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1.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 6436256, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463681

RESUMO

Objective: The detection of Helicobacter pylori mutations that result in antimicrobial resistance can serve as a guideline of antimicrobial therapeutics and probably prevent the failure of clinical treatments. Evaluating the potential of Sanger sequencing to identify genetically resistant determinants in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates will be important. Methods: 180 cultured strains have been tested using agar dilution for antibiotic susceptibility. NCBI BLAST was used to perform genotypic analysis on the sequencing data. Sanger sequencing was evaluated as an alternative method to detect resistant genotypes and susceptibility. Results: By the conventional E-test, resistance to levofloxacin, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and clarithromycin was 67.3%, 15.1%, 96.4%, and 25.5%, respectively. In contrast, tetracycline had no resistance. Resistance to multiple drugs was observed in 8.12% of the strains. The genetic determinants of resistance to CLA was 23s rRNA, the determinants of resistance to amoxicillin was Pbp1, the determinants of resistance to metronidazole was rdxA, and the determinants of resistance to levofloxacin were GyrA and GyrB. However, there was no association of resistance in tetracycline. Conclusion: We found increased rates of metronidazole antibiotic resistance, highlighting the necessity for alternative therapies and periodic evaluation. Sanger sequencing has proved to be highly effective and holds the potential to be implemented in policies catering to local treatments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China , Claritromicina/farmacologia , Claritromicina/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Levofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico
2.
Med Phys ; 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly across the globe, seriously threatening the health of people all over the world. To reduce the diagnostic pressure of front-line doctors, an accurate and automatic lesion segmentation method is highly desirable in clinic practice. PURPOSE: Many proposed two-dimensional (2D) methods for sliced-based lesion segmentation cannot take full advantage of spatial information in the three-dimensional (3D) volume data, resulting in limited segmentation performance. Three-dimensional methods can utilize the spatial information but suffer from long training time and slow convergence speed. To solve these problems, we propose an end-to-end hybrid-feature cross fusion network (HFCF-Net) to fuse the 2D and 3D features at three scales for the accurate segmentation of COVID-19 lesions. METHODS: The proposed HFCF-Net incorporates 2D and 3D subnets to extract features within and between slices effectively. Then the cross fusion module is designed to bridge 2D and 3D decoders at the same scale to fuse both types of features. The module consists of three cross fusion blocks, each of which contains a prior fusion path and a context fusion path to jointly learn better lesion representations. The former aims to explicitly provide the 3D subnet with lesion-related prior knowledge, and the latter utilizes the 3D context information as the attention guidance of the 2D subnet, which promotes the precise segmentation of the lesion regions. Furthermore, we explore an imbalance-robust adaptive learning loss function that includes image-level loss and pixel-level loss to tackle the problems caused by the apparent imbalance between the proportions of the lesion and non-lesion voxels, providing a learning strategy to dynamically adjust the learning focus between 2D and 3D branches during the training process for effective supervision. RESULT: Extensive experiments conducted on a publicly available dataset demonstrate that the proposed segmentation network significantly outperforms some state-of-the-art methods for the COVID-19 lesion segmentation, yielding a Dice similarity coefficient of 74.85%. The visual comparison of segmentation performance also proves the superiority of the proposed network in segmenting different-sized lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, we propose a novel HFCF-Net for rapid and accurate COVID-19 lesion segmentation from chest computed tomography volume data. It innovatively fuses hybrid features in a cross manner for lesion segmentation, aiming to utilize the advantages of 2D and 3D subnets to complement each other for enhancing the segmentation performance. Benefitting from the cross fusion mechanism, the proposed HFCF-Net can segment the lesions more accurately with the knowledge acquired from both subnets.

3.
Mol Pain ; 18: 17448069221087583, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240891

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a highly prevalent, chronic joint disorder, and it is a typical disease which can develop chronic pain. Our previous study has proved that endocannabinoid (2-AG)-CB1R-GABA-5-HT pathway is involved in electroacupuncture (EA) mediated inhibition of chronic pain. However, it is still unclear which among the 5-HT receptor subtype is involved in EA evoked 5-HT mediated inhibition of chronic pain in the dorsal spinal cord. 5-HT2A is a G protein-coupled receptor and it is involved in 5-HT descending pain modulation system. We found that EA treatment at frequency of 2 Hz +1 mA significantly increased the expression of 5-HT2A receptor in the dorsal spinal cord and intrathecal injection of 5-HT2A receptor antagonist or agonist reversed or mimicked the analgesic effect of EA in each case respectively. Intrathecal injection of a selective GABAA receptor antagonist Bicuculline also reversed the EA effect on pain hypersensitivity. Additionally, EA treatment reversed the reduced expression of GABAA receptor and KCC2 in the dorsal spinal cord of KOA mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that intrathecal 5-HT2A receptor antagonist/agonist reversed or mimicked the effect of EA up-regulate of KCC2 expression, respectively. Similarly, intrathecal injection of PLC and PKC inhibitors prevented both anti-allodynic effect and up-regulation of KCC2 expression by EA treatment. Our data suggest that EA treatment up-regulated KCC2 expression through activating 5-HT2A-Gq-PLC-PKC pathway and enhanced the inhibitory function of GABAA receptor, thereby inhibiting chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Eletroacupuntura , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Simportadores , Animais , Dor Crônica/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/terapia , Camundongos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Simportadores/metabolismo
4.
Front Oncol ; 11: 773644, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858853

RESUMO

The pro-oncogene ETS-1 (E26 transformation-specific sequence 1) is a key regulator of the proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. The present work examined the correlation of the aberrant expression of ETS-1 with histological or clinical classification of astrocytoma: grade I (pilocytic astrocytoma), grade II (diffuse astrocytoma), grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma), and grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme). MicroRNA, miR-338-5p, was predicted by an online tool (miRDB) to potentially target the 3' untranslated region of ETS-1; this was confirmed by multi-assays, including western blot experiments or the point mutation of the targeting sites of miR-338-5p in ETS-1's 3'untralation region (3'UTR). The expression of miR-338-5p was negatively associated with that of ETS-1 in astrocytoma, and deficiency of miR-338-5p would mediate aberrant expression of ETS-1 in astrocytoma. Mechanistically, hypermethylation of miR-338-5p by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) resulted in repression of miR-338-5p expression and the aberrant expression of ETS-1. Knockdown or deactivation of DNMT1 decreased the methylation rate of the miR-338-5p promoter, increased the expression of miR-338-5p, and repressed the expression of ETS-1 in astrocytoma cell lines U251 and U87. These results indicate that hypermethylation of the miR-338-5p promoter by DNMT1 mediates the aberrant expression of ETS-1 related to disease severity of patients with astrocytoma.

5.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 5031667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804452

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the correlation between the resistance characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and antibiotic use density (AUD) in a hospital from 2012 to 2018. Methods: HP strains isolated from Chinese PLA General Hospital from 2012 to 2018 were collected to analyze the drug resistance of clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole, and their correlation with the AUD of the outpatient department and inpatient department was analyzed, respectively. Results: From 2012 to 2018, metronidazole-resistant strains accounted for the largest proportion, followed by clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and amoxicillin-resistant strains accounted for the least. In 2012-2018, the resistance rate of clarithromycin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole has basically increased year by year; from 2012 to 2018, the highest outpatient AUD in a hospital was amoxicillin, followed by clarithromycin and levofloxacin, metronidazole was the lowest, and the inpatient AUD from high to low was levofloxacin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin. The drug resistance rate of HP in the hospital from 2012 to 2018 was positively correlated with the AUD of clarithromycin (r = 0.884, P=0.017) and levofloxacin (r = 0.934, P=0.002) in the outpatient department. Conclusions: Helicobacter pylori has the strongest resistance to metronidazole and the worst resistance to amoxicillin in the hospital from 2012 to 2018, being related to the intensity of clarithromycin and levofloxacin in the outpatient department. It may provide certain reference significance for the clinical treatment of Helicobacter pylori.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos
6.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 733779, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602973

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common and disabling condition characterized by attacks of pain around the joints, and it is a typical disease that develops chronic pain. Previous studies have proved that 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptors in the spinal cord are involved in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia. The 5-HT7 receptor plays antinociceptive role in the spinal cord. However, it is unclear whether the 5-HT7 receptor is involved in EA analgesia. The 5-HT7 receptor is a stimulatory G-protein (Gs)-coupled receptor that activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) to stimulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation, which in turn activates protein kinase A (PKA). In the present study, we found that EA significantly increased the tactile threshold and the expression of the 5-HT7 receptor in the dorsal spinal cord. Intrathecal injection of 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS-19 mimicked the analgesic effect of EA, while a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed this effect. Moreover, intrathecal injection of AC and PKA antagonists prior to EA intervention prevented its anti-allodynic effect. In addition, GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline administered (intrathecal, i.t.) prior to EA intervention blocked the EA effect on pain hypersensitivity. Our data suggest that the spinal 5-HT7 receptor activates GABAergic neurons through the Gs-cAMP-PKA pathway and participates in EA-mediated inhibition of chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA.

7.
Insects ; 12(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680648

RESUMO

The belowground pest Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) has a sophisticated and sensitive olfactory system to detect semiochemical signals from the surrounding environment. In particular, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial in capturing and transporting these semiochemical signals across the sensilla lymph to the corresponding odorant receptors. In this study, we cloned a full-length cDNA sequence of BodoOBP8 from B. odoriphaga. Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that BodoOBP8 has the highest expression levels in males, with more pronounced expression in the male antennae than in other tissues. In this study, the recombinant protein BodoOBP8 was successfully expressed by a bacterial system to explore its function. Competitive binding assays with 33 host plant volatiles and one putative sex pheromone (n-heptadecane) revealed that purified BodoOBP8 strongly bound to two sulfur compounds (methyl allyl disulfide and diallyl disulfide) and to n-heptadecane; the corresponding dissolution constants (Ki) were 4.04, 6.73, and 4.04 µM, respectively. Molecular docking indicated that Ile96, Ile103, Ala107, and Leu111, located in the hydrophobic cavity of BodoOBP8, are the key residues mediating the interaction of BodoOBP8 with two sulfur compounds (methyl allyl disulfide and diallyl disulfide) and n-heptadecane. These results show that BodoOBP8 plays a role in the recognition of plant volatiles and sex pheromones, suggesting its application as a molecular target for the screening of B. odoriphaga attractants and repellents and facilitating a new mechanism of B. odoriphaga control.

8.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 107, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a relatively frequently occurring secondary headache caused by overuse of analgesics and/or acute migraine medications. It is believed that MOH is associated with dependence behaviors and substance addiction, in which the salience network (SN) and the habenula may play an important role. This study aims to investigate the resting-state (RS) functional connectivity between the habenula and the SN in patients with MOH complicating chronic migraine (CM) compared with those with episodic migraine (EM) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: RS-fMRI and 3-dimensional T1-weighted images of 17 patients with MOH + CM, 18 patients with EM and 30 matched healthy HC were obtained. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using the independent component analysis (ICA) method to investigate the group differences of functional connectivity between the habenula and the SN in three groups. Correlation analysis was performed thereafter with all clinical variables by Pearson correlation. RESULTS: Increased functional connectivity between bilateral habenula and SN was detected in patients with MOH + CM compared with patients with EM and HC respectively. Correlation analysis showed significant correlation between medication overuse duration and habenula-SN connectivity in MOH + CM patients. CONCLUSIONS: The current study supported MOH to be lying within a spectrum of dependence and addiction disorder. The enhanced functional connectivity of the habenula with SN may correlate to the development or chronification of MOH. Furthermore, the habenula may be an indicator or treatment target for MOH for its integrative role involved in multiple aspects of MOH.


Assuntos
Habenula , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Cefaleia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 693561, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552603

RESUMO

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo is a traditional and scarce medicinal orchid in China. Mycorrhizal fungi could supply nitrogen (N) to orchids for seed germination and seedling recruitment. However, the N transport mechanism between orchids and the fungus is poorly understand. Early studies found that the fungus MF23 (Mycena sp.) could promote the growth of D. officinale. To better dissect the molecular interactions involved in N transport between D. officinale and MF23, transcriptome and metabolome analyses were conducted on conventional and mycorrhizal cultivations of D. officinale. Moreover, validation tests were carried out in the greenhouse to measure net fluxes of N O 3 - and N H 4 + of roots by a non-invasive micro-test technology (NMT), determine N assimilation enzyme activity by the ELISA, and analyze the expression level of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of N transporters and DEGs involved in N metabolism by RT-qPCR. Combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses showed that MF23 may influence N metabolism in D. officinale. The expression of DoNAR2.1 (nitrate transporter-activating protein), DoAMT11 (ammonium transporter), DoATFs (amino acid transporters), DoOPTs (oligopeptide transporters), and DoGDHs (glutamate dehydrogenases) in symbiotic D. officinale was upregulated. NMT results showed a preference for N H 4 + in D. officinale and indicated that MF23 could promote the uptake of N O 3 - and N H 4 + , especially for N H 4 + . ELISA results showed that MF23 could increase the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that MF23 increases the production of D. officinale by affecting N uptake and N H 4 + assimilation capacity.

10.
Plant Signal Behav ; 16(11): 1952372, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304705

RESUMO

American ginseng, a valuable medicinal and food plant, is threatened by rot root, which affects its yield and quality. However, limited studies have investigated the changes in soil microbial community and physiochemical properties between healthy and rot root American ginseng. Here, high-throughput sequencing and soil physiochemical properties were used to characterize these changes. The soil physiochemical properties showed significance differences between the soil of healthy and rot root, in which the pH, available potassium, available phosphorus, soil organic carbon and soil organic matter were significantly higher in healthy root soil. Besides, fungal α-diversity was also higher in healthy root soil than that in rot root. Importantly, the dominant fungal genera differed between soils of healthy and rot root of American ginseng, and LEfSe further indicated that six fungal genera (Devriesia, Chrysosporium, Dichotomopilus, Pseudeurotium, Acaulium and Scedosporium) were significantly enriched in the soil of healthy plants, whereas six fungal genera (Gibellulopsis, Fusarium, Plectosphaerella, Tetracladium, Gibberella and Ilyonectri) were significantly enriched in the soil of rot root, suggesting that an increase in the relative abundance of these pathogenic fungi (Fusarium, Plectosphaerella, and Ilyonectri) may be associated with ginseng rot root. Notably, this study is the first to report that an increase in the relative abundances of Gibellulopsis and Gibberella in the rot root soil of American ginseng may be associated with the onset of rot root symptoms in this plant. The functional profile prediction showed that the there was a significantly Pathotrophs increase in the rot root soil compared with healthy root soil and Saprotrophs were more abundant in the healthy root soil. Finally, correlation analyses revealed that soil cation exchange capacity was an important factors affecting the composition of rot root of American ginseng soil microbial communities. This study not only used a new approach to explore the new fungal associated with rot root in American ginseng but also excavated the major soil physiochemical properties affecting the microbiome diversity, providing foundation for developing biocontrol strategies against rot root.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fungos , Microbiota , Panax/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(4): 1468-1470, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969197

RESUMO

Cirsium japonicum (C. japonicum) is a traditional Chinese medicine belonging to the family Asteraceae. The previous studies have indicated that the chemical compound content of C. japonicum from different places was different. To distinguish C. japonicum from different geographies, the chloroplast genome of C. japonicum from China was sequenced and compared with that from Korea. The total length of this genome is 152,602 bp, similar to that of Korea (152,606 bp). It has a conservative quartile structure which is composed of a large single-copy (LSC) region, a small single-copy (SSC) region and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) regions, with lengths of 83,487 bp, 18,721 bp, and 25,197 bp, respectively. It encodes 79 protein-coding, 27 transfer RNAs, and 4 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall GC content of the genome is 37.70%. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 6 insertions and deletions were identified between the chloroplast genome of C. japonicum from China and Korea. These results can be applied to develop molecular markers to distinguish C. japonicum from different geographical origins.

12.
Neuroreport ; 32(7): 548-554, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850082

RESUMO

Neuron-glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule that has been shown to be involved in several cellular processes in the peripheral nervous system, including neurite outgrowth. We recently reported that alternative splicing of Nrcam mRNA at exon 10 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contributes to the peripheral mechanism of neuropathic pain. Specially, Nrcam antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) targeting Nrcam exon 10, attenuated neuropathic pain hypersensitivities in mice. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrcam ASO on neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons in vitro. By immunostaining DRG neurons with different DRG markers, Nrcam ASO significantly reduced neurite lengths in neurofilament 200-, calcitonin gene-related peptide and isolectin B4-positive neurons in primary DRG neuronal culture. Moreover, Nrcam ASO activates epidermal growth factor receptor, which may mediate the effect of Nrcam ASO on neurite outgrowth of cultured DRG neurons. These results provide evidence that Nrcam ASO suppresses neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by regulating alternative splicing of Nrcam gene at exon 10 and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, indicating the differential roles of NrCAM variants/isoforms in neurite outgrowth.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Crescimento Neuronal/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(8): 3925-3938, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822909

RESUMO

Individual variability exists in both brain function and behavioral performance. However, changes in individual variability in brain functional connectivity and capability across adult development and aging have not yet been clearly examined. Based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from a large cohort of participants (543 adults, aged 18-88 years), brain functional connectivity was analyzed to characterize the spatial distribution and differences in individual variability across the adult lifespan. Results showed high individual variability in the association cortex over the adult lifespan, whereas individual variability in the primary cortex was comparably lower in the initial stage but increased with age. Individual variability was also negatively correlated with the strength/number of short-, medium-, and long-range functional connections in the brain, with long-range connections playing a more critical role in increasing global individual variability in the aging brain. More importantly, in regard to specific brain regions, individual variability in the motor cortex was significantly correlated with differences in motor capability. Overall, we identified specific patterns of individual variability in brain functional structure during the adult lifespan and demonstrated that functional variability in the brain can reflect behavioral performance. These findings advance our understanding of the underlying principles of the aging brain across the adult lifespan and suggest how to characterize degenerating behavioral capability using imaging biomarkers.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Mapeamento Encefálico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Longevidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Motor/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Insects ; 12(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802990

RESUMO

Chitinases are of great importance in chitin degradation and remodeling in insects. However, the genome-wide distribution of chitinase-like gene family in Bemsia tabaci, a destructive pest worldwide, is still elusive. With the help of bioinformatics, we annotated 14 genes that encode putative chitinase-like proteins, including ten chitinases (Cht), three imaginal disk growth factors (IDGF), and one endo-ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) in the genome of the whitefly, B. tabaci. These genes were phylogenetically grouped into eight clades, among which 13 genes were classified in the glycoside hydrolase family 18 groups and one in the ENGase group. Afterwards, developmental expression analysis suggested that BtCht10, BtCht5, and BtCht7 were highly expressed in nymphal stages and exhibit similar expression patterns, implying their underlying role in nymph ecdysis. Notably, nymphs exhibited a lower rate of survival when challenged by dsRNA targeting these three genes via a nanomaterial-promoted RNAi method. In addition, silencing of BtCht10 significantly resulted in a longer duration of development compared to control nymphs. These results indicate a key role of BtCht10, BtCht5, and BtCht7 in B. tabaci nymph molting. Our research depicts the differences of chitinase-like family genes in structure and function and identified potential targets for RNAi-based whitefly management.

15.
Neuroimage ; 233: 117926, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675997

RESUMO

Movie fMRI has emerged as a powerful tool for investigating human brain function, and functional connectivity (FC) plays a predominant role in fMRI-based studies. Accordingly, movie-watching FC may have great potential for future studies on human brain function. Before wide application of movie-watching FC, however, it is essential to evaluate how much it is influenced by differences in movies. The main aim of this study was to investigate the consistency of movie-watching FC across different movies. For this purpose, we performed three sets of analyses on the four movie fMRI runs (with different movie stimuli) included in the HCP dataset. The first set was performed to evaluate the agreement of movie-watching FC in exact values using intra-class correlation (ICC), and the ICC of movie-watching FC across different movies (0.37 on average) was found to be comparable to that of resting-state FC across repeated scans. The second set was performed to evaluate the agreement of movie-watching FC in connectivity patterns, and the results indicate that individuals could be identified with relatively high accuracies (94%-99%) across different movies based on their FC matrices. The final set was performed to test the generalizability of predictive models based on movie-watching FC, as this generalizability is highly dependent on the consistency of the FC. The results indicate that predictive models trained based on FC extracted from one movie fMRI run can make good predictions on FC extracted from runs with different movie stimuli. Taken together, our findings indicate that movie-watching FC is highly consistent across different movies, and conclusions drawn based on movie-watching FC are generalizable.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma/métodos , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Insect Sci ; 28(6): 1541-1552, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399267

RESUMO

The invasive pest whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is a complex species, of which Middle East-Minor Asia 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) are the two most damaging members. Previous research showed that cabbage is frequently infested with MEAM1 but seldomly with MED, and this difference in performance is associated with glucosinolate (GS) content. Some insects can modify GS using glucosinolate sulfatase (SULF), the activity of which is regulated by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1); therefore, to increase our understanding of different performances of MEAM1 and MED on cabbage plants, we identified and compared nine putative SULFs and one SUMF in MEAM1 and MED. We found that the lengths of two genes, BtSulf2 and BtSulf4, differed between MEAM1 and MED. The messenger RNA levels of BtSulf4 increased more than 20-fold after MEAM1 and MED adults were exposed to GS, but BtSulf2 expression was only induced by GS in MEAM1. Knockdown of BtSulf2 and BtSulf4 in MEAM1 resulted in a substantial increase in the mortality of GS-treated adults but not in MED. These results indicate that differences in BtSulf2 and BtSulf4 sequences and/or expression may explain why MEAM1 performs better than MED on cabbage. Our results provide a basis for future functional research on SULF and SUMF in B. tabaci.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos , Hemípteros , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sulfatases , Animais , Brassica , Hemípteros/enzimologia , Hemípteros/genética , Oriente Médio , Sulfatases/genética
17.
Neuroinformatics ; 19(2): 219-231, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676970

RESUMO

It has been a popular trend to decode individuals' demographic and cognitive variables based on MRI. Features extracted from MRI data are usually of high dimensionality, and dimensionality reduction (DR) is an effective way to deal with these high-dimensional features. Despite many supervised DR techniques for classification purposes, there is still a lack of supervised DR techniques for regression purposes. In this study, we advanced a novel supervised DR technique for regression purposes, namely, supervised multidimensional scaling (SMDS). The implementation of SMDS includes two steps: (1) evaluating pairwise distances among entities based on their labels and constructing a new space through a distance-preserving projection; (2) establishing an explicit linear relationship between the feature space and the new space. Based on this linear relationship, DR for test entities can be performed. We evaluated the performance of SMDS first on a synthetic dataset, and the results indicate that (1) SMDS is relatively robust to Gaussian noise existing in the features and labels; (2) the dimensionality of the new space exerts negligible influences upon SMDS; and (3) when the sample size is small, the performance of SMDS deteriorates with the increase of feature dimension. When applied to features extracted from resting state fMRI data for individual age predictions, SMDS was observed to outperform classic DR techniques, including principal component analysis, locally linear embedding and multidimensional scaling (MDS). Hopefully, SMDS can be widely used in studies on MRI-based predictions. Furthermore, novel supervised DR techniques for regression purposes can easily be developed by replacing MDS with other nonlinear DR techniques.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Análise de Escalonamento Multidimensional , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Previsões , Humanos
18.
RSC Adv ; 11(44): 27226-27245, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480642

RESUMO

Cistanche deserticola is an endangered plant used for medicine and food. Our purpose is to explore the differences in metabolism between inflorescences in non-medicinal parts and succulent stems in medicinal parts in order to strengthen the application and development of the non-medicinal parts of C. deserticola. We performed metabolomics analysis through LC-ESI-MS/MS on the inflorescences and succulent stems of three ecotypes (saline-alkali land, grassland and sandy land) of C. deserticola. A total of 391 common metabolites in six groups were identified, of which isorhamnetin O-hexoside (inflorescence) and rosinidin O-hexoside (succulent stems) can be used as chemical markers to distinguish succulent stems and inflorescences. Comparing the metabolic differences of three ecotypes, we found that most of the different metabolites related to salt-alkali stress were flavonoids. In particular, we mapped the biosynthetic pathway of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) and showed the metabolic differences in the six groups. To better understand the pharmacodynamic mechanisms and targets of C. deserticola, we screened 88 chemical components and 15 potential disease targets through molecular docking. The active ingredients of C. deserticola have a remarkable docking effect on the targets of aging diseases such as osteoporosis, vascular disease and atherosclerosis. To explore the use value of inflorescence, we analyzed the molecular docking of the unique flavonoid metabolites in inflorescence with inflammation targets. The results showed that chrysoeriol and cynaroside had higher scores for inflammation targets. This study provides a scientific basis for the discovery and industrialization of the resource value of the non-medicinal parts of C. deserticola, and the realization of the sustainable development of C. deserticola. It also provides a novel strategy for exploring indications of Chinese herb.

19.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333811

RESUMO

High-fat diet (HFD) usually induces oxidative stress and astaxanthin is regarded as an excellent anti-oxidant. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary astaxanthin supplementation on growth performance, lipid metabolism, antioxidant ability, and immune response of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) fed HFD. Four diets were formulated: the control diet (10.87% lipid, C), high-fat diet (18.08% lipid, HF), and HF diet supplemented with 75 and 150 mg kg-1 astaxanthin (HFA1 and HFA2, respectively). Dietary supplementation of astaxanthin improved the growth of fish fed HFD, also decreased hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio of fish fed HFD, while having no effect on body fat. Malondialdehyde content and superoxide dismutase activity were increased in fish fed HFD, astaxanthin supplementation in HFD decreased the oxidative stress of fish. The supplementation of astaxanthin in HFD also reduced the mRNA levels of Caspase 3, Caspase 9, BAD, and IL15. These results suggested that dietary astaxanthin supplementation in HFD improved the growth performance, antioxidant ability and immune response of largemouth bass.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bass , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/farmacologia
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 229: 105670, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166902

RESUMO

Antibiotics have been widely used (mainly mixed with feed) in aquaculture, while few studies have evaluated the interactions between feed composition and antibiotics. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a fat-soluble antibiotic, an eight weeks feeding trial was conducted to investigate the interactions between dietary lipid levels and chronic exposure of legal aquaculture dose of sulfamethoxazole in juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and evaluated the possible human health risk. Six practical diets were formulated to three levels of crude lipid (11, 14.5, 18 %) and two levels of SMX (0 and 0.3 %), namely low fat (LF), moderate fat (MF), high fat (HF), low fat and SMX (LFS), moderate fat and SMX (MFS), high fat and SMX (HFS), respectively. Each diet was assigned to three tanks (20 fish per tank, average weight 30.65 ± 0.02 g). Growth and organ indices were increased by SMX. Higher malformation rate and lower hypoxia stress resistance were found in fish exposed to SMX than those not exposed. Cholesterol and bile acid synthesis related gene expressions were down-regulated by SMX exposure. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were increased in fish exposed to SMX. Significant interactions between dietary lipid levels and SMX on renal immune response of fish were observed. Remarkable damage of intestinal histology was observed in fish fed the diet HFS. In addition, dietary SMX exposure increased pathogen susceptibility of largemouth bass and induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota. The concentrations of SMX in muscle of fish fed diets containing SMX were higher than those fed other diets, and close to the maximum residue limit (MRL) in China and international organizations. Although chronic legal aquaculture dose of dietary SMX also increased the target hazard quotient (THQ) and estimated daily intake (EDI), there is no health risk in adults and children consuming fish filet.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Bass/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Sulfametoxazol/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bass/sangue , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bass/imunologia , China , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/imunologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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