pollutants by approximately 8-10 times relative to electrolysis alone. According to the results of the scavenging experiments and identification of benzoic acid oxidation products, surface-bound hydroxyl radical (•OH(surface)) was the primary reactive species degrading aromatic pollutants in the BDD electrolysis process, whereas freely-diffusing homogeneous hydroxyl radical (•OH(free)) was the major reactive species in the UV-assisted BDD electrolysis process. Cyclic voltammetry revealed that UV light decomposed H2O2 formed on the BDD anode surface, thus retarding O2 evolution and facilitating •OH(free) generation. This work also explored the potential application of UV-assisted BDD electrolysis in removing COD from bio-pretreated landfill leachate containing high concentrations of hydrophilic aromatic pollutants. This study shed light on the importance of the existing state of •OH on removal of pollutants during BDD electrolysis, and provided a facile and efficient UV-assisted strategy for promoting degradation of hydrophilic aromatic pollutants.

12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 686200, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746246

RESUMO

Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is an important step in the progression and development of vulnerable plaques. Thrombin is involved in both physiological and pathological processes of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced VSMC migration is essential for devising effective treatments aimed at the prevention of plaque instability. In this study, we found that thrombin activated MAPK signaling pathways and increased the expression of galectin-3, which was also a well-known factor in atherosclerosis. Knockdown of galectin-3 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked thrombin-induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not JNK MAPK. Src/FAK phosphorylation was also shown to be activated by thrombin. FAK autophosphorylation at Y397 was most significantly inhibited by galectin-3 siRNA. Galectin-3 siRNA or specific inhibitor (P38 MAPK inhibitor and ERK1/2 inhibitor) effectively prevented thrombin-induced VSMC migration via reducing paxillin expression. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that thrombin stimulation of VSMC migration and paxillin expression are regulated by galectin-3, and ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Src/FAK signaling pathways are involved in this process. These results are beneficial to clarify the role of galectin-3 in thrombin-induced advanced lesions in atherosclerosis and shed new insights into the regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration in combating plaque rupture.

13.
Opt Express ; 29(17): 26404-26417, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615076

RESUMO

In this paper, we proposed and experimentally verified a diffraction-based optical beam shaping technique for underwater optical communication (UWOC) applications. The proposed method aimed to address the key issue in UWOC links, i.e., the high propagation loss experienced by the launched optical beam. It enabled a significantly higher portion of the launched signal to be collected by the receiver. The optimal transmission distance could also be fine-tuned by the software configuration. In a proof-of-concept demonstration based on the off-the-shelf components, 100 Mbps transmission was achieved over 15-meter distance and a significant enhancement in the transmission quality was observed. There is a huge scope for further improvement in the transmission distance and data rate when the proposed technique was used with purpose-built optical components and advanced coding schemes.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645647

RESUMO

Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) blocking immune checkpoints have emerged as important cancer therapeutics, as exemplified by systemic administration of the IgG1 anti-CD47 mAb that blocks the "don't eat me" pathway. However, this strategy is associated with severe toxicity. Experimental Design: To improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxicities for ovarian cancer, we engineered an oncolytic herpesvirus (oHSV) to express a full-length, soluble anti-CD47 mAb with a human IgG1 scaffold (OV-αCD47-G1) or IgG4 scaffold (OV-αCD47-G1). Results: Both IgG1 and IgG4 anti-CD47 mAbs secreted by oHSV-infected tumor cells blocked the CD47-SIRPα signal pathway, enhancing macrophage phagocytosis against ovarian tumor cells. OV-αCD47-G1, but not OV-αCD47-G4, activated human NK cell cytotoxicity and macrophage phagocytosis by binding to the Fc receptors of these cells. In vivo, these multifaceted functions of OV-αCD47-G1 improved mouse survival in xenograft and immunocompetent mouse models of ovarian cancer when compared to OV-αCD47-G4 and a parental oHSV. The murine counterpart of OV-αCD47-G1, OV-αmCD47-G2b, also enhanced mouse NK cell cytotoxicity and macrophage phagocytosis and prolonged survival of mice bearing ovarian tumors compared to OV-αmCD47-G3. OV-αmCD47-G2b was also superior to αmCD47-G2b and showed a significantly better effect when combined with an antibody against PD-L1 that was upregulated by oHSV infection. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that an oHSV encoding a full-length human IgG1 anti-CD47 mAb, when used as a single agent or combined with another agent, is a promising approach for improving ovarian cancer treatment via enhancing innate immunity, as well as performing its known oncolytic function and modulation of immune cells.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150630, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597571

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) exposure not only causes lung injury and lung inflammation but also changes blood composition. Previous studies have mainly focused on inflammatory processes and metabolic diseases caused by acute or chronic ozone exposure. However, the effect of ozone on lipid expression profiles remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the lipidomic changes in lung tissue and serum of rats after ozone exposure for three months and explore the lipid metabolic pathway involved in an ozone-induced injury. Based on the non-targeted lipidomic analysis platform of the UPLC Orbitrap mass spectrometry system, we found that sub-chronic exposure to ozone significantly changed the characteristics of lipid metabolism in lungs and serum of rats. First, the variation in sphingomyelin (SM) and triglyceride (TG) levels in the lung and serum after O3 exposure are shown. SM decreased in both tissues, while TG decreased in the lungs and increased in the serum. Further, the effect of ozone on glycerophospholipids in the lung and serum was completely different. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were the major glycerophospholipids whose levels were altered in the lung, while phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels changed dramatically in the serum. Third, after O3 exposure, the level of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), mainly MGDG (43, 11), a saccharolipid, declined significantly and uniquely in the serum. These results suggested that sub-chronic O3 exposure may play a role in the development of several diseases through perturbation of lipidomic profiles in the lungs and blood. In addition, changes in the lipids of the lung and blood may induce or exacerbate respiratory diseases.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 49050-49057, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612045

RESUMO

The separation of light olefins from paraffins using membrane technology is highly desired; however, synthetic polymer membranes generally suffer a pernicious trade-off between permeability and selectivity. Herein, we show that this limitation can be overcome by constructing selective gas transfer pathways in a polymer matrix, as demonstrated by incorporating composites of ionic liquids and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) to form mixed-matrix membranes. Using propylene/propane separation as a model system, dramatic improvements in the propylene permeability of 218.4 Barrer and propylene/propane separation factor of 45.7 were achieved compared to the values obtained using individual components as a filler. The synergy between the high solubility of the gas molecules in ionic liquids and the size screening ability of ZIF exacerbates the difference in the transmission of propylene and propane, thus leading to superior separation performance. This work presents a promising strategy for the design of membranes for efficient gas separation.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 49066-49075, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613700

RESUMO

Enhancing the reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) process of thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitters is an effective approach to realize efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with low efficiency roll-off. In this work, we designed two novel TADF emitters, SAT-DAC and SATX-DAC, via a spiro architecture. Efficient maximum external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 22.6 and 20.9% with reduced efficiency roll-off (EQEs of 17.9 and 17.0% at 1000 cd m-2) were achieved via a "two-RISC-channel" strategy. X-ray diffraction shows close donor (D)/acceptor (A) spacing and suitable D/A orientation in crystals of the two emitters favoring both intra- and intermolecular through-space charge transfer (TSCT) processes. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements show that both emitters have two RISC channels leading to kISCT exceeding 106 s-1. These results suggest that the "two-RISC-channel" design can be a novel approach for enhancing performance of TADF emitters, in particular at high excitation densities.

19.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 1589378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659824

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility of Strip Meniscometry Tube (SMTube) and determine the correlations among the SMTube measurements and other ocular examinations in dry eye disease (DED) patients. Methods: The study recruited 73 eyes of 49 DED patients. Every subject was subjected to the following five measurements sequentially: the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Tear Meniscus Height (TMH) assessment, SMTube measurements, tear film breakup time (BUT) examination, and Schirmer I test (SIT). The repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements were assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman analysis, and the correlations were evaluated by the Spearman rank-order correlation. Results: The repeatability and reproducibility of the SMTube measurements were good in DED patients. The ICCs between the repeatability and reproducibility of the SMTube measurements were 0.789 and 0.741, respectively, and the Bland-Altman 95% limits of the repeatability and the reproducibility were -1.726 to 1.658 and -0.967 to 1.474, respectively (all P < 0.01). The SMTube measurements had correlations with TMH, BUT, and SIT. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients between SMTube and TMH; SMTube and Schirmer I test; and SMTube and BUT were 0.632, 0.617, and 0.653, respectively (all P < 0.01). Conclusions: The measurements of the SMTube may provide a novel, swift, noninvasive, and convenient approach to screen and diagnose DED with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and specific correlations with TMH, BUT, and SIT.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(83): 10883-10886, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604880

RESUMO

We report the development of ordered shape-controllable microbump structures on protein hydrogels using polystyrene honeycomb templates. Addition of protein nanogels results in the formation of hierarchical nano-on-micro structures and increases surface hydrophilicity by over 55%, exhibiting bacteria repellency 100 times stronger than a flat hydrogel surface composed of the same protein.

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