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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538720

RESUMO

Herein, we report an efficient strategy for the rapid construction of 1,4-oxazines starting from simple α-amino ketones and diazo pyruvates under mild reaction conditions. This transformation is efficiently catalyzed by RuCl3 through a tandem N-H insertion/cyclization sequence via an enol formation. This reaction shows broad functional group tolerance, and the resulting 1,4-oxazine products show promising anticancer activities toward HCT116.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 93: 107435, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin on Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) keratitis. METHODS: Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and C57BL/6 mice were stimulated by A. fumigatus and treated with quercetin or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) after infection. In HCECs, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity tests (CCK-8) were used to detect the antifungal effect and cytotoxicity of quercetin. In mice with A. fumigatuskeratitis, clinical score, plate counting and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining were performed to evaluate the effects of quercetin in vivo. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and immunofluorescence staining were applied to assess neutrophil recruitment and infiltration. Real time PCR (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory mediators. RESULTS: Compared with DMSO control, quercetin (16-64 µM) significantly inhibited the growth of A. fumigatus in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell viability in HCECs. In corneas of mice with A. fumigatuskeratitis, quercetin decreased clinical score and fungal load, and reduced neutrophil recruitment and infiltration to the corneal stroma. Moreover, quercetin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators including toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), TLR-2, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that quercetin treatment can ameliorate A. fumigatus keratitis by inhibiting the growth of A. fumigatus, decreasing neutrophil recruitment and infiltration, and downregulating the productions of TLR-4, TLR-2, TNF-α, IL-1ß and HMGB1, indicating quercetin is likely to become a potential therapeutic agent in FK treatment.

3.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620497

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) can induce rapid stomatal closure in seed plants, but the action of this hormone on the stomata of fern and lycophyte species remains equivocal. Here, ABA-induced stomatal closure, signaling components, guard cell K+ and Ca2+ fluxes, vacuolar and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and the permeability coefficient of guard cell protoplasts (Pf) were analyzed in species spanning the diversity of vascular land plants including 11 seed plants, 6 ferns and one lycophyte. We found that all 11 seed plants exhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure, but the fern and lycophyte species did not. ABA-induced hydrogen peroxide elevation was observed in all species, but the signaling pathway downstream of nitric oxide production, including ion channel activation, was only observed in seed plants. In the angiosperm faba bean (Vicia faba), ABA application caused large vacuolar compartments to disaggregate, actin filaments to disintegrate into short fragments and Pf to increase. None of these changes was observed in the guard cells of the fern Matteuccia struthiopteris and lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii treated with ABA, but a hypertonic osmotic solution did induce stomatal closure in fern and the lycophyte. Our results suggest that there is a major difference in the regulation of stomata between the fern and lycophyte plants and the seed plants. Importantly, these findings have uncovered the physiological and biophysical mechanisms that may have been responsible for the evolution of a stomatal response to ABA in the earliest seed plants.

4.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 46, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index was recently suggested to be a reliable surrogate marker of insulin resistance. We aim to investigate the associations between baseline and long-term TyG index with subsequent stroke and its subtypes in a community-based cohort. METHODS: A total of 97,653 participants free of history of stroke in the Kailuan Study were included. TyG index was calculated as ln (fasting triglyceride [mg/dL] × fasting glucose [mg/dL]/2). Baseline TyG index was measured during 2006-2007. Updated cumulative average TyG index used all available TyG index from baseline to the outcome events of interest or the end of follow up. The outcome was the first occurrence of stroke, including ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The associations of TyG index with outcomes were explored with Cox regression. RESULTS: During a median of 11.02 years of follow-up, 5122 participants developed stroke of whom 4277 were ischemic stroke, 880 intracerebral hemorrhage, and 144 subarachnoid hemorrhage. After adjusting for confounding variables, compared with participants in the lowest quartile of baseline TyG index, those in the third and fourth quartile were associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.33, and adjusted HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21-1.44, respectively, P for trend < 0.001). We also found a linear association between baseline TyG index with stroke. Similar results were found for ischemic stroke. However, no significant associations were observed between baseline TyG index and risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Parallel results were observed for the associations of updated cumulative average TyG index with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of both baseline and long-term updated cumulative average TyG index can independently predict stroke and ischemic stroke but not intracerebral hemorrhage in the general population during an 11-year follow-up.

5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 19, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, which is a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance, has been suggested as a contributor of cardiovascular disease. However, evidence on the effect of long-term elevation of the TyG index exposure on myocardial infarction (MI) is limited. The current study aimed to evaluate the association of baseline and long-term elevation of the TyG index exposure with the risk of MI. METHODS: A total of 98,849 participants without MI at baseline (2006) were enrolled from the Kailuan study. The baseline TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. The long-term TyG index was characterized in two ways as follows. The updated mean TyG index was calculated as the mean of TyG index at all previous visits before MI occurred or the end of follow-up; alternatively, the TyG index was calculated as the number of visits with a high TyG index in 2006, 2008, and 2010, ranging from 0 (no exposure) to 3 (had high TyG index at all three study visits). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated using multivariable Cox proportion hazard models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.03 years, 1555 incident MI occurred. In the multivariable-adjusted model, the risk of MI increased with quartiles of the baseline and updated mean TyG index, the HR in quartile 4 versus quartile 1 was 2.08 (95% CI,1.77-2.45) and 1.58 (1.18-2.12), respectively. Individuals with a high TyG index at all three visits had a 2.04-fold higher risk (95% CI, 1.63-2.56) of MI compared with no exposure. Subgroup analyses showed that the associations were more pronounced in women than in men (Pinteraction = 0.0411). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of the baseline and long-term TyG index are associated with an increased risk of MI. This finding indicates that the TyG index might be useful in identifying people at high risk of developing MI.

6.
J Forensic Sci ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506528

RESUMO

Radiographically assisted dental identification is an important means for individual identification. Specific identifiers help to quickly filter some of the possible corresponding AM and PM images at the beginning. The study seeks specific oral and maxillofacial identifiers in panoramic radiographs. A total of 920 panoramic radiographs from 460 live patients were used. The most recent radiograph served as the surrogate post-mortem (PM) record of an unidentified person, and the earliest radiograph served as the ante-mortem (AM) record of the same person. We evaluated the following four groups of identifiers of the images: (1) dental morphology, tooth number, and position; (2) dental treatment and pathology; (3) morphological identifiers of the jaw; and (4) pathological identifiers of the jaw. The ratio of each identifier being identified simultaneously in the AM and PM databases was determined. Specific identifiers were defined as those that appeared at low frequency (ratio: 0%-0.250%). A total of 18 specific oral and maxillofacial identifiers were determined. The specific identifiers were a retained deciduous tooth (0.011%), S-shaped deflection of a tooth root (0.012%), distal deflection of tooth root (0.017%), inverted impaction (0.018%), malposition (0.038%), supernumerary teeth (0.061%), mesial deflection of tooth root (0.092%), microdontia (0.136%), buccal/lingual impaction (0.188%), cementoma (0.002%), hypercementosis (0.002%), continuous crown (0.004%), pulp calcification (0.023%), attrition (0.030%), residual root (0.106%), root resorption (0.137%), implant (0.156%), and osteomyelitis (0.002%). Identifiers of the teeth and jaw can be used for human identification, and dental identifiers are more specific than identifiers of jaw.

7.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Haemovigilance involves surveillance of the whole chain of blood transfusion with the aim of identifying adverse events and errors and improving outcomes for patients. The Chinese Haemovigilance Network, founded in August 2017, has witnessed a rapid development in the last three years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the 1,022 cases in 2019, we analysed the adverse reactions (ARs) by blood component, clinical outcome severity and demography of recipients in an effort to publish the first annual Chinese haemovigilance report. RESULTS: The AR rate associated with blood transfusion in 2019 was 0·2% in China. Allergic reactions and FNHTR were the two most common adverse symptoms, accounting for 97·7% of the reports. Two-thirds of the TAD, AHTR and TACO and all of the HTR and DHTR resulted in hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization. Plasma and AP were usually associated with allergic reaction (81·1%), whereas red cells more commonly cause FNHTR (68·8%) and all the AHTR, HTR, DSTR and DHTR. 84·1% of patients were aged 16 years or over, and the majority of the TAD, AHTR, TACO and HTR involved patients aged 60 and above. The ratio of serious adverse reactions (SARs) was 8·2%. Allergic reaction and FNHTR were top two (85·7%) SARs. The first case related to anti-D immunoglobulin was detected in a DHTR report. CONCLUSION: This report provides the world's first overview of transfusion-related adverse reactions in China. This report is useful for better understanding transfusion risks in China.

8.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124232, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254456

RESUMO

Herein, La(OH)3 decorated magnetic porous biochar (MPBC) was synthesized via KHCO3 activation and hydrothermal processes. The La-to-MPBC mass ratio of 3:1 described as La3-MPBC possessed a monolayer phosphate adsorption capacity of 116.08 mg/g across a pH range of 3.0-6.0 with fast attainment of adsorption equilibrium in 150 min. Moreover, the phosphate adsorption was substantially stable during the interference of various co-existing ions with over 92% of phosphate removal and 77% of desorption efficiency maintained after four recycles. And La3-MPBC was easily separated by magnet force with negligible La and Fe leakages within the pH range of 3.0-10.0. Furthermore, La3-MPBC was supported to achieve phosphate binding through the synergistic actions of electrostatic attraction, ligand exchange, inner-sphere complexation and weak precipitation. Significantly, La3-MPBC exhibited a high performance for decontaminating low-concentration phosphate to meet regulatory requirements. All these results suggested La3-MPBC to be an ideal candidate for phosphate removal in real applications.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Lantânio , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Fosfatos , Porosidade , Água
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123292, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645546

RESUMO

Herein, a high-performance porous biochar described as PBCKOH was successfully synthesized by two-step pyrolysis of corn straw with chemical activation of KOH, and was employed for the elimination of Cr(VI) and naphthalene (NAP) from water. Benefiting from KOH activation, the PBCKOH was found to possess huge specific surface area of 2183.80 m2/g and many well-developed micropores with average particle size of 2.75 nm and main pore diameters distribution from 1 to 2 nm. The PBCKOH presented an excellent adsorption performance with a theoretical monolayer uptake of 116.97 mg/g for Cr(VI) and a heterogeneous adsorption capacity of 450.43 mg/g for NAP. The uptake equilibrium was attained within about 120 min for Cr(VI), while about 180 min for NAP following avrami fractional-order model, revealing the existence of multiple kinetics during the adsorption. The thermodynamic results showed that the uptake of both Cr(VI) and NAP occurred spontaneously (-ΔG°), while in an endothermic nature for Cr(VI) (+ΔH°) and an exothermic characteristic for NAP (-ΔH°) with different randomness. Furthermore, the PBCKOH was believed to enhance the Cr(VI) adsorption mainly through the combination of electrostatic attraction, complexation, ion exchange and reduction action, while achieving the high NAP uptake by pore filling and π-π stacking interactions.

10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113404, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976970

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danqi Pill, composed of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and the root of Panax notoginseng, is effective in the clinical treatment of myocardial ischemia in coronary heart diseases. A number of studies have shown that autophagy plays an essential role in cardiac function and energy metabolism, and disordered autophagy is associated with the progression of heart failure. However, the effect and mechanism of Danqi pill on autophagy have not been reported yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to elucidate whether Danqi pill restores autophagy to protect against HF and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Left anterior descending ligation was established to induce an HF rat model, H2O2-stimulated H9C2 cells model was conducted to clarify the effects and potential mechanism of Danqi pill. In vivo, Danqi pill (1.5 g/kg) were orally administered for four weeks and Fenofibrate (10 mg/kg) was selected as a positive group. In vitro, Danqi pill (10-200 µg/mL) was pre-cultured for 24 h and co-cultured with H2O2 stimulation for 4 h. Importantly, transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence GPF-mRFP-LC3 reporter system were combined to monitor autophagy flux. Furtherly, we utilized Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, to validate whether the autophagy was mediated by AMPK-TSC2-mTOR pathway. RESULTS: Danqi pill significantly improved cardiac function and myocardial injury in HF rats. Intriguingly, Danqi pill potently regulated autophagy mainly by promoting the formation of autophagosomes in vivo. Further results demonstrated that expressions of p-AMPK (P < 0.001) and p-TSC2 (P < 0.001) in cardiac tissue were upregulated by Danqi pill, accompanied with downregulation of p-mTOR (P < 0.01) and p-ULK1(P < 0.01). In parallel with the vivo experiment, in vitro study indicated that Danqi pill dramatically restored autophagy flux and regulated expressions of critical autophagy-related molecules. Finally, utilization of Compound C abrogated the effects of Danqi pill on autophagy flux and the expressions of p-TSC2 (P < 0.05), p-mTOR (P < 0.01) and p-ULK1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Danqi pill could improve cardiac function and protect against cardiomyocytes injury by restoring autophagy via regulating the AMPK-TSC2-mTOR signaling pathway.

11.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The clinical significance of carbon dioxide combining power (CO2CP) in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease is not well established, and the role of CO2CP in the prognosis of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) has not been reported. The objective of the study was to investigate the associations between CO2CP and clinical outcomes in patients with AIS or TIA. METHODS: Data were derived from the China National Stroke Registry III. Patients were classified into five groups by quintiles of CO2CP levels and three groups according to the normal range of CO2CP (23-29 mmol/L). Multivariable Cox and logistic regressions were adopted to explore the associations of CO2CP levels with all-cause death and poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 3-6/2-6) at 3 months and 1 year. RESULTS: Among 9531 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) CO2CP was 24.9 (23.0-27.0) mmol/L. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients in the first CO2CP quintile (21.1-23.3 mmol/L) had higher risk of all-cause death and poor functional outcomes (mRS score of 3-6/2-6) (HR or OR with 95% CI 2.37 (1.32 to 4.25), 1.49 (1.20 to 1.83) and 1.21 (1.03 to 1.42), respectively) compared with those in the fourth quintile. Similar results were found for outcomes at 1 year. Furthermore, all associations were also significant when CO2CP was <23 mmol/L compared with CO2CP of 23-29 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased CO2CP was associated with high risk of all-cause death and poor functional outcomes in patients with AIS or TIA.

12.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(4): 309-315, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351296

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of PCa in the Changsha area of Hunan Province and provide some reference for the formulation of the strategies for the prevention and control of the malignancy. METHODS: We collected the data on the age, pathological type and TCM syndrome type of 2 877 PCa patients diagnosed and treated in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, the First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine and the Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Research Institute of Chinese Medicine from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019. We analyzed the data obtained and the current prevalence and epidemiological trend of PCa. RESULTS: Of the total number of cases of PCa diagnosed and treated, there were 291 in 2010, 315 in 2011, 213 in 2012, 220 in 2013, 159 in 2014, 226 in 2015, 199 in 2016, 180 in 2017, 577 in 2018 and 497 in 2019. The age-related incidence rate was the lowest in the <40-year-olds (1.77%) and the highest in the 65- to 79-year-olds (18.4%). The incidence rate was increased year by year in the 65- to 79-year-olds, elevated to 63.9% in the 10 years, and most significantly in the ≥80-year-olds, soaring to 97.9% in the 10 years. As for the pathological types, prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) accounted for 50.1% (n = 1 441), acinar cell PAC 7.0% (n = 201), follicular PAC 1.29% (n = 37), ductal PCa 0.94% (n = 27), non-specific PCa 9.49% (n = 273), and other PACs 5.77% (n = 166). TCM syndrome differentiation was performed for 157 cases, which revealed kidney-yin deficiency in 40 cases (25.5%) and kidney-yang deficiency in 69 cases (43.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PCa from 2010 to 2019 showed an aging-related trend in the Changsha area of Hunan Province, the highest among 65- to 69-year-olds. Males aged 65-79 years are a high-risk population for PCa, which calls for strengthened health education, early diagnosis and early treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Deficiência da Energia Yang , Deficiência da Energia Yin , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 575463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154724

RESUMO

Posaconazole (PCZ) is effective in preventing and salvage treatment invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic disorders. However, PCZ displays highly variable individual pharmacokinetics affecting its efficacy and safety. To investigate the correlation between PCZ concentration and efficacy and safety, the following key influencing factors were explored. A total of 285 trough plasma concentrations (Cmin) of 81 Chinese patients receiving PCZ oral suspension for prophylaxis or treatment of invasive fungal infections were collected in this study. The relationships between Cmin values and clinical response and hepatotoxicity were investigated as well as the incidence of clinical response under different Cmin values of PCZ with a logistic regression model. The concentration of PCZ showed remarkable differences among patients with haematologic disorders. PCZ Cmin values of 0.76 and 1.0 µg/mL were both associated with an over 80% probability of successful response to prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections, respectively. No association between Cmin values and hepatotoxicity was noted (P > 0.05). Gender, albumin, and co-administration of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) were identified as independent factors influencing PCZ Cmin by multiple linear regression analysis. Furthermore, patients' C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, and co-administration of PPI exhibited significant effects on the therapeutic window of patients receiving PCZ for prophylaxis. The plasma concentration is closely associated with therapeutic efficacy of PCZ. It is necessary to adjust the dosing regimens based on PCZ Cmin to obtain an optimal therapeutic response.

14.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(10): 1091-1103, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the sixth most frequently occurring cancer in the world and the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. The pathogenesis of liver cancer is closely associated with inflammation and immune response in the tumor microenvironment. New therapeutic agents for liver cancer, which can control inflammation and restore cellular immunity, are required. Curcumin (Cur) is a natural anti-inflammatory drug, and total ginsenosides (TG) are a commonly used immunoregulatory drug. Of note, both Cur and TG have been shown to exert anti-liver cancer effects. AIM: To determine the synergistic immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Cur combined with TG in a mouse model of subcutaneous liver cancer. METHODS: A subcutaneous liver cancer model was established in BALB/c mice by a subcutaneous injection of hepatoma cell line. Animals were treated with Cur (200 mg/kg per day), TG (104 mg/kg per day or 520 mg/kg per day), the combination of Cur (200 mg/kg per day) and TG (104 mg/kg per day or 520 mg/kg per day), or 5-fluorouracil combined with cisplatin as a positive control for 21 d. Tumor volume was measured and the protein expression of programmed cell death 1 and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), inflammatory indicators Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and vascular growth-related factors nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were analyzed by Western blot analysis. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were counted by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The combination therapy of Cur and TG significantly inhibited the growth of liver cancer, as compared to vehicle-treated animals, and TG showed dose dependence. Cur combined with TG-520 markedly decreased the protein expression of PD-L1 (P < 0.0001), while CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs regulated by the PD-L1 signaling pathway exhibited a positive correlation with PD-L1. Cur combined with TG-520 also inhibited the cascade action mediated by NF-κB (P < 0.0001), thus inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signalling pathway (P = 0.0088, P < 0.0001), which is associated with inflammation and acts on PD-L1. It also inhibited the NF-κB-MMP9 signalling pathway (P < 0.0001), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Cur combined with TG regulates immune escape through the PD-L1 pathway and inhibits liver cancer growth through NF-κB-mediated inflammation and angiogenesis.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(9): 3908-3917, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124269

RESUMO

To understand the characterization and sources of carbonaceous aerosols at Mountain Dinghu, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in size-resolved aerosol samples were measured at a regional background site in South China using a DRI Model 2001A analyzer. The average mass concentrations of organic carbon (OC) are (5.6±2.0) µg ·m-3 in PM1.1, (7.3±2.4) µg ·m-3 in PM2.1, and (12.8±4.0) µg ·m-3 in PM9.0; the average mass concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) are (2.3±1.4) µg ·m-3in PM1.1, (2.7±1.6) µg ·m-3 in PM2.1, and (3.4±1.7) µg ·m-3 in PM9.0. OC concentrations in PM1.1 and PM2.1 account for 43.8% and 57.0% of OC in PM9.0, and EC concentrations in PM1.1 and PM2.1 account for 67.6% and 79.4%, respectively. OC and EC are enriched with fine particles. In PM1.1 and PM2.1, the highest concentrations of OC and EC are measured in autumn, and the lowest concentration of OC is measured in winter and EC in summer. In PM9.0, the highest OC concentration is measured in summer. Carbonaceous aerosols are mainly composed of OC2, EC1, OC3, and OC4. In summer, the concentration of OC3 is higher than that of EC1, suggesting that biogenic sources are dominant during summer. The concentration of EC1 in winter is the highest, indicating that the impacts of motor vehicle emissions are prominent in the local area during winter. OC and EC both show bimodal distributions in four seasons, with peaks in the size ranges of 0.43-0.65 µm for fine particles and 3.3-5.8 µm for coarse particles. In PM1.1 and PM2.1, the sources of OC are mainly primary emissions. In PM2.1, the highest concentration of SOC is measured in spring at (3.0±1.4) µg ·m-3 and the lowest in winter at (1.3±1.4) µg ·m-3, indicating that the secondary aerosol formation is significant in spring. At the Mountain Dinghu background site, OC is mainly from coal combustion and motor vehicle emissions for fine particles and from biogenic sources for coarse particles. EC is mainly from coal combustion, motor vehicle emissions, and dust.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241606, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, resilience has received extensive attention in psychology. The 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14) has been developed as a newer and shorter version of the resilience scale and has been applied in Western countries. In Eastern cultures, however, and particularly among Chinese populations, its factor structure remains unverified. The purpose of this study is to realize the first evaluation of the psychometric characteristics of the Chinese version of the RS-14 in young adults from Mainland China. METHODS: The resilience scale, Connor-Davidson resilience scale, general health questionnaire 12, perceived stress scale 14, general self-efficacy scale and meaning in life questionnaire were used to investigate 1010 undergraduates (321 male college students, 689 female college students, aged 17-25 years; mean age = 20.27; SD = 1.572). We evaluated the item quality, latent structure, reliability, criterion validity and differential item functioning on the gender variable. RESULTS: Through the analysis methods of exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic, the original single-factor model has been proven to be applicable within the Chinese population. Both an adequate construct validity and an excellent degree of reliability were reflected in the data. In addition, test-retest evinced good stability. The current study interrogates associations with external criteria, as well as providing evidence in support of the RS-14. CONCLUSION: To sum up, this study showed that the RS-14 is a reliable assessment for measuring resilience in China, and provides an alternative to the original scale.

17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3557-3560, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018771

RESUMO

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (AtDCS) can improve memory and cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which has been proven in basic and clinical studies. Intervention of AD in preclinical stage is important to prevent progression of AD in the aging society. At the same time, there is increasing evidence that a close link exists between cerebrovascular dysfunction and AD disease. Here we investigated the changes of local cerebral blood microcirculation in preclinical AD mouse model after AtDCS based on the previous studies. Twenty-four 6-month-old male APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into three groups: a model group (AD), a model sham stimulation (ADST) group and a model stimulation group (ATD). Eight 6-month-old male C57 wild-type mice served as a control group (CTL). Mice in the ATD group received 10 AtDCS sessions. Two months after the end of AtDCS in the ATD group, the microcirculation parameters of the frontal cortex of the mice in each group, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood flow velocity (Velo), oxygen saturation (SO2) and relative hemoglobin content (rHb), were obtained by the non-invasive laser-Doppler spectrophotometry system "Oxygen-to-See (O2C)". The results showed that AtDCS increased CBF, Velo and SO2, and reduce rHb in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice at the preclinical stage of AD.Clinical Relevance-This shows the positive effect of AtDCS on preclinical AD in cerebrovascular function, and provides effective basic research facts for AtDCS to intervene and delay the clinical application of AD disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Criança , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microcirculação , Dados Preliminares , Presenilina-1/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5269, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077749

RESUMO

Azaleas (Ericaceae) comprise one of the most diverse ornamental plants, renowned for their cultural and economic importance. We present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for Rhododendron simsii, the primary ancestor of azalea cultivars. Genome analyses unveil the remnants of an ancient whole-genome duplication preceding the radiation of most Ericaceae, likely contributing to the genomic architecture of flowering time. Small-scale gene duplications contribute to the expansion of gene families involved in azalea pigment biosynthesis. We reconstruct entire metabolic pathways for anthocyanins and carotenoids and their potential regulatory networks by detailed analysis of time-ordered gene co-expression networks. MYB, bHLH, and WD40 transcription factors may collectively regulate anthocyanin accumulation in R. simsii, particularly at the initial stages of flower coloration, and with WRKY transcription factors controlling progressive flower coloring at later stages. This work provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying genetics governing flower timing and coloration and could accelerate selective breeding in azalea.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rhododendron/genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhododendron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhododendron/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
19.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 13(10): 1574-1579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078107

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the precision of digital intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement in silicone oil (SO) filled eyes during vitrectomy. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-blind study. Patients who were diagnosed with retinal detachment and scheduled for vitrectomy with SO injection were consecutively enrolled. During the vitrectomy, IOP was digitally measured and then by a rebound tonometer (IcarePRO). The rebound tonometer readings were masked to the surgeons. The digitally measured IOP and that of rebound tonometer were compared, and the inter-methods agreement was assessed. The absolute deviation in IOP values between these two methods (ΔIOP) was also calculated, and correlations between ΔIOP and refractive status, lens status and levels of surgeons' experience were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 131 patients (131 eyes) were recruited, with a mean age of 51.0±16.1y. There was no significant difference in IOPs between digital measurement and the rebound tonometer (15.6±4.3 vs 15.7±5.1 mm Hg; t=0.406, P=0.686). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) analysis indicated a strong correlation between these two measurements (ICC=0.830, P<0.001). The mean ΔIOP was 2.0±1.9 mm Hg (range: 0-12.8 mm Hg), with 98 eyes (74.8%) had the ΔIOP within 3 mm Hg. ΔIOP was found to be negatively correlated with levels of surgeons' experience (r=-0.183; P=0.037), but not with the refractive status or lens status of the patients (both P>0.05). CONCLUSION: For experienced surgeons, the digital IOP measurement may be an acceptable technique for IOP measurement in SO filled eyes during vitrectomy. However, its use by inexperienced surgeons should be taken with caution.

20.
MycoKeys ; 72: 1-16, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879617

RESUMO

In this study, taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses of Junghuhnia were performed. Three new species were characterised according to morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analysis using ITS and nLSU sequences. They are J. austrosinensis sp. nov., J. nandinae sp. nov. and J. subcollabens sp. nov. Junghuhnia austrosinensis is characterised by resupinate, thin basidiomata with white to buff-yellow hymenophore, small pores (9-11 per mm), clamped generative hyphae possessing hymenial cystidia, ellipsoid basidiospores (2.5-3 × 1.7-2 µm) and growth on fallen bamboo or angiosperm branch. Junghuhnia nandinae is characterised by resupinate basidiomata with pink to salmon pores and a distinct white margin, clamp generative hyphae, interwoven tramal hyphae, ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 2.6-3.2 × 1.8-2 µm and growth on Nandina domestica. Junghuhnia subcollabens is characterised by resupinate basidiomata with pale salmon to brownish vinaceous hymenophore, small pores (10-12 per mm), generative hyphae with simple septa and clamp connections, interwoven tramal hyphae, lunate basidiospores measuring 2.9-3.4 × 1.6-1.8 µm and thriving on rotten wood of angiosperms.

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