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1.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1599-1606, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxycodone has been shown to be an effective analgesic for early postoperative analgesia, especially for abdominal operations associated with severe visceral pain. However, the dose needed varies depending on the operation and application of multimodal analgesia, such as local ropivacaine wound infiltration. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the median effective dose (ED50) of oxycodone that provides analgesia for hysterectomy and myomectomy with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. METHODS: In this dose-finding study, the ED50 of oxycodone for postoperative analgesia was estimated separately for laparoscopic hysterectomy, transabdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic myomectomy, and transabdominal myomectomy. We used the sequential allocation designed by Dixon. Trials were conducted simultaneously in the 4 surgical type groups. A predefined dose of oxycodone was injected 30 minutes before the end of the operation with an initial dose of 0.1 mg/kg. A series of trials were performed following the rule of a relative 10% increase in dose after inadequate analgesia and a relative 10% decrease in dose after adequate analgesia. The study was conducted until the collection of 7 crossover points was achieved. Local ropivacaine wound infiltration was administered during abdominal stitching. The mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were analyzed to assess the hemodynamic changes associated with oxycodone administration. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were included in the estimation of ED50: 28 each in the laparoscopic hysterectomy group and transabdominal myomectomy group, 27 in the transabdominal hysterectomy group, and 30 in the laparoscopic myomectomy group. The estimated oxycodone ED50 (95% confidence interval [CI]) after laparoscopic hysterectomy, transabdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic myomectomy, and transabdominal myomectomy was 0.060 mg/kg (0.053-0.068), 0.079 mg/kg (0.072-0.086), 0.060 mg/kg (0.051-0.071), and 0.092 mg/kg (0.086-0.098), respectively, for postoperative analgesia with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. The ED50 of oxycodone was different between laparoscopic surgeries and transabdominal surgeries (P < .001). The MBP and HR before and after oxycodone injection were different, regardless of surgical type. CONCLUSIONS: The oxycodone ED50 for postoperative analgesia was lower for laparoscopic hysterectomy (0.060 mg/kg) and laparoscopic myomectomy (0.060 mg/kg) than for transabdominal hysterectomy (0.079 mg/kg) and transabdominal myomectomy (0.092 mg/kg) when combined with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. A single intravenous injection of oxycodone is associated with an acceptable decrease in MBP and HR within a short time.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Miomectomia Uterina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anestesia Local , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Laparoscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238946, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of low frequency cerebral hemodynamic fluctuations (CHF) in the resting state remains unknown. Breath-by breath O2-CO2 exchange ratio (bER) has been reported to correlate with the cerebrovascular response to brief breath hold challenge at the frequency range of 0.008-0.03Hz in healthy adults. bER is defined as the ratio of the change in the partial pressure of oxygen (ΔPO2) to that of carbon dioxide (ΔPCO2) between end inspiration and end expiration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of respiratory gas exchange (RGE) metrics (bER, ΔPO2 and ΔPCO2) to low frequency CHF during spontaneous breathing. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy adults were included. We used transcranial Doppler sonography to evaluate CHF by measuring the changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (ΔCBFv) in bilateral middle cerebral arteries. The regional CHF were mapped with blood oxygenation level dependent (ΔBOLD) signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Temporal features and frequency characteristics of RGE metrics during spontaneous breathing were examined, and the simultaneous measurements of RGE metrics and CHF (ΔCBFv and ΔBOLD) were studied for their correlation. RESULTS: We found that the time courses of ΔPO2 and ΔPCO2 were interdependent but not redundant. The oscillations of RGE metrics were coherent with resting state CHF at the frequency range of 0.008-0.03Hz. Both bER and ΔPO2 were superior to ΔPCO2 in association with CHF while CHF could correlate more strongly with bER than with ΔPO2 in some brain regions. Brain regions with the strongest coupling between bER and ΔBOLD overlapped with many areas of default mode network including precuneus and posterior cingulate. CONCLUSION: Although the physiological mechanisms underlying the strong correlation between bER and CHF are unclear, our findings suggest the contribution of bER to low frequency resting state CHF, providing a novel insight of brain-body interaction via CHF and oscillations of RGE metrics.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Pressão Parcial , Respiração , Descanso/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941480

RESUMO

The development of tuber-root models based on the physical properties of the root system of a plant is a prominent but complicated task. In this paper, a method for the construction of a 3D model of a potato tuber-root system is proposed, based on determining the characterization parameters of the potato tuber-root model. Three early maturing potato varieties, widely planted in Northeast China, were selected as the research objects. Their topological and geometric structures were analyzed to determine the model parameters. By actually digging potatoes in the field, field data measurement and statistical analysis of the parameters were performed, and a model parameter database was established. Based on the measured data, the root trajectory points were obtained by simulating the growth of the root tips. Then MATLAB was used to develop a system that would complete the construction of the potato tuber-root 3D visualization model. Finally, the accuracy of the model was verified experimentally. Case studies for the three different types indicated an acceptable performance of the proposed model, with a relative root mean square error of 6.81% and 15.32%, for the minimum and maximum values, respectively. The research results can be used to explore the interaction between the soil-tuber-root aggregates and the digging components, and provide a reference for the construction of root models of other tuber crops.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Tubérculos/anatomia & histologia , Solanum tuberosum/anatomia & histologia
4.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(11): 3773-3779, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748161

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain 204T, was isolated from a marine sediment sample in the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea, China. Cells of strain 204T are aerobic, motile, cocci or short rods with two lateral flagella. Growth was observed at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0-7.5) and in the presence of 1.0-18.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0-8.0%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 204T belonged to the genus Halomonas, showing highest sequence similarity to Halomonas alimentaria YKJ-16T (98.08%), followed by Halomonas sediminicola (97.47%), Halomonas fontilapidosi (97.14%), Halomonas halodenitrificans (96.98%), Halomonas ventosae (96.92%), and Halomonas shengliensis (96.85%). The draft genome is 3.8 Mb in length, containing 3673 protein-coding genes, 62 tRNA genes and 10 rRNA genes, and DNA G+C content is 62.7 mol%. Strain 204T contains phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol as the main polar lipids, and the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-9. The major cellular fatty acids (> 5%) are C18:1ω7c, C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c, C16:0 and C12:03-OH. Strain 204T was clearly distinguished from the closely related type strains through phylogenetic analysis, dDNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid composition data and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics comparisons. On the basis of the polyphasic analysis, strain 204T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas marinisediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 204T (= MCCC 1H00366T = KCTC 62957T).

5.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 327, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the regulation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3 cells. METHODS: The laser co-focusing and flow cytometry assay were employed to detect cell uptake of CpG ODN 2006. Twelve ODNs were sythesized, and their effects on proliferation and differentiation were detected by MTT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Flow cytometry assay was used to examine the regulation of CpG ODN on cell cycle. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot were used to evaluate the regulation of CpG ODN on mRNA and protein expression of osteogenic differentiation genes. RESULTS: The phosphorothioate CpG ODN 2006 could efficiently enter the MC3T3 cells in 1 h and locate in the cytoplasm. The MTT assay demonstrated CpG ODNs could promote MC3T3 cell proliferation and differentiation in the early stage, and gradually attenuated along with the increase of treating time, except for BW001 and FC001. qRT-PCR assay demonstrated that all the 12 CpG ODNs could promote the relative expression level of osteogenic differentiated genes, SP7 and OCN. In addition, western blot analysis suggested the CpG ODNs of BW001 and FC001 could increase the protein expression of P27Kip1 and Runx2 and decrease the protein expression of cyclin D1. CONCLUSION: The selected CpGODNs may be a potential gene therapy for bone regeneration of periodontitis.

6.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 286, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With evidence of warming climates, it is important to understand the effects of heat stress in farm animals in order to minimize production losses. Studying the changes in the brain proteome induced by heat stress may aid in understanding how heat stress affects brain function. The hypothalamus is a critical region in the brain that controls the pituitary gland, which is responsible for the secretion of several important hormones. In this study, we examined the hypothalamic protein profile of 10 pigs (15 ± 1 kg body weight), with five subjected to heat stress (35 ± 1 °C; relative humidity = 90%) and five acting as controls (28 ± 3 °C; RH = 90%). RESULT: The isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) analysis of the hypothalamus identified 1710 peptides corresponding to 360 proteins, including 295 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), 148 of which were up-regulated and 147 down-regulated, in heat-stressed animals. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software predicted 30 canonical pathways, four functional groups, and four regulatory networks of interest. The DEPs were mainly concentrated in the cytoskeleton of the pig hypothalamus during heat stress. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, heat stress significantly increased the body temperature and reduced daily gain of body weight in pigs. Furthermore, we identified 295 differentially expressed proteins, 147 of which were down-regulated and 148 up-regulated in hypothalamus of heat stressed pigs. The IPA showed that the DEPs identified in the study are involved in cell death and survival, cellular assembly and organization, and cellular function and maintenance, in relation to neurological disease, metabolic disease, immunological disease, inflammatory disease, and inflammatory response. We hypothesize that a malfunction of the hypothalamus may destroy the host physical and immune function, resulting in decreased growth performance and immunosuppression in heat stressed pigs.

7.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxycodone has been shown to be an effective analgesic for early postoperative analgesia, especially for abdominal operations associated with severe visceral pain. However, the dose needed varies depending on the operation and application of multimodal analgesia, such as local ropivacaine wound infiltration. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the median effective dose (ED50) of oxycodone that provides analgesia for hysterectomy and myomectomy with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. METHODS: In this dose-finding study, the ED50 of oxycodone for postoperative analgesia was estimated separately for laparoscopic hysterectomy, transabdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic myomectomy, and transabdominal myomectomy. We used the sequential allocation designed by Dixon. Trials were conducted simultaneously in the 4 surgical type groups. A predefined dose of oxycodone was injected 30 minutes before the end of the operation with an initial dose of 0.1 mg/kg. A series of trials were performed following the rule of a relative 10% increase in dose after inadequate analgesia and a relative 10% decrease in dose after adequate analgesia. The study was conducted until the collection of 7 crossover points was achieved. Local ropivacaine wound infiltration was administered during abdominal stitching. The mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR) were analyzed to assess the hemodynamic changes associated with oxycodone administration. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were included in the estimation of ED50: 28 each in the laparoscopic hysterectomy group and transabdominal myomectomy group, 27 in the transabdominal hysterectomy group, and 30 in the laparoscopic myomectomy group. The estimated oxycodone ED50 (95% confidence interval [CI]) after laparoscopic hysterectomy, transabdominal hysterectomy, laparoscopic myomectomy, and transabdominal myomectomy was 0.060 mg/kg (0.053-0.068), 0.079 mg/kg (0.072-0.086), 0.060 mg/kg (0.051-0.071), and 0.092 mg/kg (0.086-0.098), respectively, for postoperative analgesia with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. The ED50 of oxycodone was different between laparoscopic surgeries and transabdominal surgeries (P < .001). The MBP and HR before and after oxycodone injection were different, regardless of surgical type. CONCLUSIONS: The oxycodone ED50 for postoperative analgesia was lower for laparoscopic hysterectomy (0.060 mg/kg) and laparoscopic myomectomy (0.060 mg/kg) than for transabdominal hysterectomy (0.079 mg/kg) and transabdominal myomectomy (0.092 mg/kg) when combined with local ropivacaine wound infiltration. A single intravenous injection of oxycodone is associated with an acceptable decrease in MBP and HR within a short time.

8.
Life Sci ; 257: 117889, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has many adverse effects on offspring, such as abnormal glycolipid metabolism, obesity, insulin resistance, mental retardation, schizophrenia and so on. METHODS: We established a GDM rat model by injecting 1% streptozotocin associated with a high-fat diet one week before pregnancy, and offspring rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks of age to obtain liver tissue for study. We used hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe liver morphological changes, Tunel staining for hepatocyte apoptosis, transmission electron microscope for liver ultrastructure, and western blot for protein expression in liver tissue. RESULTS: Compared with normal offspring rats, hepatocytes of GDM offspring rats showed obvious edema, liver organ index increased, and hepatocyte apoptosis and autophagosome in the liver were significantly increased; Bax, cleaved-caspase3/caspase3, LCII, Beclin 1, P-IKBα/IKBα and P-p65/p6 protein expression in the liver were significantly increased; Bcl2, p62 and PPARγ protein expression in the liver were significantly decreased. Tau prevented the GDM-related effects in the offspring: Tau decreased hepatocyte edema (or even disappears), liver organ index, hepatocyte apoptosis and the number of autophagosomes in the liver. In addition, Tau also decreased Bax, cleaved-caspase3/caspase3, LCII, Beclin 1, P-IKBα/IKBα and P-p65/p6 protein expression, and increased Bcl2, p62 and PPARγ protein expression in the liver of GDM offspring rats. CONCLUSION: Taurine should be considered as a potential gestational nutritional supplement to prevent liver damage in GDM offspring.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Taurina/metabolismo
9.
J Mass Spectrom ; : e4529, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419269

RESUMO

Owing to the poor fragmentation efficiency caused by the lack of a positively charged basic group at the C-termini of peptides, the identification of nontryptic peptides in classical proteomics is known to be less efficient. Particularly, attaching positively charged basic groups to C-termini via chemical derivatizations is known to be able to enhance their fragmentation efficiency. In this study, we introduced a novel strategy, C-termini sequential amidation reaction (CSAR), to improve peptide fragmentation efficiency. By this strategy, C-terminal and side-chain carboxyl groups were firstly amidated by neutral methylamine (MA), and then C-terminal amide bonds were selectively deamidated through peptide amidase while side-chain amide bonds remained unchanged, followed by the secondary amidation of C-termini via basic agmatine (AG). We optimized the amidation reaction conditions to achieve the MA derivatization efficiency of >99% for side-chain carboxyl groups and AG derivatization efficiency of 80% for the hydrolytic C-termini. We applied CSAR strategy to identify bovine serum albumin (BSA) chymotryptic digests, resulting in the increased fragmentation efficiencies (improvement by 9-32%) and charge states (improvement by 39-52%) under single or multiple dissociation modes. The strategy described here might be a promising approach for the identification of peptides that suffered from poor fragmentation efficiency.

10.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the benefits of coronary collateral circulation on myocardial perfusion, viability and function in patients with total occlusion of a single coronary artery using the 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. METHODS: 164 Consecutive patients were included who underwent coronary angiography results exhibited total occlusion of a single coronary artery and received 99mTc-MIBI SPECT and 18F-FDG PET within 90 days of angiography. Myocardial perfusion and viability in patients with collateral circulation and those without it were compared. Long-term follow-up was performed through a review of patient clinical records. RESULTS: Collateral circulation was present in 56 patients (34%) and absent in 108 patients (66%). The total perfusion defect size in patients with collateral circulation decreased when compared to those without (30% ± 13% to 35% ± 14%, P < .05). The myocardial viability was 22% ± 12% in patients with collateral circulation, and 12% ± 9% in those without (P < .001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was higher, and the end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes were lower in patients with collateral circulation (39% ± 11%, 138 ± 66, 89 ± 57) compared to patients without collateral circulation (31% ± 9%, 177 ± 55, 125 ± 48, all P < .001, respectively). Multi-factor logistic regression identified that concerning the variables of sex, age, viable myocardium, collateral circulation, treatment type and others, only treatment type was significantly associated with therapeutic effects (OR 3.872, 95% CI 1.915-7.830, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Collateral circulation can preserve resting myocardial blood perfusion and myocardial viability, and help maintain the function of the left ventricular myocardium. The appropriate treatment strategy will have a substantial impact on the therapeutic outcome.

11.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-11, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406756

RESUMO

Two series of sulfonate derivatives of carvacrol and thymol were synthesized and screened in vitro for their anti-oomycete activity against Phytophthora capsici, respectively. Among all of 32 derivatives, five compounds 3a, 4a, 4k, 3n, and 4n exhibited more potent anti-oomycete activity against P. capsici with EC50 values of 66.66, 62.94, 68.65, 61.24, and 52.91 mg/L, respectively. This suggested that introduction of different substitutions at the hydroxyl position of 1/2 could have remarkable effect on anti-oomycete activity. Overall, when R1 = isopropyl and R2 = methyl, the anti-oomycete activities of the compounds were higher than that of the corresponding compounds of R1 = methyl and R2 = isopropyl.[Formula: see text].

12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 85: 106632, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470880

RESUMO

Isolating and purifying liver immune cells are crucial for observing the changes in intrahepatic immune responses during the development of liver diseases and exploring the potential immunological mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an optimal protocol for isolating immune cells with a high yield and less damage. We compared mechanical dissection and collagenase digestion, and the results were represented by the proportion of lymphocytes, Kupffer cells and neutrophils. The apoptosis rates of liver immune cells resulted by different isolation protocols were compared by Annexin V-staining using flow cytometric analysis. Our data indicated that the enzymatic digestion in vitro was more efficient than the mechanical dissection in vitro with a suitable collagenase IV concentration of 0.01%, and the purification of liver immune cells by a one-step density gradient centrifugation in 33% Percoll had the definite advantage of a higher proportion of the target cells. We also provided evidence that enzymatic digestion in vitro method was superior to collagenase digestion in situ for liver T lymphocytes, NK cells and NKT cells isolation and purification. This protocol was also validated in human liver samples. In conclusion, we developed an optimal protocol for isolating and purifying immune cells from mouse and human liver samples in vitro by 0.01% collagenase IV and 33% Percoll density gradient centrifugation with the advantages of higher cell yields and viability. This method provides a basis for further studying liver immune cells and liver immunity with a wide range of applications.

13.
ANZ J Surg ; 90(11): 2285-2289, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic megacolon (IMC) is an uncommon disease in adults. To date, only a few laparoscopic experiences and functional outcomes of IMC have been reported. This study was to retrospectively analyse our 12 year surgical experience and functional outcomes in adult patients with IMC. METHODS: A 12-year retrospective study from October 2006 to November 2018 was performed for patients with IMC who underwent surgical interventions. Patients who underwent laparoscopic-assisted colectomy and Duhamel procedure with ileorectal or colorectal anastomosis were collected. Clinical data of surgery and functional outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients who underwent surgical interventions were included in the study. Seven patients underwent laparoscopic total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (Duhamel procedure), one patient underwent laparoscopic total colectomy with end ileostomy because of acute intestinal obstruction, while five other patients underwent laparoscopic segmental colectomy with colorectal anastomosis (Duhamel procedure). The mean operative time was 181.6 min (range 150-246). The mean estimated blood loss was 75.6 ml (range 40-200). The mean postoperative hospital stay was 8.2 days (range 6-13). There was no conversion to an open procedure and no surgical mortality. Postoperative diarrhoea was the most prominent complaint during the early period after total colectomy. All patients showed adaptation to the defaecation frequency 3-6 months postoperatively, and had a good quality of life in long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy with Duhamel procedure is a safe and efficient technique for IMC in adults. The scope of colon resection and the type of anastomosis should be individually selected.

14.
J Exp Bot ; 71(12): 3499-3511, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149350

RESUMO

In planta, a vital regulatory complex, MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW), is involved in trichome development and synthesis of anthocyanin and proanthocyanin in Arabidopsis. Usually, WD40 proteins provide a scaffold for protein-protein interaction between MYB and bHLH proteins. Members of subgroup 9 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factors, which includes MYBMIXTA-Like (MML) genes important for plant cell differentiation, are unable to interact with bHLH. In this study, we report that a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seed trichome or lint fiber-related GhMML factor, GhMML4_D12, interacts with a diverged WD40 protein (GhWDR) in a process similar to but different from that of the MBW ternary complex involved in Arabidopsis trichome development. Amino acids 250-267 of GhMML4_D12 and the first and third WD40 repeat domains of GhWDR determine their interaction. GhWDR could rescue Arabidopsis ttg1 to its wild type, confirming its orthologous function in trichome development. Our findings shed more light towards understanding the key role of the MML and WD40 families in plants and in the improvement of cotton fiber production.

15.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(14): 3183-3196, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The innate and adaptive immune systems both play important roles in drug-induced liver injury (DILI). However, the crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immunity in DILI is largely unknown. Extensive crosstalk is likely mandated by co-stimulatory interactions between these immune systems. OX40 is a co-stimulatory molecule, but whether it regulates the intrahepatic immune response in DILI remains unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Acute liver injury was induced by paracetamol (acetaminophen), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ), and d-galactosamine/LPS (GalN/LPS) in wild-type (WT) and Ox40 knockout (KO) mice, and disease progress was compared. KEY RESULTS: Plasma OX40 levels were significantly increased and were augmented in intrahepatic CD4+ T cells after paracetamol, CCl4 , or GalN/LPS administration. Liver injury in Ox40-deficient mice was attenuated compared with that in WT mice. Compared with WT mice, hepatic infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells and macrophages in Ox40 KO mice was reduced. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of Ox40 KO-CD4+ T cells to Rag1-/- mice resulted in alleviated liver injury compared with WT-CD4+ T-cell transfer, with reduced liver infiltration of macrophages and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Moreover, OX40/Fc stimulation in vitro revealed that soluble OX40 enhanced the biological function of murine macrophages, including up-regulation of genes associated with inflammation and tissue infiltration. Finally, soluble OX40 levels were significantly elevated in DILI patients compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: OX40 is a key molecule that promotes both pro-inflammatory macrophage and CD4+ T-cell function, exacerbating paracetamol-induced liver injury. OX40 could serve as a diagnostic index and therapeutic target of DILI.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0225915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypercapnia during breath holding is believed to be the dominant driver behind the modulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, increasing evidence show that mild hypoxia and mild hypercapnia in breath hold (BH) could work synergistically to enhance CBF response. We hypothesized that breath-by-breath O2-CO2 exchange ratio (bER), defined as the ratio of the change in partial pressure of oxygen (ΔPO2) to that of carbon dioxide (ΔPCO2) between end inspiration and end expiration, would be able to better correlate with the global and regional cerebral hemodynamic responses (CHR) to BH challenge. We aimed to investigate whether bER is a more useful index than end-tidal PCO2 to characterize cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) under BH challenge. METHODS: We used transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) to evaluate CHR under BH challenge by measuring cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) in the middle cerebral arteries. Regional changes in CHR to BH and exogenous CO2 challenges were mapped with blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We correlated respiratory gas exchange (RGE) metrics (bER, ΔPO2, ΔPCO2, end-tidal PCO2 and PO2, and time of breaths) with CHR (CBFv and BOLD) to BH challenge. Temporal features and frequency characteristics of RGE metrics and their coherence with CHR were examined. RESULTS: CHR to brief BH epochs and free breathing were coupled with both ΔPO2 and ΔPCO2. We found that bER was superior to either ΔPO2 or ΔPCO2 alone in coupling with the changes of CBFv and BOLD signals under breath hold challenge. The regional CVR results derived by regressing BOLD signal changes on bER under BH challenge resembled those derived by regressing BOLD signal changes on end-tidal PCO2 under exogenous CO2 challenge. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a novel insight on the potential of using bER to better quantify CVR changes under BH challenge.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Suspensão da Respiração , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Hipercapnia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Oxigênio/sangue , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia/sangue , Hipercapnia/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão Parcial
17.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-13, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091234

RESUMO

Endeavor to discover biorational natural products-based insecticides, two series (27) of novel 9R/S-acyloxy derivatives of cinchonidine and cinchonine were prepared and assessed for their insecticidal activity against Mythimna separata in vivo by the leaf-dipping method at 1 mg/mL. Among all the compounds, especially derivatives 6l and 6o exhibited the best insecticidal activity with final mortality rates of 75.0% and 71.4%, respectively. Overall, a free 9-hydroxyl group is not a prerequisite for insecticidal activity and C9-substitution is well tolerated; the configuration of C8/9 position is important for insecticidal activity, and 9S-configuration is optimal; 6'-OCH3 moiety is not necessary, removal of it is also acceptable.

18.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009450

RESUMO

Three series of sulfonate derivatives of paeonol were synthesized and screened in vitro for their anti-oomycete activity against P. capsici, respectively. Among all the compounds, 4m displayed the best promising and pronounced anti-oomycete activity against P. capsici than zoxamide, with the EC50 values of 24.51 and 26.87 mg/L, respectively. The results show that acetyl and 4-OCH3 are two necessary groups. The existence of these two sites is closely related to the anti-oomycete activity. Relatively speaking, hydroxyl group is well tolerated, and the results showed that after modification of hydroxyl group with sulfonyl, the anti-oomycete activity was significantly increased.[Formula: see text].

19.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(6): 997-1005, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002627

RESUMO

Crude oil is a serious soil pollutant, requiring large-scale remediation efforts. Bacterial consortia in combination with rhamnolipids can be an effective bioremediation method. However, the underlying mechanisms and associated changes in soil bacterial composition remain uncharacterized. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of rhamnolipids in petroleum hydrocarbon removal, and the associated bacterial community dynamics during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils were subjected to natural attenuation, bioremediation with rhamnolipids, bioremediation with bacterial consortia, or bioremediation with bacterial consortia supplemented with rhamnolipids (BMR). High-throughput sequencing of bacterial sample partial 16S rRNA sequences was performed. Additionally, the n-alkanes and aromatic fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The results showed that rhamnolipid supplementation increased the rate and extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation to a maximum of 81% within 35 days. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacterial community was composed of 14 phylotypes (similarity level = 97%). Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the two core phyla in all samples, accounting for 63-89%, but Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in the BMR sample (~ 53%). Among the top 20 genera, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, Cavicella, Mycobacterium, Rhizobium, and Acinetobacter were more abundant in BMR samples compared to other samples. Predicted functional profiles revealed that rhamnolipid addition also induced changes in gene abundance related to hydrocarbon metabolic pathways. This study provided comprehensive insights into the synergistic effect of rhamnolipids and bacterial consortia for altering bacterial populations and specific functional traits, which may serve to improve bacteria-mediated petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils.

20.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126044, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045973

RESUMO

Source identification of environmental pollutants is critical for pollution prevention and controlling. In this work, Zn isotopic compositions and Zn spatial distribution from headwater to estuary of Erren River (ER) catchments (southern Taiwan) were systematically investigated as a potential source tracer for distinguishing natural weathering and anthropogenic activities. Industrial wastewaters/effluents including leather, printed circuit board (PCB), metal surface treatment (MST), semiconductor wafer (SCW), and electroplating (EP) industries were collected and analyzed as the potential sources of Zn isotopic database. Results implied that MST wastewaters/effluents had the lowest δ66Zn values (Zn isotopic composition) in the range of -0.40 to +0.04. Oppositely, high Zn isotopic composition was observed in leather (δ66Zn = +0.41 to +0.71) and EP wastewaters/effluents (δ66Zn = +0.54 to +1.84). Significantly, the plot of δ66Zn versus 1/Zn clearly indicates that riverine Zn isotope in the ER waters (-0.73 to 1.77‰) can be simply explained by at least three end-member mixing which contains EP, MST wastewaters, and natural component. Our data importantly proved that Zn isotopic composition is a powerful tracer for distinguishing different Zn sources of anthropogenic pollution in rivers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zinco/análise , Estuários , Água Doce , Isótopos/análise , Rios , Taiwan , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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