Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 124
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Science ; 369(6503): 542-545, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732421

RESUMO

Inorganic semiconductors are vital for a number of critical applications but are almost universally brittle. Here, we report the superplastic deformability of indium selenide (InSe). Bulk single-crystalline InSe can be compressed by orders of magnitude and morphed into a Möbius strip or a simple origami at room temperature. The exceptional plasticity of this two-dimensional van der Waals inorganic semiconductor is attributed to the interlayer gliding and cross-layer dislocation slip that are mediated by the long-range In-Se Coulomb interaction across the van der Waals gap and soft intralayer In-Se bonding. We propose a combinatory deformability indicator (Ξ) to prescreen candidate bulk semiconductors for use in next-generation deformable or flexible electronics.

2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 192, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the WHO Trial Registration Data Set (TRDS) has been published for many years, the quality of clinical trial registrations with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is still not satisfactory, especially about the inadequate reporting on TCM interventions. The development of the WHO TRDS for TCM Extension 2020 (WHO TRDS-TCM 2020) aims to address this inadequacy. METHODS: A group of clinical experts, methodologists, epidemiologists, and editors has developed this WHO TRDS-TCM 2020 through a comprehensive process, including the baseline survey, draft of the initial items, three-round of Delphi survey, solicitation of comments, revision, and finalization. RESULTS: The WHO TRDS-TCM 2020 statement extends the latest version (V.1.3.1) of TRDS published in November 2017. The checklist includes 11 extended items (including subitems), namely Source(s) of Monetary or Material Support (Item 4), Scientific Title (Item 10a and 10b), Countries of Recruitment (Item 11), Health Condition(s) or Problem(s) Studied (Item 12), Intervention(s) (Item 13a, 13b and 13c), Key Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria (Item 14), Primary and Key Secondary Outcomes (Item 19 to 20), and Lay Summary (Item B1). For Item 13 (Interventions), three common TCM interventions--i.e., Chinese herbal medicine formulas, acupuncture and moxibustion-are elaborated. CONCLUSIONS: The group hopes that the WHO TRDS-TCM 2020 can improve the reporting quality and transparency of TCM trial registrations, assist registries in assessing the registration quality of TCM trials, and help readers understand TCM trial design.

3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 510: 47-53, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel SARS-CoV-2 caused a large number of infections and deaths worldwide. Thus, new ideas for an appropriated assessment of patients' condition and clinical treatment are of utmost importance. Therefore, in this study, the laboratory parameters of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were evaluated to identify the correlation between cytokine expression and other laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective and single-center study was performed in Wuhan, involving 83 severe or critical COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Laboratory parameters in ICU patients with laboratory-confirmed infection of SARS-CoV2 were collected. The association between parameters was assessed by Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 66 years (IQR, 57-73), and 55 (66%) were men. Among the 83 patients, 61 (73%) had 1 or more coexisting medical condition. The median concentration of IL-2R, IL-6, IL8, IL10, and TNFα were above the normal range, without IL-1ß. A significant negative correlation between IL-6 and platelet count was discovered (r2 = -0.448, P < 0.001) as well as a significant correlation between IL-6 and other platelet parameters. Finally, a correlation between multiple cytokines and coagulation indicators was found, pro-inflammatory factors were found to be more associated to coagulation parameters, with the highest correlation between IL-6 and the International normalized ratio (INR) (r2 = 0.444, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In addition, IL-6 seems more relevant in the evaluation of the condition of COVID-19 patients.

4.
Clin Respir J ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV), the changes in the expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) directly affect the magnitude of the tidal volume. OBJECTIVES: This experimental study aims to verify the precise effects of end-expiratory fluctuation on the body tidal volume to better assist NPPV in clinical practice. METHODS: We selected the TestChest-simulated lung simulation of different populations, including healthy subjects (normal group), patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with emphysema as their primary phenotype (COPD1 group), and patients with COPD with bronchitis as their primary phenotype (COPD2 group). RESULTS: Regarding the tidal volume curves of the three groups under various conditions, sixfold charts revealed that the tidal volume changed with the end-expiratory pressure fluctuations. In addition, regression coefficients for end-expiratory pressure fluctuations, (IPAP-EPAP) and (IPAP-EEPAP) exhibited a significant contribution to the tidal volume. The two coefficients in the normal, COPD1 and COPD2 groups were 52.294 and 10.414, 46.192 and -8.816, and 11.922 and 17.947, respectively. The circuit simulation results showed that the simulation curve fitted the experimental curve better by changing the coefficient of the descending edge of the expiratory phase. CONCLUSIONS: The study results suggest that the end-expiratory pressure fluctuation affects the body tidal volume. Compared with the bilevel positive airway pressure (PAP), the trilevel PAP provides additional respiratory support to the body during a respiratory difference in initial respiration and descent.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coagulopathy is one of the characteristics of critically ill patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) contribute to coagulopathy, but their role in COVID-19 remains unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of aPLs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera collected from 66 critically ill and 13 non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 were tested for anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-ß2-glycoprotein 1 (aß2GP1) (IgG, IgM, and IgA) and IgG aß2GP1-D1 by the chemiluminescence assay (CIA) and IgM and IgG anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) by ELISA. RESULTS: aPLs were detected in 47.0% of critically ill patients (31/66), but not in patients with non-critical conditions. IgA aß2GP1 was the most common aPL, present in 28.8% (19/66) critically ill patients, followed by IgA aCL (25.8%,17/66) and IgG aß2GP1 (18.2%,12/66). For multiple aPLs, IgA aß2GP1+IgA aCL was the most common type (22.7%, 15/66), followed by IgA aß2GP1+IgA aCL+ IgG aß2GP1 (15.2%, 10/66). aPLs emerge around 35-39 days post-disease onset. Dynamic analysis of aPLs revealed 4 patterns based on persistence or transient appearance of the aPLs. Patients with multiple aPLs displayed significantly higher incidence of cerebral infarction (p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: aPLs were common in critically ill patients. Multiple medium or high levels aPLs may help identify patients at risk of developing cerebral infarction. aPLs may be transient and disappear within a few weeks, but in genetically predisposed patients, COVID-19 may trigger the development of "COVID-19-induced-APS-like-syndrome". Long-term follow-up on COVID-19 patients positive for aPLs would be of great importance.

6.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clopidogrel is currently the only P2Y12 inhibitor with class I recommendation in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic coronary syndromes (CCS). Diabetic patients have reduced therapeutic response to clopidogrel. PURPOSE: This study assessed the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in diabetic patients after recent PCI for CCS. METHODS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily, in addition to aspirin 100 mg once daily for 15 days. P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) and percent inhibition were measured by VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HOPR) was defined as PRU > 208. Bleeding was assessed by the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes criteria. Cardiac ischemic events were evaluated as adverse events. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the patients (n = 39) were well balanced between the two groups. Both before and 2 to 4 hours after the final study dose on day 15, PRU was lower (41.3 ± 35.8 vs. 192.6 ± 49.5, p < 0.001; 36.6 ± 25.8 vs. 187.6 ± 70.9, p < 0.001), percent inhibition was higher (83.0% [70.5%, 96.0%] vs. 16.0% [0%, 25.0%], p < 0.001; 85.0% [76.0%, 96.5%] vs. 25.0% [0%, 39.0%], p < 0.001), and HOPR occurred less frequently (0% [0/20] vs. 26.3% [5/19], p = 0.020; 0% [0/20] vs. 31.6% [6/19], p = 0.008) in the ticagrelor group (n = 20) compared with the clopidogrel group (n = 19). No major or minor bleeding, or serious adverse events occurred in both groups. CONCLUSION: Ticagrelor achieved greater peak and trough platelet inhibition than did clopidogrel in diabetic patients after recent PCI for CCS, which suggests the potential use of ticagrelor in this clinical setting.

7.
iScience ; 23(7): 101267, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593955

RESUMO

Salangids, known as Asian icefishes, represent a peculiar radiation within the bony fish order Protacanthopterygii where adult fish retain larval characteristics such as transparent and miniaturized bodies and a cartilaginous endoskeleton into adulthood. Here, we report a de novo genome of Protosalanx chinensis, the most widely distributed salangid lineage. The P. chinensis genome assembly is more contiguous and complete than a previous assembly. We estimate that P. chinensis, salmons, trouts, and pikes diverged from a common ancestor 185 million years ago. A juxtaposition with other fish genomes revealed loss of the genes encoding ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR), SCPP1, and four Hox proteins and likely lack of canonical fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) function. We also report genomic variations of P. chinensis possibly reflecting the immune system repertoire of a species with a larval phenotype in sexually mature individuals. The new Asian icefish reference genome provides a solid foundation for future studies.

8.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 68: 105202, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593148

RESUMO

The effect of ultrasound on the conformational and physicochemical properties of soy protein isolate hydrolysates (SPHs) was investigated. SPHs were prepared at hydrolysis times of 20 min, 60 min, and 180 min, then treated with ultrasound for 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min at a frequency of 20 kHz and output powers of 150 W and 450 W. The structural properties and antioxidant capacities of the aqueous layer of SPHs (ASPHs) after sonication were evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), intrinsic fluorescence, DPPH radical scavenging activity assays, and microscopy observations. Results obtained showed that ultrasound treatment significantly disrupted the peptide aggregates formed during protein hydrolysis. The protein solubility was significantly increased after sonication (by up to 18.33%), as did the percentage of proteins with MW < 1 kDa in ASPHs. The antioxidant capacity of ASPHs also increased, as measured by DPPH assay. FTIR analysis of ASPHs indicated that the protein secondary structures were different, with an increase in ß-sheet and a decrease in α-helix and ß-turn. Furthermore, the changes in fluorescence spectra of ASPHs showed the transition of protein tertiary structure with a greater exposure of Trp residues in the side chains. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observations of the morphological structure of ASPHs further confirmed the significant effect of sonication on disrupting peptide aggregates. In conclusion, ultrasound can be used as an efficient treatment to promote the solubility of protein hydrolysates.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138178, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408444

RESUMO

The serious threat of air pollution to human health makes air quality a focus of public attention, and effective, timely air quality monitoring is critical to pollution control and human health. This paper proposes a deep learning and image-based model for air quality estimation. The model extracts feature information from scene images captured by camera equipment and then classifies them to estimate air quality levels. A self-supervision module (SCA) is added to the model and the global context information of the feature map is used to reconstruct the features by using the interdependence between the channel maps to enhance the interdependent channel maps and improve the ability of feature representation. In addition, a high-quality outdoor air quality data set (NWNU-AQI) was compiled to facilitate the training and evaluation of the model's performance. This paper compares and analyzes AQC-Net, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Deep Residual Network (ResNet) on NWNU-AQI. The experimental results show that AQC-Net yields more accurate results for air quality classification than other methods.

10.
Plant J ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445409

RESUMO

Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a transcription factor in the B3 domain family. ABI3, along with B3 domain transcription factors LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) and FUSCA3 (FUS3), and LEC1, a subunit of the CCAAT box-binding complex, form the so-called LAFL network to control various aspects of seed development and maturation. ABI3 also contributes to the abscisic acid (ABA) response. We report on chromatin immunoprecipitation-tiling array experiments to map binding sites for ABI3 globally. We also assessed transcriptomes in response to ABI3 by comparing developing abi3-5 and wild-type seeds and combined this information to ascertain direct and indirect responsive ABI3 target genes. ABI3 can induce and repress its transcription of target genes directly and some intriguing differences exist in cis motifs between these groups of genes. Directly regulated targets reflect the role of ABI3 in seed maturation, desiccation tolerance, entry into a quiescent state and longevity. Interestingly, ABI3 directly represses a gene encoding a microRNA (MIR160B) that targets AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF)10 and ARF16 that are involved in establishment of dormancy. In addition, ABI3, like FUS3, regulates genes encoding MIR156 but while FUS3 only induces genes encoding this product, ABI3 induces these genes during the early stages of seed development, but represses these genes during late development. The interplay between ABI3, the other LAFL genes, and the VP1/ABI3-LIKE (VAL) genes, which are involved in the transition to seedling development are examined and reveal complex interactions controlling development.

12.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(14): 2876-2886, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191252

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an oxygen-dependent, non-invasive cancer treatment. The hypoxia in the tumor environment limits the therapeutic effects of PDT. The combined delivery of photosensitizers and hypoxic prodrugs is expected to improve the efficacy of tumor treatment. In this paper, an erythrocyte and tumor cell membrane camouflage nanocarrier co-loaded with a photosensitizer (indocyanine green) and a hypoxic prodrug (tirapazamine) were used to combine PDT with chemotherapy. The system achieved less macrophage clearance through erythrocyte membranes and tumor-targeted tumor cell membranes, thereby inducing cell death and increasing tumor environment hypoxia by NIR irradiation of photosensitizers. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment activated TPZ to kill more tumor cells. In vivo results showed that the tumor inhibition rate of the drug-loaded nanoparticles increased from 34% to 64% after membrane modification. Moreover, the tumor inhibition rate of the photodynamic treatment group alone was only 47%, and the tumor inhibition rate after the combination was 1.3 times that of photodynamic therapy alone. Our platform is expected to contribute to the further application of cancer combination therapy.

15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 227: 117761, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707019

RESUMO

Heat shock is a potentially fatal condition characterized by high body temperature (>40 °C), which may lead to physical discomfort and dysfunctions of organ systems. Acidic pH environment in lysosomes can activate enzymes, thus facilitating the degradation of proteins in cellular metabolism. Owing to the lack of a practical research tool, it remains difficult to exploit relationship between heat shock and lysosome. Herein, a NIR lysosomal pH chemosensor (NRLH) was developed. One typical lysosome-locating group, morpholine, was incorporated into NRLH. The fluorescence intensity showed pH-dependent characteristics and responded sensitively to pH fluctuations in the pH range of 3.0-5.5. NRLH with a pKa of 4.24 displayed rapid response and high selectivity for H+ among common species. We also demonstrated NRLH was capable of targeting lysosomes. Importantly, NRLH was applied in cellular imaging and the data revealed that lysosomal pH increased but never decreased during the heat shock. Therefore, NRLH may act as an effective molecular tool for exploring the mechanisms of heat-related pathology in bio-systems.

16.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(1): 86-93, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is the most commonly used quality of life measure for vestibular disorders. However, there is wide variability in scores, and little is known about which variables contribute to dizziness-related quality of life. Our goal was to investigate the key demographic and symptom-related factors to that account for DHI variance. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Adult patients presenting to a dizziness clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: DHI variance explained by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Seventy subjects were included in our study. We performed univariate analyses on numerous demographic and dizziness-related factors, and constructed a multivariate model based on explaining the highest variance in the data with the least number of independent variables. Several validated quality of life and mental health survey scores (SF-36-quality of life; PHQ-9-depression; and GAD-7-anxiety) were significantly correlated with higher DHI scores. Additional factors, including the number of dizzy days per month, the number of dizziness descriptors (spinning, lightheadedness, disequilibrium, etc.), and the number of dizziness triggers (loud sounds, stress, riding in a car, etc.), were all significantly associated with higher DHI scores; a multiple linear regression model showed that these three aforementioned factors combined accounted for 56% of the variability in the DHI scores (p < 0.0001). Adding an index of depression, as measured by the PHQ-9, increased the adjusted R to 64% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: DHI score variability is explained by mental health and quality-of-life measures in addition to the daily burden of dizziness.

17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 299, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical identical and pharmacological inert are the basic requirements for placebo design, which are essential in clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy of an intervention. However, it is difficult to makeup a placebo of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) because of special color, taste and smell, etc. Currently, there is no specific requirements and standards for the creation of a CHM-placebo. The purpose of this study is to review the characteristics of the CHM-placebo design and application in registered clinical trials with CHM interventions and identify the common problems, if any. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) was systematically searched for CHM interventional trials with placebo-controlled design up to 31 December 2017. Registered information of each included trial was collected from specific registries involved in ICTRP through hyperlinks. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the characteristics of placebo design in CHM trial registrations. RESULTS: A total of 889 CHM interventional trials were registered from 1999 to 2017, and 40.8% (363) of them included CHM-placebo control design. The common ways of their design were: placebo as sole control (191, 52.6%); placebo as add-on control with baseline treatment (84, 23.1%); and placebo as double-dummy control (57, 15.7%). Among 363 included trials, 46 (12.7%) reported the compositions of placebos, including CHM ingredients (17 trials), excipients and other agents (29 trials). 2 (0.6%) reported pharmacological inert testing, and 52 (14.3%) descripted their placebos to be physically identical with the CHMs. 14 (3.9%) reported quality control of placebos, and 2 (0.6%) provided blinding assessment of placebos. CONCLUSIONS: The placebos included in most CHM trial registrations is not optimal in terms of placebo design, application, evaluation and reporting. Specific guidelines or standards of CHM-placebo design, including usage requirements, preparation specifications, quality assessments and reporting guidelines should be developed thus to improve their quality.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Efeito Placebo , Sistema de Registros , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 16(10): 756-763, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700515

RESUMO

Background: Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized skeletal muscle disorder that is associated with an increased likelihood of adverse outcomes, including falls, fractures, physical disability, and mortality. However, there have been few systematic studies of the prevalence and prognostic values of sarcopenia in older patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in hospitalized older patients with CHD, and to prospectively evaluate the effect of sarcopenia on the short-term prognosis of these patients. Methods: Patients aged ≥ 65 years, with the diagnosis of CHD from Peking Union Medical College Hospital between December 2017 and November 2018, were included. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia in 2014. Follow-up items included unscheduled return visits, occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE), and all-cause mortality. The MACCE-free survival curve of sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older patients with CHD was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the association between sarcopenia and an unscheduled return visits, MACCE, and all-cause mortality. Results: A total of 345 older patients with CHD were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 74 years. Among the patients, 78 (22.6%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. During the follow-up time, there were significantly more unscheduled return visits in sarcopenic patients than in non-sarcopenic patients (34.2% vs. 21.8%, χ2 = 4.418, P = 0.036), while there was no significant difference in the occurrence of MACCE (χ2 = 2.869, P = 0.09) or all-cause mortality (χ2 = 1.673, P = 0.196) between these patient groups. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the MACCE-free survival time of sarcopenic patients was significantly shorter than that in non-sarcopenic patients (χ2 = 4.102, P = 0.043). After adjusting for sex, age, and the Charlson comorbidity index, sarcopenia was not an independent risk factor of unscheduled return visits (HR = 1.002, 95% CI: 0.556-1.807). However, the complication of anxiety and depression was an independent risk factor (HR = 1.876, 95% CI: 1.012-3.477, P = 0.046) for unscheduled return visits in older patients with CHD. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized older adults with CHD. A shorter MACCE-free survival time and more unscheduled return visits are found in sarcopenic older patients with CHD. Clinicians should pay more attention to the functional status of older patients with CHD, as well as identification and management of geriatric syndromes.

19.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 7(9): e2388, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741810

RESUMO

Bony ankylosis of the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) occurs in up to 28% of patients with syndromic mandibular dysostoses. Release of complete osseous ankylosis is particularly challenging due to the lack of tissue planes separating the mandible from the skull base and the presence of congenital skeletal abnormalities. One recent advance in surgical imaging technology is three-dimensional virtual reality (3D VR), now in common use in neurosurgical resections. In this study, we describe the usage of 3D VR in TMJ arthroplasty and compare 3D VR to traditional computed tomographic (CT) guidance. Pediatric patients with syndromic mandibular micrognathia including Treacher Collins, Nager, and cerebrocostomandibular syndrome were retrospectively evaluated between 2008 and 2016. Patient characteristics, complications, inpatient times, and operative times were recorded. Of the 29 children with syndromic mandibular micrognathia treated between 2008 and 2016, 7 were diagnosed with TMJ ankyloses. Four consecutive pediatric patients (mean 8.7 years) undergoing interpositional TMJ arthroplasty with Matthews device placement were retrospectively evaluated. Two patients underwent traditional CT-guided versus 3D VR-guided temporomandibular joint arthroplasty (TMJA). No statistically significant differences were found among the age, complications, or inpatient hospitalization times. The average operative time in the traditional CT guidance group was 300 minute versus 134 minutes in the 3D VR group. Three-dimensional VR is a useful preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance tool. The major difference between VR and older technologies is the improved imaging in 3 dimensions for guidance, thereby potentially decreasing operative times.

20.
Genes Genomics ; 41(12): 1417-1430, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relatively rapid spread and diversity of marine pathogens posed an initial and ongoing challenge for cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), descendants of terrestrial mammals that transitioned from land to sea approximately 56 million years ago. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in regulating immunity against pathogen infections by detecting specific molecular patterns and activating a wide range of downstream signaling pathways. The ever-increasing catalogue of mammalian genomes offers unprecedented opportunities to reveal genetic changes associated with evolutionary and ecological processes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the molecular evolution of TLR signaling pathway genes in cetaceans. METHODS: Genes involved in the TLR signaling pathway were retrieved by BLAST searches using human coding sequences as queries. We tested each gene for positive selection along the cetacean branches using PAML and Hyphy. Physicochemical property changes of amino acids at all positively selected residues were assessed by TreeSAAP and visualized with WebLogo. Bovine and dolphin TLR4 was assessed using human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293, which lacks TLR4 and its co-receptor MD-2. RESULTS: We demonstrate that eight TLR signaling pathway genes are under positive selection in cetaceans. These include key genes in the response to Gram-negative bacteria: TLR4, CD14, and LY96 (MD-2). Moreover, 41 out of 65 positively selected sites were inferred to harbor substitution that dramatically changes the physicochemical properties of amino acids, with most of them situated in or adjacent to functional regions. We also found strong evidence that positive selection occurred in the lineage of the Yangtze finless porpoise, likely reflecting relatively recent adaptions to a freshwater milieu. Species-specific differences in TLR4 response were observed between cetacean and terrestrial species. Cetacean TLR4 was significantly less responsive to lipopolysaccharides from a terrestrial E. coli strain, possibly a reflection of the arms race of host-pathogen co-evolution faced by cetaceans in an aquatic environment. CONCLUSION: This study provides further impetus for studies on the evolution and function of the cetacean immune system.


Assuntos
Cetáceos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA