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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 41, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the fast-paced aging and increasing digitalization of society, there has been a growing interest in the effect of mobile device use on cognitive function and depression in older adults. However, research examining this issue among older adults in residential care homes (RCHs) is scant. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of mobile device use on the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of older adults living in RCHs. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). RESULTS: A total of 235 senior residents (aged 82.58 ± 5.54) in four RCHs were surveyed. Users of mobile devices had a significantly higher total MoCA score (25.02 ± 4.14) and a significantly lower GDS-15 score (3.28 ± 2.74) than non-users (MoCA: 19.34 ± 5.21, GDS-15: 4.69 ± 2.90). Multivariate linear regression indicate that mobile device use is significantly associated with total MoCA score, six of the seven sub-scores (visuospatial abilities and execution functions, attention, language, abstraction, delayed recall, and orientation)(P < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that mobile device use was significantly associated with the level of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.458, 95%CI = 0.249-0.845). CONCLUSIONS: Use of mobile devices has a significant association with the cognitive function and depressive symptoms of older adults living in RCHs, and thus should be encouraged as a measure to maintain and improve cognition and prevent depression.

2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009287

RESUMO

AIM: 3-Phenyllactic acid (3-PLA) has been widely used in food and material industries. Three Lactobacillus crustorum strains have shown greater 3-PLA production ability in our previous study. The objectives of this study were to further enhance 3-PLA yields in both batch and continuous fermentation systems using of free-whole-cells. MATERIALS AND RESULTS: The ability of free-whole-cells of three L. crustorum strains to produce 3-PLA was optimized. Among these strains, L. crustorum NWAFU 1078 showed excellent reusability and significantly (P < 0.05) greater 3-PLA production ability than the other two strains after tenth recycle. The strain possesses three L-lactate dehydrogenase and three D-lactate dehydrogenase catalyzing 3-PLA production from phenylpyruvic acid (PPA). The strain produced 15.2 mmol l-1 3-PLA (76% PPA conversion rate) in a batch fermentation system and 6.5 mmol l-1 ·h-1 3-PLA (55% PPA conversion rate) in a continuous fermentation system under the optimal conditions using a 0.6 dilution rate. CONCLUSIONS: Free-whole-cells of L. crustorum NWAFU 1078 showed excellent reusability and higher 3-PLA yields under optimal biotransformation conditions in both batch and continuous fermentation systems. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides the possibility to use the free-whole-cells of L. crustorum NWAFU 1078 as a biocatalyst for effective production of 3-PLA.

3.
Cryobiology ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001217

RESUMO

Melatonin is a ubiquitous indoleamine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland. Diverse biological actions of melatonin involve quite complex mechanisms via its membrane receptors. More recently, studies have focused on the role of melatonin in male fertility preservation and male reproductive system. The protective effects of melatonin on immature testicular tissue freshness and activity maintenance and the preservation of sperm and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Furthermore, since melatonin has strong antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, researchers have examined its potential role in male reproductive system. In this article, recent progress regarding melatonin's effects on male fertility preservation and its potential role is reviewed.

4.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046461

RESUMO

In response to cytosolic DNA, stimulator of interferon gene (STING) initiates and orchestrates host's innate immunity by inducing type I interferon. Since endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, we sought to determine whether STING pathway is activated in ectopic endometrium in comparison to eutopic endometrium. Immunohistochemistry was employed in evaluating the expression levels of STING in normal endometrium, endometriosis, and adenomyosis. The density of CD45+ intraepithelial lymphocytes was correlated with STING expression levels. A total of 39 cases of endometriosis and/or adenomyosis with normal endometrium were analyzed. Among them, 32 had adenomyosis, 26 had endometriosis, and 19 have both lesions. STING protein expression is mainly evident in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells but much less in stromal cells. Based on H-score, we found that the STING expression levels were significantly higher in the epithelial cells of adenomyosis and endometriosis than in eutopic endometrium (132.7 ± 12.20, 119.6 ± 12.57 vs. 19.74 ± 5.96, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in STING expression level between endometriosis and adenomyosis. More intraepithelial lymphocytes were detected in endometriosis and adenomyosis lesions than endometrium (5.60 ± 0.70%, 4.95 ± 0.54% vs. 1.25 ± 0.12%, p < 0.0001). A positive correlation between STING expression and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltrate was observed (p < 0.0001). In summary, STING was upregulated in the epithelium of ectopic endometrium as compared to eutopic endometrium. Its expression levels correlate with the degree of intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, suggesting a role in promoting chronic inflammation of ectopic endometrium.

5.
Cell Immunol ; : 104047, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019673

RESUMO

The polarization of macrophages is critical to inflammation and tissue repair, with unbalanced macrophage polarization associated with critical dysfunctions of the immune system. Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is a hydroxylase mainly controlled by the inflammation-limiting aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which plays a critical role in mycoplasma infection, oxidative stress injury, and cancer. Arginase-1 (Arg-1) is a surrogate for polarized alternative macrophages and is important to the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the modulation of arginine. In the present study, we found CYP1A1 to be upregulated in IL-4-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and human peripheral blood monocytes. Using CYP1A1-overexpressing RAW264.7 cells (CYP1A1/RAW) we found that CYP1A1 augmented Arg-1 expression by strengthening the activation of the JAK1/STAT6 signaling pathway in macrophages treated with IL-4. 15(S)-HETE, a metabolite of CYP1A1 hydroxylase, was elevated in IL-4-induced CYP1A1/RAW cells. Further, in macrophages, the loss-of-CYP1A1-hydroxylase activity was associated with reduced IL-4-induced Arg-1 expression due to impaired 15(S)-HETE generation. Of importance, CYP1A1 overexpressing macrophages reduced the inflammation associated with LPS-induced peritonitis. Taken together, these findings identified a novel signaling axis, CYP1A1-15(S)-HETE-JAK1-STAT6, that may be a promising target for the proper maintenance of macrophage polarization and may also be a means by which to treat immune-related disease due to macrophage dysfunction.

6.
Epigenomics ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043367

RESUMO

Aim: To explore the roles of exosomal long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and benign esophagitis. Materials & methods: Exosomal lncRNAs were analyzed using RNA-seq and validated by quantitative real-time PCR, loss-of-function, co-culture and RNA pulldown assays. Results: Exosomal lncRNAs displayed tighter tissue-specificity, higher expression level and lower splicing efficiency than that of mRNAs. A total of 152 exosomal lncRNAs were differentially expressed between ESCC and controls. A total of 124 exosomal lncRNAs were dysregulated between ESCC and esophagitis. Knockdown of 13 ESCC-associated lncRNAs modified proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of ESCC cells. A novel lncRNA RP5-1092A11.2 was highly expressed in ESCC-derived exosomes, ESCC cells and tumor tissues. Exosomes released from RP5-1092A11.2-knockdown cells inhibited ESCC cell proliferation. Conclusion: Dysregulated exosomal lncRNAs were functionally associated with different disease status in esophagus.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the immune effect of different types of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) booster doses 2 to 32 years after primary immunization, explore the influencing factors, and offer guidance regarding the necessity and timing of boosters. METHODS: In total, 1163 participants who were born from 1986 to 2015, received the HepB full-course primary vaccination, were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) negative, and had hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) <10 mIU/mL were enrolled. Individuals were randomly divided into two groups and received a booster dose of HepB. Venous blood samples were collected 30 days later and tested for anti-HBs. RESULTS: In total, 595 and 568 individuals received a single dose of HepB (CHO) and HepB (SC), respectively. Venous blood samples were obtained from 1079 vaccinees (CHO: 554, SC: 525). The seroconversion rates were 93.68% (519/554) and 86.67% (455/525) (p < 0.05), with geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of 426.58 mIU/ml and 223.87 mIU/ml, respectively. This result indicated that BMI, smoking status, vaccine types of booster and prebooster anti-HBs concentration significantly influenced anti-HBs levels. Only BMI, prebooster anti-HBs concentrations and booster types were different between the anti-HBs positive and negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: Participants boostered with HepB (CHO) had a relatively higher seroconversion rate than those boostered with HepB (SC). The high seroconversion rates in the two groups suggested that the subjects remained protected despite low circulating antibodies, so there is currently no urgent need for booster immunization. Factors including BMI ≥ 25 and prebooster anti-HBs concentration < 2.5 mIU/mL, which contributed to lower responses to a booster dose, might indicate a greater risk of breakthrough infection.

8.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020800

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg), as a highly harmful environmental pollutant, poses severe ecological and health risks even at low concentrations. Accurate and sensitive methods for detecting Hg2+ ions in aquatic environments are highly needed. In this work, we developed a highly sensitive fluorescence sensor for Hg2+ detection with an integrated use of biosynthetic CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) and liposome carrier signal amplification. To construct such a sensor, three single-stranded DNA probes were rationally designed based on the thymine-Hg2+-thymine (T-Hg2+-T) coordination chemical principles and by taking advantage of the biocompatibility and facile-modification properties of the biosynthetic QDs. Hg2+ could be determined in a range from 0.25 to 100 nM with a detection limit of 0.01 nM, which met the requirements of environmental sample detection. The sensor also exhibited a high selectivity for Hg2+ detection in the presence of other high-level metal ions. A satisfactory capacity of the sensor for detecting environmental samples including tap water, river water, and landfill leachate was also demonstrated. This work opens up a new application scenario for biosynthetic QDs and holds a great potential for environmental monitoring applications.

9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 54, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress mediates the nerve injury during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protecting against oxidative stress damage is an important strategy to prevent and treat AD. Di-Huang-Yi-Zhi (DHYZ) is a Chinese medicine used for the treatment of AD, but its mechanism remains unknown. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of DHYZ on H2O2 induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. METHODS: PC12 cells were treated with H2O2 and DHYZ. Cell proliferation was detected by Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cytotoxicity of H2O2 was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Apoptosis were identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Caspase 3 activity was detected by commercial kit. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected by JC-1 staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) staining. Protein expression and phosphorylation was identified by western blot. RESULTS: The results showed that DHYZ antagonized H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and proliferation inhibition. DHYZ reduced ROS production, stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibit Caspase-3 activity and apoptosis induced by H2O2. In addition, DHYZ inhibited the phosphorylation of ASK1, JNK1/2/3 and p38 MAPK which were up-regulated by H2O2. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that DHYZ protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced oxidative stress damage and was related to inhibition of ROS production and ASK1-JNK/p38 MAPK signaling. The present study provides experimental evidence for the application of DHYZ for the management of oxidative stress damage and AD.

10.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(2): 171-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the role and mechanism of action of Huai Qi Huang (HQH) in the rat model of asthma. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, an asthma model group, a budesonide group, and an HQH group, with 10 rats in each group. A rat model of asthma was established by ovalbumin sensitization and challenge. The budesonide group was given budesonide aerosol 2 mg before each challenge. The HQH group was given HQH 4 g/kg dissolved in water by gavage before each challenge. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissues. The percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the levels of interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon gamma (INF-γ), and immunoglobulin E (IgE) in BALF. Flow cytometry was used to determine T-helper type 1 (Th1)/T-helper type 2 (Th2) ratio in peripheral blood and the spleen. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 in lung tissue. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the asthma model group showed significant increases in the degree of airway inflammation, the percentage of eosinophils in BALF, and the levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-5 and IgE in BALF (P<0.05), however, the asthma model group showed significant reductions in the levels of IL-10 and INF-γ in BALF (P<0.05). The asthma model group had significantly lower percentage of Th1 cells but significantly higher percentage of Th2 cells in peripheral blood and the spleen compared with the control group (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of T-bet in lung tissue was significantly lower, but the mRNA and protein expression of GATA-3 in lung tissue was significantly higher in the asthma group than those in the control group (P<0.05). Both HQH and budesonide significantly improved airway inflammation and the above markers in asthmatic rats (P<0.05), with comparable effects between them. However, there were still significant differences in these indices between the control group and the HQH or budesonide group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HQH can reduce the airway inflammation of asthmatic rats and alleviate the symptoms of asthma, possibly by regulating the levels of related cytokines and Th1/Th2 ratio through the T-bet/GATA-3 pathway.

12.
Cytokine ; 128: 155001, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035329

RESUMO

Neutrophilic granule protein (NGP) belongs to the cystatin superfamily. Even though this superfamily is critically involved in cancer biology and adaptive immunity, the relationship of macrophage NGP to inflammation and phagocytosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we observed a significant increase of NGP in peritoneal macrophages (PMs) isolated from mice challenged with E. coli or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as judged by NGP mRNA microarray. We also found changes in NGP to be mainly Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent. By western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated NGP overexpression to reduce TNF-α and IL-1ß production by LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells (RAW) via suppression of the NF-κB (p65 and p50) signalling pathway, rather than the JNK1/AP-1 (fos and jun) signalling pathway. NGP overexpression by LPS-induced RAW also induced IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which was partially involved in the anti-inflammatory effect produced by NGP overexpression. Moreover, upregulated NGP enhanced the phagocytosis of E. coli by RAW. Taken together, these results demonstrated NGP to be an important host defense component that regulates inflammatory responses and phagocytosis by activated macrophages. As such, NGP may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory based disease.

13.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(2): 161-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038099

RESUMO

Rationale: Placental-like chondroitin sulfate A (pl-CSA) is known to be exclusively synthesized in multiple cancer tissues and associated with disease severity. Here, we aimed to assess whether pl-CSA is released into bio-fluids and can serve as a cancer biomarker. Methods: A novel ELISA was developed to analyse pl-CSA content in bio-fluids using pl-CSA binding protein and an anti-pl-CSA antibody. Immunohistochemical staining of tissue chips was used as the gold standard control. Results: The developed ELISA method was specific and sensitive (1.22 µg/ml). The pl-CSA content was significantly higher in lysates and supernatants of cancer cell lines than in those of normal cell lines, in plasma from mouse cancer models than in that from control mice, and in plasma from patients with oesophageal, cervical, ovarian, or lung cancer than in that from healthy controls. Similar to the tissue chip analysis, which showed a significant difference in pl-CSA positivity between cancer tissues and normal adjacent tissues, the plasma pl-CSA analysis had 100% sensitivity and specificity for differentiating oesophageal and lung cancer patients from healthy controls. Importantly, in oesophageal and lung cancer patients, the pl-CSA content was significantly higher in late-stage disease than in early-stage disease, and it dramatically decreased after surgical resection of the tumour. Conclusion: These data indicate a direct link between plasma pl-CSA content and tumour presence, indicating that plasma pl-CSA may be a non-invasive biomarker with clinical applicability for the screening and surveillance of patients with multiple types of solid tumours.

14.
J Endocrinol ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977314

RESUMO

Sexual differences have been observed in the onset and prognosis of human cardiovascular diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here, we found that zebrafish heart regeneration is faster in females, can be accelerated by estrogen and is suppressed by the estrogen-antagonist tamoxifen. Injuries to the zebrafish heart, but not other tissues, increased plasma estrogen levels and the expression of estrogen receptors, especially esr2a. The resulting endocrine disruption induces the expression of the female-specific protein vitellogenin in male zebrafish. Transcriptomic analyses suggested heart injuries triggered pronounced immune and inflammatory responses in females. These responses, previously shown to elicit heart regeneration, could be enhanced by estrogen treatment in males and reduced by tamoxifen in females. Furthermore, a prior exposure to estrogen preconditioned the zebrafish heart for an accelerated regeneration. Altogether, this study reveals that heart regeneration is modulated by an estrogen-inducible inflammatory response to cardiac injury. These findings elucidate a previously unknown layer of control in zebrafish heart regeneration and provide a new model system for the study of sexual differences in human cardiac repair.

15.
Neuroscience ; 429: 119-133, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918011

RESUMO

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment is widely accepted as an evidence-based treatment option for depression and anxiety. However, the underlying mechanism of this treatment maneuver has not been clearly understood. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) procedure was used to establish depression and anxiety-like behavior in rats. The rTMS was performed with a commercially available stimulator for seven consecutive days, and then depression and anxiety-like behaviors were subsequently measured. The expression of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was measured by western-blot, and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was measured with Enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA) analyzing kits. Furthermore, a small interfering RNA was employed to knockdown Nrf2, after which the neurobehavioral assessment, Nrf2 nuclear expression, and the amount of inflammation factors were evaluated. Application of rTMS exhibited a significant antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect, which was associated with the increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and reduced level of TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the hippocampus. Following Nrf2 silencing, the antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effect produced by rTMS was abolished. Moreover, the elevated Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and the reduced production of TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in hippocampus mediated by rTMS, were reversed by Nrf2 knockdown. Together, these results reveal that the Nrf2-induced anti-inflammation effect is crucial in regulating antidepressant-related behaviors produced by rTMS.

16.
Antiviral Res ; 174: 104704, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917237

RESUMO

AIMS: Deguelin, a natural compound derived from Mundulea sericea (Leguminosae) and some other plants exhibits an activity to inhibit autophagy, a cellular machinery required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. This study aimed to illuminate the impact of deguelin on HCV replication and mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: HCV JFH-1-Huh7 infectious system was used for the investigation. Real time RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy assay were used to measure the expression levels of viral or cellular factors. Overexpression and silencing expression techniques were used to determine the role of key cellular factors. RESULTS: Deguelin treatment of Huh7 cells significantly inhibited HCV JFH-1 replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Deguelin treatment suppressed autophagy in Huh7 cells, evidenced by the decrease of LC3B-II levels, the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta as well as the increase of p62 level in deguelin-treated cells compared with control cells. HCV infection could induce autophagy which was also suppressed by deguelin treatment. Mechanism research reveals that deguelin inhibited expression of Beclin1, which is a key cellular factor for the initiation of the autophagosome formation in autophagy. Overexpression or silencing expression of Beclin1 in deguelin-treated Huh7 cells could weaken or enhance the inhibitory effect on autophagy by deguelin, respectively, and thus partially recover or further inhibit HCV replication correspondingly. CONCLUSIONS: Deguelin may serve as a novel anti-HCV compound via its inhibitory effect on autophagy, which warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for HCV infection.

17.
J Psychosom Res ; 130: 109916, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to critically evaluate the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on cancer-related fatigue (CRF). METHODS: A systematic search of eight databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Spring link, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM) was performed, to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to January 2019. Using Cochrane Collaboration criteria, two reviewers critically and independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted correlated data using the designed form. All analyses were performed with Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: In all, fifteen RCTs were included in the systematic review, fourteen of which, consisting of 3008 patients (MBSR, 1502; control, 1506), were included in the meta-analysis. MBSR had a significant effect on fatigue in cancer patients, particularly among lung cancer patients. The meta-analysis also indicated that MBSR could significantly mitigate CRF compared with usual care or no intervention. 8 weeks of MBSR, supervised by experts, had a large effect on CRF. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR is effective for CRF management and can be recommended as a beneficial complementary therapy for CRF patients.

18.
J Nat Med ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953641

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, Figures 2, 3, 5, 11 and 13 were published incorrectly. The corrections version of figures are given below.

19.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 5, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentiating glioma recurrence from treatment-related changes can be challenging on conventional imaging. We evaluated the efficacy of quantitative parameters measured by dual-energy spectral computed tomographic (CT) for this differentiation. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients were examined by dual-energy spectral CT. The effective and normalized atomic number (Zeff and Zeff-N, respectively); spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λHU) slope; and iodine and normalized iodine concentration (IC and ICN, respectively) in the post-treatment enhanced areas were calculated. Pathological results or clinicoradiologic follow-up of ≥2 months were used for final diagnosis. Nonparametric and t-tests were used to compare quantitative parameters between glioma recurrence and treatment-related changes. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively), and accuracy were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Predictive probabilities were used to generate ROC curves to determine the diagnostic value. RESULTS: Examination of pre-contrast λHU, Zeff, Zeff-N, IC, ICN, and venous phase ICN showed no significant differences in quantitative parameters (P > 0.05). Venous phase λHU, Zeff, Zeff-N, and IC in glioma recurrence were higher than in treatment-related changes (P < 0.001). The optimal venous phase threshold was 1.03, 7.75, 1.04, and 2.85 mg/cm3, achieving 66.7, 91.7, 83.3, and 91.7% sensitivity; 100.0, 77.8, 88.9, and 77.8% specificity; 100.0, 73.3, 83.3, and 73.3% PPV; 81.8, 93.3, 88.9, and 93.3% NPV; and 86.7, 83.3, 86.7, and 83.3% accuracy, respectively. The respective areas under the curve (AUCs) were 0.912, 0.912, 0.931, and 0.910 in glioma recurrence and treatment-related changes. CONCLUSIONS: Glioma recurrence could be potentially differentiated from treatment-related changes based on quantitative values measured by dual-energy spectral CT imaging.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227727, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940398

RESUMO

We sought to design ubiquitin-proteasome system inhibitors active against solid cancers by targeting ubiquitin receptor RPN13 within the proteasome's 19S regulatory particle. The prototypic bis-benzylidine piperidone-based inhibitor RA190 is a michael acceptor that adducts Cysteine 88 of RPN13. In probing the pharmacophore, we showed the benefit of the central nitrogen-bearing piperidone ring moiety compared to a cyclohexanone, the importance of the span of the aromatic wings from the central enone-piperidone ring, the contribution of both wings, and that substituents with stronger electron withdrawing groups were more cytotoxic. Potency was further enhanced by coupling of a second warhead to the central nitrogen-bearing piperidone as RA375 exhibited ten-fold greater activity against cancer lines than RA190, reflecting its nitro ring substituents and the addition of a chloroacetamide warhead. Treatment with RA375 caused a rapid and profound accumulation of high molecular weight polyubiquitinated proteins and reduced intracellular glutathione levels, which produce endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress, and trigger apoptosis. RA375 was highly active against cell lines of multiple myeloma and diverse solid cancers, and demonstrated a wide therapeutic window against normal cells. For cervical and head and neck cancer cell lines, those associated with human papillomavirus were significantly more sensitive to RA375. While ARID1A-deficiency also enhanced sensitivity 4-fold, RA375 was active against all ovarian cancer cell lines tested. RA375 inhibited proteasome function in muscle for >72h after single i.p. administration to mice, and treatment reduced tumor burden and extended survival in mice carrying an orthotopic human xenograft derived from a clear cell ovarian carcinoma.

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