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1.
Cancer Control ; 28: 10732748211051228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Combined small cell lung cancer (C-SCLC) represents a rare subtype of all small cell lung cancer cases, with limited studies investigated its prognostic factors. The aim of this study was to construct a novel nomogram to predict the overall survival (OS) of patients with C-SCLC. METHODS: In this retrospective study, a total of 588 C-SCLC patients were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The univariate and multivariate Cox analyses were performed to identify optimal prognostic variables and construct the nomogram, with concordance index (C-index), receiver operating characteristic curves, and calibration curves being used to evaluate its discrimination and calibration abilities. Furthermore, decision curve analysis (DCA), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification index (NRI) were also adopted to assess its clinical utility and predictive ability compared with the classic TNM staging system. RESULTS: Seven independent predictive factors were identified to construct the nomogram, including T stage, N stage, M stage, brain metastasis, liver metastasis, surgery, and chemotherapy. We observed a higher C-index in both the training (.751) and validation cohorts (.736). The nomogram has higher area under the curve in predicting 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, and 36-month survival probability of patients with C-SCLC. Meanwhile, the calibration curves also revealed high consistencies between the actual and predicted OS. DCA revealed that the nomogram could provide greater clinical net benefits to these patients. We found that the NRI for 6- and 12-month OS were .196 and .225, and the IDI for 6- and 12-month OS were .217 and .156 in the training group, suggesting that the nomogram can predict a more accurate survival probability. Similar results were also observed in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: We developed and verified a novel nomogram that can help clinicians recognize high-risk patients with C-SCLC and predict their OS.

3.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the stiffness of pancreatic parenchyma and solid focal pancreatic lesions (FPLs) by virtual touch tissue imaging and quantification (VTIQ) technique and to investigate the potential usefulness of VTIQ method in the prediction of post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatectomy. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients who scheduled to undergo pancreatectomy were initially enrolled and received VTIQ assessment within one week before surgery. VTIQ elastography (Siemens ACUSON Sequoia, 5C-1 transducer) was used to measure the shear wave velocity (SWV) value of FPLs and the body part pancreatic parenchyma. The palpation stiffness of pancreas was qualitatively evaluated during operation by surgeons. POPF was finally diagnosed and graded through a three-weeks post-operative follow-up according to international study group of pancreatic fistula (ISGPF). SWV values were compared between POPF positive and negative group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of SWV value in predicting POPF. RESULTS: From December 2020 to June 2021, 44 patients were finally enrolled in this study, among which, 26 patients were identified to develop POPF after pancreatectomy. The SWV value of pancreatic parenchyma in POPF positive group was significantly lower than that in POPF negative group (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in palpation stiffness between the two groups (P = 0.124). Besides, neither the SWV value of FPL nor the SWV ratio between FPL to surrounding pancreatic parenchyma differ significantly between POPF positive and negative group (P > 0.05). Taking SWV value of pancreatic parenchyma >1.10 m/s as a cut-off value for predicting POPF, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.864 with 72.2% sensitivity, 92.3% specificity, 86.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 82.8% negative predictive value (NPV), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: VTIQ technique might be a potential non-invasive imaging method to predict POPF before pancreatectomy in future clinical practice.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(18): 22528-22543, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555811

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a lethal malignancy of the genitourinary system. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), which mediates cell differentiation and growth, acts as a biomarker of tumors and participates in cancer development and progression. Presently, the FSTL3's functions in RCC were investigated. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western Blot, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted to verify FSTL3 expression in RCC tissues and cell lines. BrdU assay and CCK8 experiment were made to monitor cell proliferation. Transwell was implemented to examine the invasion of the cells. Flow cytometry analyzed cell apoptosis, and Western Blot evaluated the protein levels of E-cadherin, Twist, and Slug. In the meantime, the protein profiles of the GSK-3ß, ß-catenin, and TGF-ß signaling pathways were ascertained. Moreover, the Xenograft tumor model was constructed in nude mice for measuring tumor growth in vivo. The statistics showed that FSTL3 presented an overexpression in RCC, and patients with a lower expression of FSTL3 manifested a better prognosis. Down-regulated FSTL3 hampered the proliferation, invasion, EMT, and tumor growth of RCC cells and caused cell apoptosis. On the contrary, FSTL3 overexpression enhanced the malignant behaviors of RCC cells. Furthermore, FSTL3 knockdown bolstered GSK-3ß, suppressed ß-catenin, and reduced BMP1-SMAD pathway activation. Inhibited ß-catenin substantially mitigated FSTL3-mediated promoting functions in RCC. In short, FSTL3 functions as an oncogene in RCC by modulating the GSK-3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathway.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360533

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in photosynthetic tissues of higher plants, whereas its non-photosynthetic role in the symbiotic root nodule was rarely characterized. In this study, 13 CA genes were identified in the model legume Lotus japonicus by comparison with Arabidopsis CA genes. Using qPCR and promoter-reporter fusion methods, three previously identified nodule-enhanced CA genes (LjαCA2, LjαCA6, and LjßCA1) have been further characterized, which exhibit different spatiotemporal expression patterns during nodule development. LjαCA2 was expressed in the central infection zone of the mature nodule, including both infected and uninfected cells. LjαCA6 was restricted to the vascular bundle of the root and nodule. As for LjßCA1, it was expressed in most cell types of nodule primordia but only in peripheral cortical cells and uninfected cells of the mature nodule. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, the knockout of LjßCA1 or both LjαCA2 and its homolog, LjαCA1, did not result in abnormal symbiotic phenotype compared with the wild-type plants, suggesting that LjßCA1 or LjαCA1/2 are not essential for the nitrogen fixation under normal symbiotic conditions. Nevertheless, the nodule-enhanced expression patterns and the diverse distributions in different types of cells imply their potential functions during root nodule symbiosis, such as CO2 fixation, N assimilation, and pH regulation, which await further investigations.


Assuntos
Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lotus/enzimologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/enzimologia , Simbiose , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Lotus/genética , Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/genética , Nódulos Radiculares de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361791

RESUMO

As a key enzyme regulating postprandial blood glucose, α-Glucosidase is considered to be an effective target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In this study, a simple, rapid, and effective method for enzyme inhibitors screening assay was established based on α-glucosidase catalyzes reactions in a personal glucose meter (PGM). α-glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose to produce glucose, which triggers the reduction of ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) to ferrocyanide (K4[Fe(CN)6]) and generates the PGM detectable signals. When the α-glucosidase inhibitor (such as acarbose) is added, the yield of glucose and the readout of PGM decreased accordingly. This method can achieve the direct determination of α-glucosidase activity by the PGM as simple as the blood glucose tests. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the developed method was applied to evaluate the inhibitory activity of thirty-four small-molecule compounds and eighteen medicinal plants extracts on α-glucosidase. The results exhibit that lithospermic acid (52.5 ± 3.0%) and protocatechualdehyde (36.8 ± 2.8%) have higher inhibitory activity than that of positive control acarbose (31.5 ± 2.5%) at the same final concentration of 5.0 mM. Besides, the lemon extract has a good inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase with a percentage of inhibition of 43.3 ± 3.5%. Finally, the binding sites and modes of four active small-molecule compounds to α-glucosidase were investigated by molecular docking analysis. These results indicate that the PGM method is feasible to screening inhibitors from natural products with simple and rapid operations.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Glicemia/análise , Catecóis/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , alfa-Glucosidases/sangue , Acarbose/química , Acarbose/farmacologia , Benzaldeídos/química , Benzaldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Sítios de Ligação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Catecóis/química , Catecóis/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/química , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Maltose/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Termodinâmica , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , alfa-Glucosidases/química
7.
Life Sci ; 284: 119874, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390725

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of 17ß-Estradiol (E2) on intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and the related mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of estrogen receptor ß (ERß) within intervertebral discs of humans and rats. After that, rat IVDD model was established by needle puncture and bilateral ovariectomy. Then, the serum E2 level was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and the degree of IVDD was evaluated by X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Safranin O-Fast Green staining. Finally, we used immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining to determine the effect of E2 on nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signal pathway both in vivo and in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: We identified that IVDD was associated with lower levels of ERß and ERß levels were inversely correlated with IVDD. The histological staining and radiological results showed that E2 supplement could alleviate IVDD progression. Additionally, immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that E2 could inhibit nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) synthesis, and degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signal pathway. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed that the above effects of E2 on the NF-κB signal pathway could be blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780 in vitro. Finally, inhibition of NF-κB signal pathway by BAY11-7082 could reduce MMPs synthesis and ECM degradation of NPCs. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these findings indicated that E2 could effectively ameliorate IVDD by inhibiting NPC apoptosis via inhibition of NF-κB signal pathway.


Assuntos
Estradiol/farmacologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/metabolismo , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Adolescente , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Núcleo Pulposo/patologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0246978, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234356

RESUMO

Donation after circulatory death (DCD) has expanded the donor pool for liver transplantation. However, ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) after DCD liver transplantation causes inferior outcomes. The molecular mechanisms of IC are currently unknown but may depend on ischemia-induced genetic reprograming of the biliary epithelium to mesenchymal-like cells. The main objective of this study was to determine if cholangiocytes undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) after exposure to DCD conditions and if this causally contributes to the phenotype of IC. Human cholangiocyte cultures were exposed to periods of warm and cold ischemia to mimic DCD liver donation. EMT was tested by assays of cell migration, cell morphology, and differential gene expression. Transplantation of syngeneic rat livers recovered under DCD conditions were evaluated for EMT changes by immunohistochemistry. Human cholangiocytes exposed to DCD conditions displayed migratory behavior and gene expression patterns consistent with EMT. E-cadherin and CK-7 expressions fell while N-cadherin, vimentin, TGFß, and SNAIL rose, starting 24 hours and peaking 1-3 weeks after exposure. Cholangiocyte morphology changed from cuboidal (epithelial) before to spindle shaped (mesenchymal) a week after ischemia. These changes were blocked by pretreating cells with the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFß) receptor antagonist Galunisertib (1 µM). Finally, rats with liver isografts cold stored for 20 hours in UW solution and exposed to warm ischemia (30 minutes) at recovery had elevated plasma bilirubin 1 week after transplantation and the liver tissue showed immunohistochemical evidence of early cholangiocyte EMT. Our findings show EMT occurs after exposure of human cholangiocytes to DCD conditions, which may be initiated by upstream signaling from autocrine derived TGFß to cause mesenchymal specific morphological and migratory changes.

10.
Am J Med Sci ; 362(3): 260-267, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Fabry disease (FD) in Chinese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of FD in Chinese patients with HCM. METHODS: Of 217 patients with HCM, FD probands were screened by next-generation sequencing at Fuwai Hospital. Medical data from α-galactosidase A activity, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, pathological examination, and follow up was analyzed. RESULTS: Two FD probands were observed (0.93% of patients with HCM), both of which were diagnosed with symptomatic obstructive HCM at 49 years of age. One proband had a GLA mutation (c.887T>C [p.M296T]) with a late-onset cardiac variant, which was characterized by dual ventricular hypertrophy and conduction disease with a permanent pacemaker. The other patient had a GLA mutation (c.758T>C [p.I253T]) with a classic phenotype and dual ventricular hypertrophy, atrioventricular block, renal failure, and recurrent cerebral infarction. Both probands had late gadolinium enhancement mainly in the basal segment of the inferolateral wall. Follow up revealed no exertional symptoms or outflow obstruction after surgical septal myectomy in the two probands, and stable renal function was observed after 6 months of migalastat therapy in the later one. A family study revealed six female carriers and three sudden cardiac deaths. CONCLUSIONS: FD is not uncommon in Chinese patients with HCM. Multiple organic involvement, dual ventricular hypertrophy, and conduction disease provide clinical clues for suspected FD, and early genetic screening is necessary. Surgical septal myectomy and migalastat improve the long-term prognosis of patients with FD.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Doença de Fabry/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Fabry/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , China/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Doença de Fabry/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046223, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145015

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery has been recognised as an important complication associated with short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. However, whether a higher level of postoperative cardiac troponin (cTn) is associated with a higher incidence of major complications remains controversial. Hence, we will conduct a comprehensive dose-response meta-analysis based on all relevant prospective studies to quantitatively evaluate the association between elevated postoperative cTn levels and short-/long-term adverse clinical outcomes following adult noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We will search the PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Library, ISI Knowledge via Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and VIP databases (from inception until October 2020) to identify all prospective cohort studies using the relevant keywords. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes will include cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Univariable or multivariable meta-regression and subgroup analyses will be conducted for the comparison between elevated versus nonelevated categories of postoperative cTn levels. Sensitivity analyses will be used to assess the robustness of our results by removing each included study at one time to obtain and evaluate the remaining overall estimates of all-cause mortality or MACE. To conduct a dose-response meta-analysis for the potential linear or restricted cubic spline regression relationship between postoperative elevated cTn levels and all-cause mortality or MACE, studies with three or more categories will be included. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is waived for the systematic review protocol according to the Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics Committee of Fuwai Hospital. This meta-analysis will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal for publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020173175.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Troponina , Adulto , China , Humanos , Incidência , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(24): 29130-29136, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126739

RESUMO

The natural-product-based low-molecular-weight supramolecular hydrogels (LMWSHs) induced by heating are rarely reported. In this work, a simple salt of oleanolic acid (OA) and choline ([choline][OA]) was used as the natural product hydrogelator (NPHG) to form LMWSHs. Unlike common sol-gel transitions, the OA-based LMWSH displayed a unique property with which the system could undergo a phase transition from the sol state to the gel state upon heating. Moreover, the phase separation was observed in sol and gel states when the temperature was elevated with nonreversible transparent-turbid transitions. LMWSHs showed good stability and injectability and the potential to be a drug delivery vehicle for sustained release of drugs. In this regard, this work provided a facile approach to designing an OA-based NPHG for preparing heat-induced LMWSHs.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5510124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055972

RESUMO

Objectives: To establish a novel animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) in rats and to investigate the effect of 17ß-estradiol (E2) intervention in this model. Methods: This study was divided into two parts: animal model (four groups: Sham, ovariectomy (OVX), Puncture, and OVX+Puncture; three-time points: 4, 8, and 12 weeks; three female rats/group/time point) and drug intervention (Sham, OVX+Puncture+corn oil, and OVX+Puncture+E2; three female rats/group). The rats were analyzed by micromagnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and safranin-O staining. Results: MRI and histological scores significantly differed among the four groups at the three-time points (all P < 0.05). IVDD progressed with time in the OVX, Puncture, and OVX+Puncture groups (all P < 0.05). The changes were the most obvious in the OVX+Puncture group. In the E2 intervention part, the Veh group had the worst MRI signals and histological scores (P < 0.05). The MRI scores in the E2 group were less obvious compared to the Sham group (P > 0.05). Also, the histological scores were significantly different between the Sham and E2 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The combination of ovariectomy and needle puncture can synergically induce IVDD in rat coccygeal discs. Estrogen treatment can effectively ameliorate IVDD progression in the newly established IVDD models.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Punções/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrogênios , Feminino , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911193

RESUMO

Interleukin-17A (IL-17), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, has been shown to participate in cardiac electrical disorders. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for ventricular arrhythmia. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17 in ventricular arrhythmia of diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced in both wild-type and IL-17 knockout mice by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). High-frequency electrical stimuli were delivered into the right ventricle to induce ventricular arrhythmias. We showed that the occurrence rate of ventricular tachycardia was significantly increased in diabetic mice, which was attenuated by IL-17 knockout. We conducted optical mapping on perfused mouse hearts and found that cardiac conduction velocity (CV) was significantly decreased, and action potential duration (APD) was prolonged in diabetic mice, which were mitigated by IL-17 knockout. We performed whole-cell patch clamp recordings from isolated ventricular myocytes, and found that the densities of Ito, INa and ICa,L were reduced, the APDs at 50% and 90% repolarization were increased, and early afterdepolarization (EAD) was markedly increased in diabetic mice. These alterations were alleviated by the knockout of IL-17. Moreover, knockout of IL-17 alleviated the downregulation of Nav1.5 (the pore forming subunit of INa), Cav1.2 (the main component subunit of ICa,L) and KChIP2 (potassium voltage-gated channel interacting protein 2, the regulatory subunit of Ito) in the hearts of diabetic mice. The expression of NF-κB was significantly upregulated in the hearts of diabetic mice, which was suppressed by IL-17 knockout. In neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes, knockdown of NF-κB significantly increased the expression of Nav1.5, Cav1.2 and KChIP2. These results imply that IL-17 may represent a potential target for the development of agents against diabetes-related ventricular arrhythmias.

15.
Insects ; 12(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803188

RESUMO

In the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), diapause is governed by a multigenetic constitution that responds to daylength and temperature with seasonality. The ACB displays uni- or multivoltinism, depending on its geographic specificity. Hence, warmer temperatures may result in alternation of voltinism in the ACB, which will help in understanding the ecological consequences of climate warming on insects. In the present study, we investigated the voltinism in two natural populations from Harbin (H) and Gongzhuling (G) as well as a laboratory (L) population (established from the H population in 2017) of the ACB, at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 (aCO2 390 µL/L and eCO2 750 µL/L) and temperature (aT and Et = At + 2 °C). From the diapause response, both the uni- and multivoltine ecotypes were coexisting in the H population. The neonate occurrence date of 50% individuals that induced diapause was ca. 10 days later in the G population than in the H population, but it was about 10 days earlier than in the L population. Comparing to the dates of onset and the peak of diapause induction, the G and L populations were less variable than the H population in response to a short and/or shortening daylength in the field. The univoltine individuals could not be eliminated completely after 19 generations of selection. Diapause incidence decreased with a climate-warming scenario, which was temporally specific and could be overridden by significantly low daily average temperatures. The eCO2 did not directly impact the voltinism. On the basis of voltinism, the H population was sympatric for uni- and multivoltine ecotypes, with multivoltinism being dominant. The univoltinism trait was recessive. Climate warming could significantly override the effect of photoperiod, which was yearly dependent. Warmer temperatures and a decreased latitude (shortened daylength), and their interaction, would drive ACB evolution toward diapause homogeneity for multivoltinism.

16.
ISME J ; 15(9): 2723-2737, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772107

RESUMO

Beneficial rhizobacteria promote plant growth and protect plants against phytopathogens. Effective colonization on plant roots is critical for the rhizobacteria to exert beneficial activities. How bacteria migrate swiftly in the soil of semisolid or solid nature remains unclear. Here we report that sucrose, a disaccharide ubiquitously deployed by photosynthetic plants for fixed carbon transport and storage, and abundantly secreted from plant roots, promotes solid surface motility (SSM) and root colonization by Bacillus subtilis through a previously uncharacterized mechanism. Sucrose induces robust SSM by triggering a signaling cascade, first through extracellular synthesis of polymeric levan, which in turn stimulates strong production of surfactin and hyper-flagellation of the cells. B. subtilis poorly colonizes the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in root-exudation of sucrose, while exogenously added sucrose selectively shapes the rhizomicrobiome associated with the tomato plant roots, promoting specifically bacilli and pseudomonad. We propose that sucrose activates a signaling cascade to trigger SSM and promote rhizosphere colonization by B. subtilis. Our findings also suggest a practicable approach to boost prevalence of beneficial Bacillus species in plant protection.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Sacarose
17.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97 Suppl 2: 1016-1024, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the procedure success rate and clinical outcomes of in-stent restenotic chronic total occlusion (ISR-CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of ISR-CTO PCI. METHOD: Patients who underwent ISR-CTO (n = 212) or de-novo CTO (n = 2,447) PCI at Fuwai Hospital from 2010 to 2013 were enrolled. Thirty-day and 5-year clinical outcomes were analyzed. The primary outcome was the incidence of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure at follow-up. The secondary outcome was the recanalization result (reasonable, suboptimal, or failed recanalization). RESULTS: ISR-CTO PCI had a higher rate of suboptimal recanalization than de-novo CTO PCI (p < .01). The syntax score before PCI (odds ratio (OR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.10; p = .002) and occlusion length ≥ 20 mm (OR: 2.70:95% CI: 1.46-4.98; p = .001) were predictors of suboptimal recanalization in ISR-CTO PCI. Cardiac death (p = .03) and 30-day all-cause mortality (p = .05) were higher among patients who underwent ISR-CTO PCI. The ISR-CTO group had a higher rate of MI (p = .07) at 5 years. Suboptimal recanalization (hazard ratio: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.13-5.83; p = .025) was an independent predictor of long-term major adverse events in ISR-CTO. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal recanalization, 30-day cardiac death, and long-term MI rates are higher for ISR-CTO PCI than de-novo CTO PCI. Suboptimal recanalization is an independent predictor of long-term major adverse events after ISR-CTO PCI.

18.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112387, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770723

RESUMO

Forest ecosystem conservation practice frequently sacrifices human livelihood, since there exists a structural conflict between both aspects in the degraded forest ecosystem. To reconcile the conflict has been widely viewed as a core issue, in which the payment of ecosystem service (PES) may play a critical role in solving this issue. In order to better understand the practical effectiveness of PES and explore the solution to reconcile the contradiction between conservation and livelihood, we investigated the decadal changes in the Sloping Land Conversion Program as a PES strategy in the Qilian Mountains, a degraded forest ecosystem of northwest China, and its effects on natural and social systems across the 10-year implementation period (2001-2011). The regional NDVI of study site was promoted from 46.24% to 61.28%, showing that vegetation cover had a massive increase during the whole implementation period. Also, the PES strategy had impelled more labor forces as migrant workers into the non-agricultural industries or urban areas. The migration dynamics in three industries demonstrated that the population of primary industry followed a gradually declining trend, and its percentage in total population was lowered from 33.44% to 19.82%. According to our household survey, local farmers reduced the economic investment in agriculture, and this enabled more labor forces to be released from agricultural industry. Interestingly, the attitudes towards the PES program for local inhabitants were gradually shifted from negative at initial stage to acceptable at middle stage, and finally to positive at late stage, as a consequence of PES application. In such case, the PES-led vegetation restoration strategy has been effectively implemented, which can reconcile the contradiction between conservation and livelihood, and ultimately achieve a win-win consequence. Our study provided a successful practical paradigm of coupled human and natural system (CHANS) in forest ecosystem restoration.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , China , Emprego , Florestas , Humanos
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(1): 226-238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390791

RESUMO

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and the prognosis of HNSCC remains bleak. Numerous studies revealed that the tumor mutation burden (TMB) could predict the survival outcomes of a variety of tumors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the TMB and immune cell infiltration in these patients and construct an immune-related genes (IRGs) prognostic model. Methods: The expression data of 546 HNSCC patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. All patients were divided into high- and low- TMB groups, and the relationship between TMB and clinical relevance was further analyzed. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the R software package, limma. Functional enrichment analyses were conducted to identify the significantly enriched pathways between two groups. CIBERSORT algorithm was adopted to calculate the abundance of 22 leukocyte subtypes. The IRGs prognostic model was constructed via the multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Missense mutation and single nucleotide variants (SNV) were the most predominant mutation types in HNSCC. TP53, TTN, and FAT1 were the most frequently mutated genes. Patients with high TMB were observed with worse survival outcomes. The functional analysis of TMB associated DEGs showed that the identified DEGs mainly involved in spliceosome, RNA degradation, proteasome, and RNA polymerase pathways. We observed that macrophages, T cells CD8, and T cells CD4 memory were the most commonly infiltrated subtypes of immune cells in HNSCC. Finally, an IRGs prognostic model was constructed, and the AUC of the ROC curve was 0.635. Conclusions: Our results suggest that high TMB is associated with poor prognosis in HNSCC patients. The constructed model has potential prognostic value for the prognosis of these individuals, and it needs to be further validated in large-scale and prospective studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Imunológicos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia
20.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406857

RESUMO

In April 2017, stem canker symptoms were observed on cucumber seedings grown in a greenhouse (0.1 ha) in Wuqing District, Tianjin(39°34' N; 117°07' E), China. Initially, the observed symptoms included small necrotic lesions of a light brown color on the stem base. These lesions subsequently spread and turned a darker brown. The leaves of the affected plants turned yellow and wilted. As the disease progressed the plants eventually died. Years of growing cucumbers and sufficient soil moisture in the greenhouse, might have led to a disease incidence of approximately 7%. Symptomatic tissue pieces were surface disinfested in 2% sodium hypochlorite for 60 s, rinsed three times in sterile water, and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) incubated at 25°C . At three days of incubation, mycelia appeared, turned into white and floccose isolated colonies around the excised tissue, and developed olivaceous green concentric rings of sporodochia in the following days. A total of 20 isolates with similar morphology were examined. Five single-spore isolates of isolates designated TJWQPF1-TJWQPF5 were obtained and maintained on PDA at 25°C. Hyaline, cylindrical conidiogenous cells measuring 9.53 to 16.51 × 1.51 to 2.49 µm (n=50) developed in whorls of three to six on terminal branches. Conidia were single-celled, hyaline, and rod-shaped with rounded ends. Conidia size averaged 5.07 - 7.15 × 1.13 - 2.32 µm (n=50). These characteristics are similar to the morphology of Paramyrothecium foliicola (Lombard et al. 2016). To further identify the isolate TJWQPF1, genomic DNA was extracted and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS, White et al. 1990), ß-tubulin (tub2, Glass & Donaldson 1995), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (rpb2, O'Donnell et al. 2007) and calmodulin (cmdA, Carbone & Kohn 1999; Groenewald et al. 2013) genes regions were amplified using the primer pairs ITS4/ITS5, Bt2a /Bt2b, RPB2-5F2 /RPB2-7cR, CAL-228F /CAL2Rd , respectively. All sequences were obtained and deposited in GenBank. BLAST searches of the NCBI database revealed that the ITS ( MW092223 ), tub2( MW110635 ) , rpb2 ( MW110637 ) and cmdA ( MW110636 ) sequences of the isolate TJWQPF1 were 100% identical to Paramyrothecium foliicola (GenBank accession numbers MT415351 and MT415352 for ITS sequences; MT415353 for tub2 sequences; MN398028-MN398043 for rpb2 sequences; MN593698- MN593713 for cmdA sequences). We also sequenced the other four single isolates and identified them as P. foliicola. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and repeated three times. Briefly, ten healthy 45-day-old cucumber seedlings (cultivar:Jinlv No.3) were inoculated with 100 µL of conidial suspension of P. foliicola (5×105 conidia per ml). Inoculum was applied to the stem with a syringe. Three healthy cucumber seedlings had 100 µL sterile water injected into the stem to serve as controls. All treated plants were incubated in a climate-controlled growth chamber at 25℃ (90% humidity, 12:12 h light:dark). Symptoms appeared on all inoculated plants after 7 days. In contrast, control seedlings exhibited no symptoms. The fungus was re-isolated from symptomatic tissues and re-identified to be P. foliicola, thereby fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first known instance of P. foliicola inducing stem canker on cucumber plants in China. Stem canker caused by P. foliicola could pose a threat to cucumber production in China. Our results also provide a basis to monitor and manage this potential disease.

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