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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764021992807, 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The increasing prevalence of mental illness and low treatment rate presents a pressing public health issue in China. Pervasive stigma is a significant barrier to mental health recovery and community inclusion. In particular, stigmatizing or supportive attitudes held by healthcare providers could either perpetuate or mitigate self-stigma of people with mental illness. Moreover, mental health resources are unevenly distributed in China, with most of them concentrated in urban centers and provincial capitals. This study explores healthcare providers' attitudes toward mental illness and the challenges they faced at work in a rural Chinese county. METHOD: Four focus groups were conducted with 36 healthcare providers from a three-tier mental healthcare system in a rural county in southwestern China. Focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The team employed a conventional content analysis approach for data analysis. All transcripts were double-coded by three bilingual team members who are native Chinese speakers. Coding discrepancies were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Healthcare providers recruited from the county, township, and village levels varied in educational background, professional qualification, and experience of working with people with mental illness. Five thematic categories identified across four groups include (1) barriers to mental healthcare delivery, (2) keys to mental health recovery, (3) providers' attitudes toward providing care, (4) providers' perception toward patients and family members, and (5) providers' perception of training needs. CONCLUSIONS: This is a unique study that included healthcare providers from a three-tier healthcare system. Findings signal the importance of understanding healthcare practitioners' experiences and views to inform the design of training initiatives in rural or low-resource communities.

2.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541173

RESUMO

Objective: To explore potential molecular mechanisms and novel biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The mRNA expression datasets GSE63060 and GSE63061 and the miRNA expression dataset GSE120584 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNA (DEmiRs) were identified in the normal, MCI, and AD groups. Mfuzz clustering and weighted correlation network analyses (WGCNA) were conducted, followed by pathway and functional enrichment analyses and miRNA-mRNA network construction. Furthermore, phenotypic correlation analysis and experimental verification were performed on key DEGs and DEmiRs. Results: In total, 3,000 intersected DEGs from GSE63060/GSE63061 and 817 DEmiRs from GSE120584 were obtained. Mfuzz and WGCNA analyses revealed 106 DEGs including ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) and 28 DEmiRs including miR-6764-5p. These DEGs and DEmiRs were mainly enriched in pathways like Ribosome. Moreover, 5 key DEGs including cytohesin 4 (CYTH4) and 6 crucial DEmiRs including miR-6734-3p were identified by miRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that CYTH4 and miR-6734-3p were correlated with patients' age. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that RPL11 expression was significantly downregulated in the MCI and AD groups compared to that in the normal group, while the expression of CYTH4, miR-6764-5p, and miR-6734-3p was remarkably upregulated in the MCI and AD groups. Conclusions: miR-6764-5p might contribute to MCI and AD by targeting RPL11 in the ribosome pathway. Therefore, miR-6734-3p and its target mRNA CYTH4 might be used as novel biomarkers for MCI and AD.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590589

RESUMO

Direct oxidative C(sp)-H/C(sp 3 )-H cross-coupling offers an ideal and environmentally benign protocol for C(sp)-C(sp 3 ) bond formations. As such, reactivity and site-selectivity with respect to C(sp 3 )-H bond cleavage have remained a persistent challenge. Herein is reported a simple method for iron-catalyzed/silver-mediated tertiary alkylation of terminal alkynes with readily available and versatile 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. The reaction is suitable for an array of substrates and proceeds in a highly selective manner even employing alkanes containing other tertiary, benzylic, and C(sp 3 )-H bonds alpha to heteroatoms. Elaboration of the products enables the synthesis of a series of versatile building blocks. Control experiments implicate the in situ generation of a tertiary carbon-centered radical species.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565367

RESUMO

Ventilator-induced lung injury is associated with an increase in mortality in patients with respiratory dysfunction, although mechanical ventilation is an essential intervention implemented in the intensive care unit. Intrinsic molecular mechanisms for minimizing lung inflammatory injury during mechanical ventilation remain poorly defined. We hypothesize that Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression in endothelial cells protects the lung against ventilator-induced injury. Wild type and endothelial-specific YAP-deficient mice were subjected to a low (7 ml/kg) or high (21 ml/kg) tidal volume (VT) ventilation for 4 h. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung, vascular permeability, lung histopathology, and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured. Here we showed that mechanical ventilation with high VT up-regulated YAP protein expression in pulmonary endothelial cells. Endothelial-specific YAP knockout mice following high VT ventilation exhibited increased neutrophil counts and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Evans blue leakage and histological lung injury compared to wild-type littermate controls. Deletion of YAP in endothelial cells exaggerated vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation, downregulation of vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP) and dissociation of VE-cadherin and catenins following mechanical ventilation. Importantly, exogenous expression of wild type VE-PTP in the pulmonary vasculature rescued YAP ablation-induced increases in neutrophil counts and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, vascular leakage, and histological lung injury as well as VE-cadherin phosphorylation and dissociation from catenins following ventilation. These data demonstrate that YAP expression in endothelial cells suppresses lung inflammatory response and edema formation by modulating VE-PTP-mediated VE-cadherin phosphorylation and thus plays a protective role in ventilator-induced lung injury.

5.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764021997479, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown what the impacts of multiple dimensions of contact (e.g. level, quantity and quality) are on the stigma of mental illness. AIMS: To explore the relationship between the multiple dimensions of contact and stigma of mental illness among family members (FM), mental health workers (MHW) and community residents (CR) in Hong Kong. METHODS: The stigma, contact and knowledge were measured in FM, MHW and CR in Hong Kong. Multiple regression analyses were used. RESULTS: MHW (n = 141) had higher knowledge, more contact and lower stigma of mental illness than CR (n = 95) or FM (n = 62). Knowledge and contact quality were significantly associated with lower stigma of mental illness in the three groups. However, contact level and contact quantity were not significantly associated with most stigma components. The contact level was positively associated with stigma of mental illness among FM and CR. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study highlight the differences in knowledge, contact and stigma of mental illness among different stakeholder groups. This study suggests that positive contact (e.g. equal, supportive, voluntary and pleasant contact) reduces stigma of mental illness, while negative contact (e.g. unfriendly, unsupportive, unpleasant contact) may increase stigma. The Enhancing Contact Model (ECM) should be tested in future anti-stigma interventions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data on recurrent bacterial meningitis (RBM) in children are available. Here, we estimated the frequency of RBM in children and investigated the predisposing conditions, etiology, and clinical characteristics of RBM in children. METHODS: Cases of RBM in the Beijing Children's Hospital medical record database between January 2006 and December 2019 were collected. RESULTS: In total, 1905 children with bacterial meningitis (BM) were documented in the Beijing Children's Hospital medical record database. A total of 43 patients had RBM. The rate of RBM in children was 2.3% (43/1905). Forty (93.0%) patients had predisposing conditions, including 15 (34.9%) cases of inner ear malformations, 5 (11.6%) cases of dermal sinus tracts, 9 (20.9%) cases of head injury, 5 (11.6%) cases of congenital cranial meningocele, 3 (7.0%) cases of congenital skull base defects, 3 (7.0%) cases of immunodeficiency, and other 3 (7.0%) cases of unknown reason. Among all the 121 BM episodes, a total of 64 episodes were etiologically confirmed BM and the other 57 episodes were probable BM. Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 52) was accounted for 81.3% of confirmed BM episodes. Thirty-four of the 37 patients with congenital or acquired anatomical defects were available to follow up after surgeries, and all of them had no BM after surgeries. Three patients with antibody deficiencies got intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and they did not suffer BM anymore. CONCLUSIONS: RBM is rare in children. The majority of children with RBM had predisposing conditions including congenital/acquired anatomical defects and immunodeficiency. Interventions should be implemented to solve the underlying conditions to avoid RBM.

7.
Surg Innov ; : 1553350620984650, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393435

RESUMO

Objectives. In this study, we performed a novel type of posterior en bloc elevation cervical laminoplasty (PEEL) to keep the integrity of the posterior structure, aiming to reduce axial symptoms complicated by a conventional cervical laminoplasty procedure. Methods. Twelve human cervical cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were sequentially tested in the following order: intact condition, open-door laminoplasty (ODL) through bilateral intermuscular approach (mini-invasive ODL), PEEL, and laminectomy (LN). After bilateral transecting at the junction of lamina and lateral mass through the tubular retraction system, the PEEL procedure symmetrically elevated all the posterior structure which was further stabilized with bone grafts and titanium plates. Computed tomography (CT) scan and biomechanical testing were performed after each condition. Results. Both mini-invasive ODL and PEEL procedures were accomplished with 2 small incisions on each side. Two types of laminoplasties could enlarge the spinal canal significantly both in cross-sectional area and anteroposterior diameter comparing with intact condition. The PEEL procedure demonstrated a significantly higher enlargement rate on a canal area and a symmetrical expansion pattern. Compared with intact condition, mini-invasive ODL performed from C3-C7 demonstrated significantly decreased motion in all testing directions except the flexion range of motion (ROM); the PEEL procedure showed mild and insignificant decrease on ROM in all directions. Laminectomy resulted in a statistically significant increase in all directions except the lateral bending ROM. Conclusions. Posterior en bloc elevation cervical laminoplasty can enlarge the canal more effectively and preserve better ROM after operation than the ODL procedure. Although technically challenging, the PEEL procedure probably would decrease the common complications associated with ODL laminoplasty.

8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 8, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cultural factors play a crucial role in experience of stigma, there is scant review on the impact and importance of culture on stigma of mental illness across Pacific Rim Region. This study aims to investigate: 1) the cultural factors related to stigmatizing beliefs about mental illness in Pacific Rim region, and 2) culture-specific measures and interventions on stigma of mental illness. METHODS: A systematic search of papers was conducted in the MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google scholar through January 2003 to April 2019. RESULTS: Forty-one studies in Pacific Rim region which met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The rate of stigma of mental illness (e.g., public stigma: from 25.4 to 85.2%) was relatively high in Pacific Rim region. Culture factors (e.g., Collectivism, Confucianism, face concern and familism, religion and supernatural beliefs) contributed to people's stigmatizing behaviors and attitudes toward persons with mental illness, their relatives and mental health professionals. Certain measurements were developed and employed to assess different type of cultural factors related to stigma of mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural factors play an important role in influencing the rate and performance of stigma of mental illness. Further research on stigma of mental illness and culture-specific interventions to reduce the stigma should be conducted in the Pacific Rim region.

9.
Immunity ; 54(2): 324-339.e8, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453152

RESUMO

Vaccine elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a key HIV-research goal. The VRC01 class of bnAbs targets the CD4-binding site on the HIV-envelope trimer and requires extensive somatic hypermutation (SHM) to neutralize effectively. Despite substantial progress, vaccine-induced VRC01-class antibodies starting from unmutated precursors have exhibited limited neutralization breadth, particularly against viruses bearing glycan on loop D residue N276 (glycan276), present on most circulating strains. Here, using sequential immunization of immunoglobulin (Ig)-humanized mice expressing diverse unmutated VRC01-class antibody precursors, we elicited serum responses capable of neutralizing viruses bearing glycan276 and isolated multiple lineages of VRC01-class bnAbs, including two with >50% breadth on a 208-strain panel. Crystal structures of representative bnAbs revealed the same mode of recognition as known VRC01-class bnAbs. Structure-function studies further pinpointed key mutations and correlated their induction with specific immunizations. VRC01-class bnAbs can thus be matured by sequential immunization from unmutated ancestors to >50% breadth, and we delineate immunogens and regimens inducing key SHM.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6655185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506027

RESUMO

Background: Since the first diagnosed case of infection with the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), there has been a rapid spread of the disease with an increasing number of cases confirmed every day, as well as a rising death toll. An association has been reported between acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, our study was conducted to explore possible risk factors of AKI as well as whether AKI was a risk factor for worse outcome, especially mortality among patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: We included all hospital admissions with confirmed or clinically diagnosed COVID-19 from January 29 to February 25, 2020. We collected demographic and epidemiological information, past medical history, symptoms, laboratory tests, treatments, and outcome data from electronic medical records. A total of 492 patients with diagnosed or clinically diagnosed COVID-19 were included in this study. Results: The prevalence rate of AKI was 7.32%. Among the factors associated with AKI, males versus females (aOR 2.73), chronic kidney disease (aOR 42.2), hypertension (aOR 2.82), increased leucocytes (aOR 6.08), and diuretic use (aOR 7.89) were identified as independent risk factors for AKI among patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. There was a significant difference in hospital fees and death in patients with and without AKI (p < 0.05). The mortality rate in patients with AKI was 63.9%. Conclusions: AKI was widespread among patients with COVID-19. The risk factors of AKI in COVID-19 patients included sex, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, infection, and diuretic use. AKI may be associated with a worse outcome, especially mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , /complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(3): 359-369, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341304

RESUMO

Neonatal pneumothorax is a life-threatening condition. Chest X-ray is the main diagnostic method but has some defects. Lung ultrasound has emerged as a diagnostic method in recent years. The aim of this review was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound against chest X-ray in neonates with pneumothorax. We searched the Chinese journal full-text database, Wanfang database, China biomedical document service system, Weipu Chinese science and technology periodical full-text database, EMBASE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science (up to January 2020) for prospective studies on the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound in neonates with pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Meta-DiSc software, version 1.4 (Romany Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain). The search returned 528 studies, of which 8 full texts were assessed for eligibility against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The overall specificity and sensitivity of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of neonatal pneumothorax was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.99) and 99% (95% CI: 0.98-1.00), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio was 920.01 (95% CI: 265.81-3184.33), and the area under the curve was 0.996 7 (Q* = 0.978 5). However, the chest X-ray was always taken as the reference standard with a sensitivity of 82% (95% CI: 0.72-0.90), a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 0.90-0.99) and a diagnostic odds ratio of 44.54 (95% CI: 4.30-460.98). Study analysis studies indicated that the sensitivity of lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumothorax excepted chest X-ray as the single diagnosis criteria was 98% (95% CI: 0.93-1.00), the specificity was 100% (95% CI: 0.96-1.00) and the diagnostic odds ratio was 965.39 (95% CI: 161.195781.93), showing a higher accuracy than chest X-ray. In conclusion, lung ultrasound had better sensitivity and specificity than chest X-ray in the diagnosis of pneumothorax. Some ultrasonic signs (absence of lung sliding or B-lines) had a high sensitivity in the diagnosis, which could be used to diagnose pneumothorax. Lung point could help judge the severity of pneumothorax. Its presence indicates that pneumothorax is mild to moderate; otherwise, pneumothorax is severe.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China. METHODS: This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10-20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used. RESULTS: There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.

13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105379, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been increasing reports associating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with thromboembolic phenomenon including ischemic strokes and venous thromboembolism. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare neurovascular emergency that has been observed in some COVID-19 patients, yet much remains to be learnt of its underlying pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: We present a case series of local patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT; and aim to perform a systematic review of known cases in the current literature. METHODS: We describe two patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection and CVT from a nationwide registry in Singapore. We then conducted a literature search in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 11th June 2020. All studies reporting CVT in COVID-19 patients were included. RESULTS: Nine studies and 14 COVID-19 patients with CVT were studied. The median age was 43 years (IQR=36-58) and majority had no significant past medical conditions (60.0%). The time taken from onset of COVID-19 symptoms to CVT diagnosis was a median of 7 days (IQR=6-14). CVT was commonly seen in the transverse (75.0%) and sigmoid sinus (50.0%); 33.3% had involvement of the deep venous sinus system. A significant proportion of patients had raised D-dimer (75.0%) and CRP levels (50.0%). Two patients reported presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Most patients received anticoagulation (91.7%) while overall mortality rate was 45.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality rate of CVT in COVID-19 infection warrants a high index of suspicion from physicians, and early treatment with anticoagulation should be initiated.

14.
Int Wound J ; 2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314661

RESUMO

We aimed to explore the mechanism of circular RNAs (circRNAs) and provide potential biomarkers for molecular therapy of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Gene expression profile of GSE114248, including five normal samples and five DFU samples, was downloaded from GEO database. Differentially expressed circRNAs (DEcircRNAs) between two groups were identified. Then, DEcircRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA interaction was revealed, followed by the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network construction. Moreover, functional and pathway analysis were performed based on mRNAs, followed by the DM-related pathway exploration. Specific binding sites for key circRNAs and associated miRNAs were under investigation. Finally, RT-qPCR was used to verify the candidate the relative expression level of circRNA between normal tissues and DFU. Totally, 65 DEcircRNAs were revealed between two groups, followed by 113 circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interactions explored. The mRNAs in these interactions were mainly assembled in functions like cell proliferation and pathways. Moreover, a total of 11 DM-related pathways were revealed. Finally, circRNA-miRNA specific binding-site analysis revealed two key circRNAs, for example, circRNA_072697 and circRNA_405463, corresponding to their miRNAs. These two circRNAs were novel biomarkers for DFU. circRNA_072697 acted as a sponge of miR-3150a-3p in the progression of DFU via regulating KRAS. MAPK signaling pathway might contribute to the development of DFU.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 4991-4996, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350274

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) on the epithelial barrier of vaginal mucosa in mice with vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC). Seventy-two female SPF Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank group, VVC model group, fluconazole group, and BAEB treatment groups(high, middle and low dose groups). Estradiol benzoate was injected subcutaneously qd alt, and Candida albicans(2×10~6 CFU·mL~(-1)) was inoculated into the vagina of mice during the pseudo estrus period for 7 days to construct a VVC model, followed by drug treatment for 7 days. Gram staining was used to observe the morphology of C. albicans in the vaginal secretions of mice; the amount of fungal load on the vaginal mucosa of mice was detected on agar plate; the pathological status of murine vaginal mucosa was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining(HE); the integrity of mice vaginal mucosal epithelial barrier was observed by Masson's trichrome staining(MT), HE and periodic acid-schiff staining(PAS). Mucin-1 and mucin-4 protein expression levels of vaginal mucosal epithelial cells in mice were detected by immunohistochemistry; mucin-1 and mucin-4 protein expression levels on mucosal epithelial cells at 0 d, 3 d, and 7 d were determined by Western blot. The results showed that, in VVC model group, there were a large number of C. albicans hyphae and higher fungal load in vagina, within complete mucosal structure, cornified layer shed off, and the protein expression levels of mucin-1 and mucin-4 were significantly increased. After BAEB treatment, the hyphae in the vagina decreased; the fungal load decreased; the vaginal mucosal tissue damages were improved; the epithelial barrier was repaired, and mucin-1 and mucin-4 protein expression levels were down-regulated. The above results indicated that BAEB may play a role in the treatment of VVC by remodeling the integrity of the vaginal mucosal epithelial barrier.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal , 1-Butanol , Animais , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Membrana Mucosa , Vagina
16.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764020975792, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although knowledge is a crucial component in contact theory delineating how prejudice changes toward out-groups with stigmatized conditions, little is known about the mediating role of knowledge on contact, stigmatizing attitudes, and behaviors toward mental illness. AIM: This study aimed to examine the mechanism underlie contact and stigma change by knowledge. METHODS: A total of 366 participants including family members (FM), mental health providers (MHP), and community residents (CR) recruited across communities in Hong Kong and completed measures of contact level, contact quantity, contact quality, mental health related knowledge, prejudice, and discriminatory behaviors. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the association among the key variables. RESULTS: Higher level of contact was significantly correlated with better knowledge, less prejudice, and less discriminatory behaviors. Knowledge was directly and negatively correlated with prejudicial attitudes but was not significantly related to discriminatory behaviors. Furthermore, lower levels of prejudice were associated with less discriminatory behaviors. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of contact may increase understanding toward people with mental illness (PMI) and diminish stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors. Although prejudicial attitudes may be reduced by broadening mental health knowledge, increasing knowledge only might not ameliorate discriminatory behaviors. Future research should test mediators on contact and stigma by using longitudinal data.

17.
Parasite ; 27: 65, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231548

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an intestinal pathogen that infects a wide range of species, including humans. Cattle constitute an important host for E. bieneusi; however, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence and genotyping of E. bieneusi in cattle in the Hainan Province of China. In this study, PCR analysis of 314 fecal samples from cattle in six cities of Hainan was performed for genotype identification. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi in these animals was 9.9% (31/314), and ranged from 0.0% (0/12) to 20.5% (8/39). Five known genotypes - EbpC (n = 14), BEB4 (n = 12), J (n = 2), I (n = 1), and CHG5 (n = 1) - and a novel genotype: HNC-I (n = 1) - were identified. Genotypes EbpC and HNC-I were placed in zoonotic Group 1, and the remaining four genotypes (BEB4, J, I, and CHG5) were placed in Group 2. Since 93.5% of the genotypes found in the cattle (29/31) (EbpC, BEB4, J, and I) have previously been found in humans, these genotypes are probably involved in the transmission of microsporidiosis to humans.

18.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 11725-11740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235462

RESUMO

Immune-modulatory therapy, especially with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has reshaped cancer therapeutics. Immunotherapy is relatively a novel approach that can effectively delay the progression of aggressive tumors and inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis in many different tumor types. In the past years, ICIs have shown a sustained response and promising long-term survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, ICI therapy can unbalance the immune system and result in a wide range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which are generally manageable but occasionally lead to a fatal outcome. HCC generally develops in the context of liver cirrhosis which is typically caused by viral hepatitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These underlying diseases may cause symptoms that overlap with irAEs and lead to consequences such as late recognition, inadequate work-up, and inappropriate treatment. Owing to the growing use of immunotherapy in HCC, it is necessary for clinicians to strengthen their understanding of the frequency, clinical features, and management of irAEs. This review focuses on the common toxicities associated with ICI therapy in patients with HCC and summarizes therapeutic strategies that can be used to monitor and manage such toxicities.

19.
Semin Dial ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118200

RESUMO

Hemodialysis patients are susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mortality-related risk factors for those who undergoing hemodialysis with COVID-19. We conducted a retrospective study. A total of 49 hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 (Group 1) and 74 uninfected patients (Group 2) were included. For patients in Group 1, we found the median age was 62 years (36-89 years), 59.3% were male, and the median dialysis vintage was 26 months. Twenty-eight patients (57%) had three or more comorbidities and two patients (4%) died. The most common symptoms were fever (32.7%) and dry cough (46.9%), while nine patients (18.4%) were asymptomatic. Blood routine tests indicated lymphocytopenia, the proportion of lymphocyte subsets was generally reduced, and chest CT scans showed ground-glass opacity (45.8%) and patchy shadowing (35.4%). However, these findings were not specific to hemodialysis patients with COVID-19, and similar manifestations could be found in patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, for hemodialysis patients with COVID-19, lymphocytopenia and ground-glass opacities or patchy opacities were common but not specific to them, early active treatment and interventions against nosocomial infection can significantly reduce the mortality and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

20.
Biomarkers ; 25(8): 685-692, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Propofol, an aesthetic agent in paediatric patients, results in neurotoxicity in the developing neurons. To reduce side effects of propofol, the protective role of miR-455-3p (microRNA-455-3p) in developing rat brain was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were isolated from postnatal day 1 or 2 SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. The neurons were exposed to various concentrations of propofol (0, 10, 30, or 50 µM) for 6 h. Propofol-induced cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, expression levels of miR-455-3p and EphA4 (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular A4) in propofol-induced neurons were determined using qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Binding ability between miR-455-3p and EphA4 was predicted, and then validated by luciferase reporter assay. Neurons expressing miR-455-3p mimics, were treated with 50 µM propofol for 6 h, and apoptosis status was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Exposure to propofol significantly decreased cell viability of developing neurons isolated from neonatal rats. Propofol decreased miR-455-3p expression, while increased EphA4 level in the neurons. miR-455-3p mimics increased propofol-induced reduce in cell viability, and attenuated propofol-induced cell apoptosis of neurons. MiR-455-3p could target EphA4, and decreased expression of EphA4 in neurons exposure to propofol. EphA4 knockdown counteracted with the promotive effects of propofol on cell viability and apoptosis of neurons. CONCLUSION: Propofol treatment induces neurotoxicity and suppresses miR-455-3p levels in the developing hippocampal neurons. However, miR-455-3p could alleviate such neurotoxicity by reducing EphA4 expression, provided new insights into miR-455-3p as novel therapeutic target to prevent propofol-induced damages from bench to clinic.

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