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1.
Chemosphere ; 293: 133533, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998842

RESUMO

Fine materials (FM) from municipal solid waste (MSW) classification require disposal, and pyrolysis is a feasible method for the treatments. Hence, the behavior, kinetics, and products of FM pyrolysis were investigated in this study. A deep learning algorithm was firstly employed to predict and verify the TG data during the process of FM pyrolysis. The results showed that FM pyrolysis could be divided into drying (<138 °C), de-volatilization (138-570 °C), and decomposition stage (≥570 °C above). The de-volatilization can further be divided into stage 2 and stage 3, with values of activation energy estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods as 123.35 and 172.95 kJ/mol, respectively. The gas products like H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO, as well as functional groups like phenols and carbonyl (CO), were all detected during the process of FM pyrolysis by thermogravimetric-fourier transform infrared spectrometry at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. The main species detected by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyzer included acid (41.98%) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (22.44%). Finally, the 1D-CNN-LSTM algorithm demonstrated an outstanding generalization capability to predict the relationship between FM composition and temperature, with R2 reaching 93.91%. In sum, this study provided a reference for the treatment of FM from MSW classification as well as the feasibility and practicability of deep learning applied in pyrolysis.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn oil massage is a widespread practice. Vigorous massage with potentially harmful products and forced removal of vernix may disrupt skin barrier integrity. Hospitalized, very preterm infants treated with sunflower seed oil (SSO) have demonstrated improved growth but community-based data on growth and health outcomes are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test whether SSO therapy enhances neonatal growth and reduces morbidity at population-level. DESIGN: We conducted an open-label, controlled trial in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, randomly allocating 276 village clusters equally to comparison (usual care) and intervention comprised of promotion of improved massage practices exclusively with SSO, using intention-to-treat and per-protocol mixed-effects regression analysis. RESULTS: We enrolled 13,478 and 13,109 newborn infants in demographically similar intervention and comparison arms, respectively. Adherence to exclusive SSO increased from 22.6% of intervention infants enrolled in the first study quartile to 37.2% in the last quartile. Intervention infants gained significantly more weight by 0.94 grams/kilogram/day (g/kg/d) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07, 1.82, p = 0.03] than comparison infants by intention-to-treat analysis. Restricted cubic spline regression revealed the largest benefits in weight gain (2-4 g/kg/day) occurred in infants <2000 g. Weight gain in intervention infants was higher by 1.31 g/kg/d (95% CI: 0.17, 2.46, p = 0.02) by per-protocol analysis. Morbidities were similar by intention-to-treat analysis but in per-protocol analysis rates of hospitalization and of any illness were reduced by 36% [odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94, p = 0.02] and 44% (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.77, p<0.001), respectively, in treated infants. CONCLUSIONS: SSO therapy improved neonatal growth, and reduced morbidities when applied exclusively, across the facility-community continuum of care at population-level. Further research is needed to improve demand for recommended therapy inside hospital as well as in community settings, and to confirm these results in other settings. Clinical Trial Registry: The trial was registered at the ISRCTN (ISRCTN38965585) and CTRI (CTRI/2014/12/005282) registries with WHO UTN # U1111-1158-4665.

4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851356

RESUMO

Importance: In a comparative trial, the time to a clinical event is often a key end point. However, the occurrence of a terminal event, such as death or premature study discontinuation, may preclude observation of this outcome. Although various methods for handling competing risks are available, no specific recommendations have been made for scenarios encountered in practice, especially when the terminal event profiles of the study arms are dissimilar. Moreover, appropriate methods for a desirable outcome, such as live hospital discharge, have seldom been discussed. Observations: Several of the most commonly used methods are reviewed. The first regards the terminal event as censoring and applies standard survival analysis to the event of interest. The between-group difference is usually summarized by the cause-specific hazard ratio. This summary measure is inappropriate when the new therapy markedly prolongs time to the terminal event. Moreover, the corresponding Kaplan-Meier curve for the end point of interest is uninterpretable. The second method is to use the cumulative incidence curve, which is the probability of experiencing the event of interest by each time point, acknowledging that patients who have died will never experience the event. However, the resulting pseudo hazard ratio is difficult to interpret. With a proper alternative summary measure, this approach works well for a desirable outcome but may not for an undesirable outcome. The third method focuses on the event-free survival time by combining information from occurrences of the terminal event and the event of interest simultaneously. This clinically interpretable method naturally accounts for differences in terminal event rates when comparing treatments with respect to the time to an undesirable outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: This article enhances our understanding of each method's advantages and shortcomings and assists practitioners in choosing appropriate methods for handling competing risk problems in practice.

5.
Biometrics ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874550

RESUMO

In studies that require long-term and/or costly follow-up of participants to evaluate a treatment, there is often interest in identifying and using a surrogate marker to evaluate the treatment effect. While several statistical methods have been proposed to evaluate potential surrogate markers, available methods generally do not account for or address the potential for a surrogate to vary in utility or strength by patient characteristics. Previous work examining surrogate markers has indicated that there may be such heterogeneity, that is, that a surrogate marker may be useful (with respect to capturing the treatment effect on the primary outcome) for some subgroups, but not for others. This heterogeneity is important to understand, particularly if the surrogate is to be used in a future trial to replace the primary outcome. In this paper, we propose an approach and estimation procedures to measure the surrogate strength as a function of a baseline covariate W and thus examine potential heterogeneity in the utility of the surrogate marker with respect to W. Within a potential outcome framework, we quantify the surrogate strength/utility using the proportion of treatment effect on the primary outcome that is explained by the treatment effect on the surrogate. We propose testing procedures to test for evidence of heterogeneity, examine finite sample performance of these methods via simulation, and illustrate the methods using AIDS clinical trial data.

6.
Circ Res ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886685

RESUMO

Background: Average lifetime risk for heart failure (HF) is high, but differs significantly across and within sex-race groups. No models for estimating long-term risk for HF exist, which would allow for earlier identification and interventions in high-risk subsets. The authors aim to derive 30-year HF risk equations. Methods: Adults between the ages of 20 to 59 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline from 5 population-based cohorts were included. Among 24,838 participants (55% women, 25% Black based on self-report), follow-up consisted of 599,551 person-years. Sex- and race-specific 30-year HF risk equations were derived and validated accounting for competing risk of non-HF death. HF was based on a clinical diagnosis. Model discrimation and calibration were assessed using 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the model was applied to varying risk factor patterns for systematic examination. Results: The rate of incident HF was 4.0 per 1000 person-years. Harrell's c statistics were 0.82 (0.80-0.83) and 0.84 (0.82-0.85) in White and Black men, and 0.84 (0.82-0.85) and 0.85 (0.83-0.87) in White and Black women, respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow calibration was acceptable, with x2 <30 in all subgroups. Risk estimation varied across sex-race groups: for example, in an average 40-year-old non-smoker with an untreated systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg and body mass index of 30 kg/m2, risk was estimated to be 22.8% in a Black man, 13.7% in a White man, 13.0% in a Black woman, and 12.1% in a White woman. Conclusions: Sex- and race-specific equations for prediction of long-term risk of HF demonstrated high discrimination and adequate calibration.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112502, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891120

RESUMO

Antibodies that bind polyethylene glycol (PEG) can be induced by pegylated biomolecules and also exist in a significant fraction of healthy individuals who have never received pegylated medicines. The binding affinity of antibodies against PEG (anti-PEG antibodies) likely varies depending on if they are induced or naturally occurring. Anti-PEG antibodies can accelerate the clearance of pegylated medicines from the circulation, resulting in loss of drug efficacy, but it is unknown how accelerated blood clearance is affected by anti-PEG antibody affinity. We identified a panel of anti-PEG IgG and IgM antibodies with binding avidities ranging over several orders of magnitude to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (PEG-EPO), which is used to treat patients suffering from anemia. Formation of in vitro immune complexes between PEG-EPO and anti-PEG IgG or IgM antibodies was more obvious as antibody affinity increased. Likewise, high affinity anti-PEG antibodies produced greater accelerated blood clearance of PEG-EPO as compared to low affinity antibodies. The molar ratio of anti-PEG antibody to PEG-EPO that accelerates drug clearance in mice correlates with antibody binding avidity. Our study indicates that the bioactivity of PEG-EPO may be reduced due to rapid clearance in patients with either high concentrations of low affinity or low concentrations of high affinity anti-PEG IgG and IgM antibodies.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e27779, 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many recent studies have demonstrated that serum miRNA-208 (miR-208) could be a powerful biomarker in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the result of previous studies was not accurate due to the small sample sizes and controversial issues. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the relationship between the expression levels of miR-208 and AMI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a preliminary literature search was performed. The study was based on articles published in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane databases before September 30, 2019. Two staff members extracted data from the included articles for meta-analysis. These data were analyzed for sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operator curve (SROC) analyses. RESULTS: This study included 13 pieces of literature, which contains 1703 patients with AMI and 1589 controls. The main results of our meta-analysis were as follows: The pool sensitivity and specificity of miR-208 for diagnosing AMI was 83% and 97%. The area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 93%. Mir-208 had a highly effective diagnostic capacity to distinguish AMI from chest pain patients with an AUC of 93%. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that circulating miR-208 was a reliable biomarker both for diagnosting ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). MiR-208 was sufficient to distinguish AMI patients with chest pain from healthy controls.

9.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(11): 3665-3677, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900545

RESUMO

Detailed knowledge on tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is vital for more accurate understanding the molecular pathological signature and developing novel therapeutic strategies. In the present study, a spatial-resolved metabolomics approach based on air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization (AFADESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) integrated mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was proposed to investigate tissue-specific metabolic alterations in the kidneys of high-fat diet-fed and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated DN rats and the therapeutic effect of astragaloside IV, a potential anti-diabetic drug, against DN. As a result, a wide range of functional metabolites including sugars, amino acids, nucleotides and their derivatives, fatty acids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerides, carnitine and its derivatives, vitamins, peptides, and metal ions associated with DN were identified and their unique distribution patterns in the rat kidney were visualized with high chemical specificity and high spatial resolution. These region-specific metabolic disturbances were ameliorated by repeated oral administration of astragaloside IV (100 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. This study provided more comprehensive and detailed information about the tissue-specific metabolic reprogramming and molecular pathological signature in the kidney of diabetic rats. These findings highlighted the promising potential of AFADESI and MALDI integrated MSI based metabolomics approach for application in metabolic kidney diseases.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e021917, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913367

RESUMO

Background Associations of 1-year change in functional performance measures with subsequent mobility loss and mortality in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease are unknown. Methods and Results Six-minute walk and 4-meter walking velocity (usual and fastest pace) were measured at baseline and 1 year later in 612 people with peripheral artery disease (mean age 71±9 years, 37% women). Participants were categorized into tertiles, based on 1-year changes in walking measures. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine associations between 1-year change in each walking measure and subsequent mobility loss and mortality, respectively, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with the best tertile, the worst tertile (ie, greatest decline) in 1-year change in each performance measure was associated with higher rates of mobility loss: 6-minute walk (Tertile 1 [T1] cumulative incidence rate [IR], 72/160; Tertile 3 [T3] IR, 47/160; hazard ratio [HR], 2.35; 95% CI, 1.47-3.74), usual-paced 4-meter walking velocity (T1 IR, 54/162; T3 IR, 57/162; HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.41-3.47), and fast-paced 4-meter walking velocity (T1 IR, 61/162; T3 IR, 58/162; HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.16-2.84). Compared with the best tertile, the worst tertiles in 1-year change in 6-minute walk (T1 IR, 66/163; T3 IR, 54/163; HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.43) and fast-paced 4-meter walking velocity (T1 IR, 63/166; T3 IR, 44/166; HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.16, 2.64) were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions In people with peripheral artery disease, greater 1-year decline in 6-minute walk or 4-meter walking velocity may help identify people with peripheral artery disease at highest risk for mobility loss and mortality.

11.
Cell Biosci ; 11(1): 217, 2021 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controversy over the benefits of antioxidants supplements in cancers persists for long. Using hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a model, we investigated the effects of exogenous antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH) on tumor formation and growth. METHODS: Multiple mouse models, including diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced and Trp53KO/C-MycOE-induced HCC models, mouse hepatoma cell and human HCC cell xenograft models with subcutaneous or orthotopic injection were used. In vitro assays including ROS assay, colony formation, sphere formation, proliferation, migration and invasion, apoptosis, cell cycle assays were conducted. Western blot was performed for protein expression and RNA-sequencing to identify potential gene targets. RESULTS: In these multiple different mouse and cell line models, we observed that NAC and GSH promoted HCC tumor formation and growth, accompanied with significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Moreover, NAC and GSH promoted cancer stemness, and abrogated the tumor-suppressive effects of Sorafenib both in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous supplementation of NAC or GSH reduced the expression of NRF2 and GCLC, suggesting the NRF2/GCLC-related antioxidant production pathway might be desensitized. Using transcriptomic analysis to identify potential gene targets, we found that TMBIM1 was significantly upregulated upon NAC and GSH treatment. Both TCGA and in-house RNA-sequence databases showed that TMBIM1 was overexpressed in HCC tumors. Stable knockdown of TMBIM1 increased the intracellular ROS; it also abolished the promoting effects of the antioxidants in HCC cells. On the other hand, BSO and SSA, inhibitors targeting NAC and GSH metabolism respectively, partially abrogated the pro-oncogenic effects induced by NAC and GSH in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our data implicate that exogenous antioxidants NAC and GSH, by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and inducing TMBIM expression, promoted HCC formation and tumor growth, and counteracted the therapeutic effect of Sorafenib. Our study provides scientific insight regarding the use of exogenous antioxidant supplements in cancers.

12.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826322

RESUMO

The therapeutic efficacy of methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG)-coated nanomedicines in solid tumor treatment is hindered by tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs), which promote tumor progression and form physical barriers. We developed an anti-HER2/anti-FAP/anti-mPEG tri-specific antibody (TsAb) for one-step conversion of mPEG-coated liposomal doxorubicin (Lipo-Dox) to immunoliposomes, which simultaneously target HER2+ breast cancer cells and FAP+ TAFs. The non-covalent modification did not adversely alter the physical characteristics and stability of Lipo-Dox. The TsAb-Lipo-Dox exhibited specific targeting and enhanced cytotoxicity against mono- and co-cultured HER2+ breast cancer cells and FAP+ TAFs, compared to bi-specific antibody (BsAb) modified or unmodified Lipo-Dox. An in vivo model of human breast tumor containing TAFs also revealed the improved tumor accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of TsAb-modified mPEGylated liposomes without signs of toxicity. Our data indicate that arming clinical mPEGylated nanomedicines with the TsAb is a feasible and applicable approach for overcoming the difficulties caused by TAFs in solid tumor treatment.

13.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe, delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR). We observed DRESS to inhibitors of interleukin 1 (IL-1) or IL-6 in a small group of patients with Still's disease with atypical lung disease. We sought to characterise features of patients with Still's disease with DRESS compared with drug-tolerant Still's controls. We analysed human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for association to inhibitor-related DHR, including in a small Kawasaki disease (KD) cohort. METHODS: In a case/control study, we collected a multicentre series of patients with Still's disease with features of inhibitor-related DRESS (n=66) and drug-tolerant Still's controls (n=65). We retrospectively analysed clinical data from all Still's subjects and typed 94/131 for HLA. European Still's-DRESS cases were ancestry matched to International Childhood Arthritis Genetics Consortium paediatric Still's cases (n=550) and compared for HLA allele frequencies. HLA association also was analysed using Still's-DRESS cases (n=64) compared with drug-tolerant Still's controls (n=30). KD subjects (n=19) were similarly studied. RESULTS: Still's-DRESS features included eosinophilia (89%), AST-ALT elevation (75%) and non-evanescent rash (95%; 88% involving face). Macrophage activation syndrome during treatment was frequent in Still's-DRESS (64%) versus drug-tolerant Still's (3%; p=1.2×10-14). We found striking enrichment for HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes in Still's-DRESS cases versus INCHARGE Still's controls (p=7.5×10-13) and versus self-identified, ancestry-matched Still's controls (p=6.3×10-10). In the KD cohort, DRB1*15:01 was present only in those with suspected anakinra reactions. CONCLUSIONS: DRESS-type reactions occur among patients treated with IL-1/IL-6 inhibitors and strongly associate with common HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes. Consideration of preprescription HLA typing and vigilance for serious reactions to these drugs are warranted.

14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(11)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799398

RESUMO

In a comparative oncology study with progression-free or overall survival as the endpoint, the primary or key secondary analysis is routinely stratified by patients' baseline characteristics when evaluating the treatment difference. The validity of a conventional strategy such as a stratified HR analysis depends on stringent model assumptions that are unlikely to be met in practice, especially in immunotherapy studies. Thus, the resulting summary is generally neither valid nor interpretable. This article discusses issues with conventional stratified analyses and presents alternatives using data from KEYNOTE-189, a recent immunotherapy trial for treating patients with metastatic, non-squamous, non-small-cell lung cancer.

15.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(11): 3156-3158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746391

RESUMO

Styrax serrulatus Roxburgh (William Roxburgh 1832), which plays an important role in ecology and economy, is a deciduous species of Styracaceae. In this paper, we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the chloroplast (cp) genome of S. serrulatus by using the sequencing data from Illumina Novaseq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The complete cp genome of S. serrulatus is 157,929 base pairs (bp) in length, containing a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRs) of 26,048 bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 87,552 bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,281 bp. It contains 133 genes, including 8 rRNA genes, 37 tRNA genes, 87 protein-coding genes, and 1 pseudo gene. The GC content of S. serrulatus cp genome is 36.96%. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that S. serrulatus is a sister species to Styrax agrestis in Styracaceae.

16.
Hepatology ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ras-like (Ral) small GTPases, RalA and RalB, are proto-oncogenes directly downstream of Ras and cycle between the active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound forms. RalGTPase activating protein (RalGAP) complex exerts a negative regulation. Currently, the role of Ral upregulation in cancers remains unclear. We aimed to examine the clinical significance, functional implications, and underlying mechanisms of RalA signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RESULTS: Our in-house and TCGA RNA-sequencing data and quantitative polymerase chain reaction data revealed significant upregulation of RalA in patients' HCCs. Upregulation of RalA was associated with more aggressive tumor behavior and poorer prognosis. Consistently, knockdown of RalA in HCC cells attenuated cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. We found that RalA upregulation was driven by copy number gain and uncovered that SP1 and ETS2 co-transcriptionally drove RalA expression. On the other hand, RalGAPA2 knockdown increased the RalA activity and promoted intrahepatic and extrahepatic metastasis in vivo. Consistently, we observed significant RalGAPA2 downregulation in patients' HCCs. Intriguingly, HCC tumors showing simultaneous downregulation of RalGAPA2 and upregulation of RalA displayed a significant association with more aggressive tumor behavior in terms of more frequent venous invasion, more advanced tumor stage and poorer overall survival. Of note, Ral inhibition by a Ral-specific inhibitor RBC8 suppressed the oncogenic functions in a dose-dependent manner and sensitized HCC cells to Sorafenib treatment, with an underlying enhanced inhibition of mTOR signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new biological insight that dysregulation of RalA signaling through dual regulatory mechanisms supports its oncogenic functions in HCC. Targeting RalA may serve as a potential alternative therapeutic approach alone or in combination with currently available therapy.

17.
J Vasc Surg ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793926

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An individual's understanding of disease risk factors and outcomes is important for the ability to make healthy lifestyle choices and decisions about disease treatment. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition with increasing global prevalence and high risk of adverse patient outcomes. This study seeks to understand the adequacy of disease understanding in patients with PAD. METHODS: This was an observational study of patients with PAD recruited from vascular surgery outpatient clinic and PAD clinical studies at a single academic medical center over an 8-month period. A 44-item paper survey assessed demographic and socioeconomic information, knowledge of personal medical history, PAD risk factors, consequences of PAD, and health education preferences. Patients with documented presence of PAD were offered the survey. Patients unable to complete the survey or provide informed consent were not considered eligible. Disease "awareness" was defined as correct acknowledgement of the presence or absence of a disease, including PAD, in the personal medical history. "PAD knowledge score" was the percentage of correct responses to questions on general PAD risk factors and consequences. Of 126 eligible patients, 109 participated. Bivariate analysis was used to study factors associated with awareness of PAD diagnosis. Factors associated with the PAD knowledge score were studied using the Pearson correlation coefficient, two-sample T-test, or one-way ANOVA. P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 69.4 ± 11.0 years and 39.4% (N=43) were female. Most participants (78.9%; N=86) had critical limb-threatening ischemia. Only 65.4% (N=70) of participants were aware of a diagnosis of PAD, which was less than their awareness of related comorbidities. Factors positively associated with PAD diagnosis awareness were female sex (81.4% vs. 54.7%; P=.004) and history of percutaneous leg revascularization (78.6% vs. 47.9%; p=.001). Among 17 patients who had undergone major leg amputation, 35% (N=6) were unaware of a diagnosis of PAD. PAD knowledge scores correlated positively with an awareness of PAD diagnosis (59.1% vs. 48.7%; P=.02) and negatively with a history of hypertension (53.4% vs. 68.1%; P=.001). Most participants (86.5%; N=90) expressed a desire to be further educated on PAD. The most popular education topics were dietary recommendations, causes, and treatment for PAD. CONCLUSION: Patients with PAD have deficits in their awareness of this diagnosis and general knowledge about PAD. Future research priorities should further define these deficits and their causes in order to inform new strategies that foster information-seeking behavior and effective educational programs for PAD.

18.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771154

RESUMO

Plant-derived antimicrobial agents have adequate antimicrobial effects on food-borne pathogens, which can be used as food preservatives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CA) against Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter sakazakii. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA was determined by employing the broth microdilution method. Then, the cell function and morphological changes of Y. enterocolitica and E. sakazakii treated with CA were characterized. Finally, the growth inhibition models of Y. enterocolitica in raw pork and E. sakazakii in skim milk were constructed through the response surface methodology. The results demonstrated that CA has a satisfactory inhibitory effect against Y. enterocolitica and E. sakazakii with a MIC of 2.5 mg/mL. In addition, CA inhibited the growth of Y. enterocolitica and E. sakazakii via cell membrane damage, such as depolarization of the cell membrane, reduction in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and pH levels, and destruction of cell morphology. Moreover, CA reduced two log cycles of Y. enterocolitica in raw pork and E. sakazakii in skim milk at a certain temperature. According to the corresponding findings, CA has the potential to be developed as an effective preservative to control Y. enterocolitica and E. sakazakii-associated foodborne diseases.

19.
Anal Methods ; 13(46): 5564-5572, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780584

RESUMO

Level 3 details play essential roles in practical latent fingerprint (LFP) identification. To reliably extract reproducible and identifiable level 3 features, high-resolution images of fingerprints with adequate quality are required. Conventional methods for acquiring level 3 details often involve specific pretreatment, intricate peripheral, leading to time-consuming analysis. Herein, we simply used water to develop the sebaceous LFPs deposited on nitrocellulose (NC) membranes with only one step, and then the high-resolution (2048 pixels per inch) optical micrographs were captured to reflect the live fingertip with high fidelity. From the pictures, level 3 features, including all dimensional attributes of the ridges and pores such as number, size, location, shape, and edge contour can be extracted accurately and reproducibly. Among them, qualitative features (the structures of ridge edges) and several quantitative characteristics (the number and the relative location of sweat pores) exhibit good reproducibility. Remarkably, we proposed a new parameter termed "frequency distribution of the distance between adjacent sweat pores", short form "FDDasp", which was further proved highly identifiable in different individuals, enabling the successful distinguishment between two fragmentary fingerprints with similar level 2 structures. We believe that this methodology provides a fast and quantitative analytical paradigm for latent fingerprint identification at level 3 details.

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