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1.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 1-97, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560919

RESUMO

Military personnel are prone to traumatic brain injury (TBI) that is one of the risk factors in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) at a later stage. TBI induces breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to serum proteins into the brain and leads to extravasation of plasma amyloid beta peptide (ΑßP) into the brain fluid compartments causing AD brain pathology. Thus, there is a need to expand our knowledge on the role of TBI in AD. In addition, exploration of the novel roles of nanomedicine in AD and TBI for neuroprotection is the need of the hour. Since stem cells and neurotrophic factors play important roles in TBI and in AD, it is likely that nanodelivery of these agents exert superior neuroprotection in TBI induced exacerbation of AD brain pathology. In this review, these aspects are examined in details based on our own investigations in the light of current scientific literature in the field. Our observations show that TBI exacerbates AD brain pathology and TiO2 nanowired delivery of mesenchymal stem cells together with cerebrolysin-a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments, and monoclonal antibodies to amyloid beta protein thwarted the development of neuropathology following TBI in AD, not reported earlier.

2.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 139-230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560921

RESUMO

Military personnel are the most susceptible to concussive head injury (CHI) caused by explosion, blast or missile or blunt head trauma. Mild to moderate CHI could induce lifetime functional and cognitive disturbances causing significant decrease in quality of life. Severe CHI leads to instant death and lifetime paralysis. Thus, further exploration of novel therapeutic agents or new features of known pharmacological agents are needed to enhance quality of life of CHI victims. Previous reports from our laboratory showed that mild CHI induced by weight drop technique causing an impact of 0.224N results in profound progressive functional deficit, memory impairment and brain pathology from 5h after trauma that continued over several weeks of injury. In this investigation we report that TiO2 nanowired delivery of oxiracetam (50mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 5 days after CHI resulted in significant improvement of functional deficit on the 8th day. This was observed using Rota Rod treadmill, memory improvement assessed by the time spent in finding hidden platform under water. The motor function improvement is seen in oxiracetam treated CHI group by placing forepaw on an inclined mesh walking and foot print analysis for stride length and distance between hind feet. TiO2-nanowired oxiracetam also induced marked improvements in the cerebral blood flow, reduction in the BBB breakdown and edema formation as well as neuroprotection of neuronal, glial and myelin damages caused by CHI at light and electron microscopy on the 7th day after 5 days TiO2 oxiracetam treatment. Adverse biochemical events such as upregulation of CSF nitrite and nitrate, IL-6, TNF-a and p-Tau are also reduced significantly in oxiracetam treated CHI group. On the other hand post treatment of 100mg/kg dose of normal oxiracetam in identical conditions after CHI is needed to show slight but significant neuroprotection together with mild recovery of memory function and functional deficits on the 8th day. These observations are the first to point out that nanowired delivery of oxiracetam has superior neuroprotective ability in CHI. These results indicate a promising clinical future of TiO2 oxiracetam in treating CHI patients for better quality of life and neurorehabilitation, not reported earlier.

3.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 249-315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560923

RESUMO

Military personnel often exposed to high summer heat are vulnerable to heat stroke (HS) resulting in abnormal brain function and mental anomalies. There are reasons to believe that leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) due to hyperthermia and development of brain edema could result in brain pathology. Thus, exploration of suitable therapeutic strategies is needed to induce neuroprotection in HS. Extracts of Gingko Biloba (EGb-761) is traditionally used in a variety of mental disorders in Chinese traditional medicine since ages. In this chapter, effects of TiO2 nanowired EGb-761 and BN-52021 delivery to treat brain pathologies in HS is discussed based on our own investigations. We observed that TiO2 nanowired delivery of EGb-761 or TiO2 BN-52021 is able to attenuate more that 80% reduction in the brain pathology in HS as compared to conventional drug delivery. The functional outcome after HS is also significantly improved by nanowired delivery of EGb-761 and BN-52021. These observations are the first to suggest that nanowired delivery of EGb-761 and BN-52021 has superior therapeutic effects in HS not reported earlier. The clinical significance in relation to the military medicine is discussed.

4.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 317-375, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560924

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal injuries after cardiac arrest. Increased production of carbon monoxide (CO) by the enzyme hemeoxygenase (HO) in the brain is induced by the oxidative stress. HO is present in the CNS in two isoforms, namely the inducible HO-1 and the constitutive HO-2. Elevated levels of serum HO-1 occurs in cardiac arrest patients and upregulation of HO-1 in cardiac arrest is seen in the neurons. However, the role of HO-2 in cardiac arrest is not well known. In this review involvement of HO-1 and HO-2 enzymes in the porcine brain following cardiac arrest and resuscitation is discussed based on our own observations. In addition, neuroprotective role of methylene blue- an antioxidant dye on alterations in HO under in cardiac arrest is also presented. The biochemical findings of HO-1 and HO-2 enzymes using ELISA were further confirmed by immunocytochemical approach to localize selective regional alterations in cardiac arrest. Our observations are the first to show that cardiac arrest followed by successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation results in significant alteration in cerebral concentrations of HO-1 and HO-2 levels indicating a prominent role of CO in brain pathology and methylene blue during CPR followed by induced hypothermia leading to superior neuroprotection after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), not reported earlier.

5.
Prog Brain Res ; 265: 385-406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560926

RESUMO

Nanoparticles affect blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema formation resulting in sensory-motor dysfunction. Exposure of Mn nanoparticles from industrial sources in humans could target basal ganglia resulting in Parkinson's disease. In present investigation, Mn exposure on brain pathology in a rat model was examined. Rats received Mn nanoparticles (30-40nm size) in a dose of 10 or 20mg/kg, i.p. once daily for 7 days and behavioral dysfunctions on Rota Rod performance, inclined plane angle and grid-walking tests as well as gait performances were examined. In addition, BBB breakdown to Evans blue and radioiodine, brain edema formation and neural injuries were also evaluated. Mn nanoparticles treated rats exhibited cognitive and motor dysfunction on the 8th day. At this time, BBB disruption, reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain edema formation and brain pathology were most marked in the sensory-motor cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, cerebellum and thalamus followed by hypothalamus, pons, medulla and spinal cord. In these brain areas, neuronal injuries using Nissl staining was clearly seen. These effects of Mn nanoparticle are dose dependent. These results are the first to demonstrate that Mn nanoparticles induce selective brain pathology resulting in cognitive and motor dysfunction, not reported earlier.

6.
Osteoporos Int ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383099

RESUMO

Data evaluating changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in Down syndrome (DS) individuals remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better understand associations between BMD and DS. A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library up until 1st January 2021 was conducted. We used the keywords "bone mineral density" and "Down Syndrome." Fifteen studies were included. Overall, our results showed a significant decrease in BMD of total body (TB BMD) [MD = - 0.18; 95% CI (- 0.23 and - 0.12), P < 0.00001, I2 = 89%], total hip (TH BMD) [MD = - 0.12; 95% CI (- 0.15 and - 0.10), P < 0.00001, I2 = 0%], lumbar spine (LS BMD) [MD = - 0.12; 95% CI (- 0.14 and - 0.09), P < 0.00001, I2 = 18%], and femoral neck (FN BMD) [MD = - 0.08; 95% CI (- 0.10 and - 0.06), P < 0.00001, I2 = 0%] in DS individuals when compared with controls. Moreover, the volumetric BMD of lumbar spine (LS vBMD) [MD = - 0.01; 95% CI (- 0.02 and - 0.01), P = 0.0004, I2 = 19%] also showed a decreasing tendency while the volumetric BMD of the femoral neck (FN vBMD) [MD = 0.01; 95% CI (0.00 and 0.02), P = 0.02, I2 = 0%] was elevated in DS individuals versus controls. These findings demonstrated that individuals with DS had a decreased total and regional (TH, LS, and FN) BMD when compared with the general population. Additionally, when BMD was adjusted for skeletal volume, LS vBMD was also lower, while FN vBMD was elevated in DS individuals versus controls.

7.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 43(8): 866-871, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407593

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum folate and the prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CIN1) and the interaction between folate and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection. Methods: From a community-based married women cohort established in Jiexiu and Yangqu County of Shanxi Province from June to December 2014, a total of 564 eligible women with CIN1 by pathologically diagnosed were recruited. The pathological examination was performed again 12 months later. According to the prognosis of CIN1, participants were divided into CIN1 regression group, persistence and progression group, respectively. Nested case-control study was used to explore the relationship between serum folate and CIN1 prognosis, and additive model was used to analyze the interaction between serum folate and HR-HPV infection. Results: Among 564 CIN1 patients, 479 cases underwent pathological examination again, 331 were divided in CIN1 regression group and other 148 in persistence and progression group. The levels of serum folate in CIN1 regression group and persistence and progression group were (18.890±8.360) and (15.640±5.550) nmol/L, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (Z=-6.937, P<0.001). HPV infection was detected in 154 patients, including 148 cases of HR-HPV infection and 6 cases of low risk human papillomavirus (LR-HPV) infection. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in the age, passive smoking, frequency of pudendal cleaning, frequency of cleaning after sex, frequency of changing underwear, serum folate and HR-HPV infection between regression group and persistence and progression group (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the frequency of pudendal cleaning (OR=0.422, 95%CI: 0.238-0.750), frequency of changing underwear (OR=0.574, 95%CI: 0.355-0.928), serum folate (13.06-16.78nmol/L: OR=4.806, 95%CI: 2.355-9.810; ≤13.05nmol/L: OR=8.378, 95%CI: 4.024-17.445), HR-HPV infection (OR=1.852, 95%CI: 1.170-2.933) were the independent influencing factors of CIN1 prognosis. Interaction analysis showed that the relative excess risk of low serum folate level and HR-HPV infection for the CIN1 persistence and progression was 4.992 (95%CI: 0.189-9.796), attributable proportion due to interaction was 0.552 (95%CI: 0.279-0.824), synergy index was 2.632 (95%CI: 1.239-5.588), aOR of serum folate≤16.78 nmol/L and HR-HPV infection positive was 9.055 (95%CI: 4.878-16.807). Conclusion: Low serum folate level could increase the risk of CIN1 persistence and progression, and might enhance the risk when combined with HR-HPV infection.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Prognóstico
9.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; : 9603271211027933, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189972

RESUMO

Betalain is a natural plant pigment known to elicit various biological activities. However, studies on the protective effect of betalain against heart failure have not reported yet. The experimental model of heart failure was created in Wistar rats using isoproterenol (ISO). The animals were randomly assigned into four groups such as sham-control, ISO-induced heart failure, betalain pretreated before ISO induction (50 mg/kg/day), and betalain drug control group were maintained for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, anti-oxidant enzymes, inflammatory markers, matrix proteins, cardiac-specific markers, and micro RNAs were elucidated using RT-PCR, and ELISA analysis. The results demonstrated that the rats induced with ISO displayed an abnormality in cardiac functions, increased oxidative stress markers (p < 0.01), inflammatory cytokines (p < 0.01) while abrogated the expression of miR-18a, and increased miR-199a. While betalain pre-treated rats prevented the cardiac failure significantly (p < 0.01) with improved anti-oxidant enzymes, abrogated the inflammatory signals with restored matrix proteins, cardiac biomarker genes, and attenuated miR-423 and miR-27 compared to heart failure rats. The results of the study suggest that the betalain treatment protected the hearts from failing via microRNA mediated activation the anti-inflammatory signaling and restoring the matrix protein modulation.

10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(6): 2459, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829422

RESUMO

The article "MOTS-c accelerates bone fracture healing by stimulating osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via positively regulating FOXF1 to activate the TGF-ß pathway, by F.-B. Weng, L.-F. Zhu, J.-X. Zhou, Y. Shan, Z.-G. Tian, L.-W. Yang, published in Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019; 23 (24): 10623-10630-DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_201912_19759-PMID: 31858528" has been withdrawn from the authors due to inaccuracies during the process of organizing the images. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. https://www.europeanreview.org/article/19759.

12.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(4): 374-379, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874688

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinical, cardiac imaging characteristics and prognosis of patients with primary cardiac angiosarcoma. Methods: The clinical data of 14 patients hospitalized with primary cardiac angiosarcoma from January 2001 to December 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were collected and analyzed. Metastatic cardiac angiosarcoma was not included in this study. Patients were followed up post discharge per telephone call or clinical visit. Results: Of the 14 patients, 8 were males and 6 were females, average age was 48 years. The main clinical symptoms were shortness of breath (8/14), hemoptysis (6/14), fever (5/14), chest pain (4/14) and cough (3/14). Imaging examinations showed that the tumors of 8 patients were located in the right heart and 6 in the pericardial cavity. Tumors in the right heart often infiltrate the atrial wall and cause pericardial effusion (7/8). Tumors in the pericardium were characterized by recurrent bloody pericardial effusion (6/6), prone to progressive constrictive pericarditis (3/6), pericardial fluid cytology was often negative (6/6). MRI showed heterogeneous high signal intensity (cauliflower aspect) on T2-weighted image and heterogeneous enhancement with a"sunray" aspect at the perfusion study. At the time of diagnosis, 8 patients developed lung or adrenal metastasis (8/14). The median survival was only 305 days. Conclusions: Primary cardiac angiosarcoma is a rare disease with non-specific clinical manifestation and poor prognosis. Imaging examinations may help diagnosis. The high invasiveness and the easy-to-metastasis feature of the tumor contribute to the poor prognosis of cardiac angiosarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cardíacas , Hemangiossarcoma , Derrame Pericárdico , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente
13.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 217-223, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910307

RESUMO

Objective: To prepare a novel tri-specific T cell engager (19TriTE) targeting CD19 antigen, and to investigate its immunotherapeutic effect on CD19-positive hematological malignancies. Methods: 19TriTE was constructed by molecular cloning technology and successfully expressed through the eukaryotic expressing system. The effects of 19TriTE on the proliferation and activation of T cells, as well as the specific cytotoxicity against CD19 positive tumor cell lines were verified. Results: ①19TriTE expressing plasmid was constructed and successfully expressed through the eukaryotic expressing system. ②19TriTE can specifically bind to T cells and Nalm6 cells, with equilibrium dissociation constants of 19.21 nmol/L and 11.67 nmol/L, respectively. ③The expression rates of CD69 positive T cells and CD25 positive T cells were 35.4% and 49.8% respectively, when 2 nmol/L 19TriTE were added in the co-culture system, which were significantly higher than those in the control group. ④19TriTE can significantly promote the proliferation of T cells. The absolute count of T cells expanded from the initial one million to 74 million with an 74 fold increase at the concentration of 1 nmol/L on day 12. ⑤19TriTE can significantly mediate T cells killing of CD19 positive target cells in a dose-dependent manner. At the concentration of 10 nmol/L, the target cells lysis reached 50%. ⑥Degranulation experiment verified that 19TriTE can activate T cells in the presence of CD19 positive target cells, and the activation of T cells positively correlated with the dose of 19TriTE. ⑦When 19TriTE fusion protein co-cultured with T cells and target cells overexpression RFP and luciferase genes respectively, 19TriTE can notably mediate T cells killing of CD19 positive target cells through fluorescent microscope or bioluminescence imaging technology. Conclusion: In this study, we successfully constructed and expressed 19TriTE fusion protein and verified that it can effectively activate T cells and promote their proliferation in vitro. At the same time, it can bind to CD19 positive target cells and T cells, as well as enhance T cells anti-leukemia effect in vitro, providing the foundation for further clinical research.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19 , Leucemia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Linfócitos T
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(5): 2245-2251, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As we know, gallstones are a gallbladder disease with high incidence around the world. As the population has aged and living habits have changed, the incidence of the disease is increasing year by year. Gallstones are mainly classified into cholesterol, bile pigment and mixed type gallstones based on their chemical composition. Patients with different stone components have different treatment options. Therefore, it is very important to know the chemical type of the stone before treatment. Imaging examination is the main method to identify the components of gallstones in the body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deep learning technology has an excellent data mining ability, and thus the combination of deep learning and medical treatment is always a research focus. In this work, we introduce a generative model to learn the features of the training data, to detect the composition of gallstones and to assist medical diagnosis. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis is given in detail. RESULTS: The model could be used to determine the chemical composition of gallstones. CONCLUSIONS: The potential of generative models in predicting the chemical composition of gallstones is shown in this study. In addition, theoretical analysis is also presented.

15.
Water Res ; 193: 116855, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556693

RESUMO

Recovery of selenium (Se) from wastewater provides a solution for both securing Se supply and preventing Se pollution. Here, we developed a high-rate process for biological selenate reduction to elemental selenium. Distinctive from other studies, we aimed for a process with selenate as the main biological electron sink, with minimal formation of methane or sulfide. A sequencing batch reactor, fed with an influent containing 120 mgSe L-1 selenate and ethanol as electron donor and carbon source, was operated for 495 days. The high rates (419 ± 17 mgSe L-1 day-1) were recorded between day 446 and day 495 for a hydraulic retention time of 6 h. The maximum conversion efficiency of selenate amounted to 96% with a volumetric conversion rate of 444 mgSe L-1 day-1, which is 6 times higher than the rates reported in the literature thus far. At the end of the experiment, a highly enriched selenate reducing biomass had developed, with a specific activity of 856 ± 26 mgSe-1day-1gbiomass-1, which was nearly 1000-fold higher than that of the inoculum. No evidence was found for the formation of methane, sulfide, or volatile reduced selenium compounds like dimethyl-selenide or H2Se, revealing a high selectivity. Ethanol was incompletely oxidized to acetate. The produced elemental selenium partially accumulated in the reactor as pure (≥80% Se of the total mixture of biomass sludge flocs and flaky aggregates, and ~100% of the specific flaky aggregates) selenium black hexagonal needles, with cluster sizes between 20 and 200 µm. The new process may serve as the basis for a high-rate technology to remove and recover pure selenium from wastewater or process streams with high selectivity.


Assuntos
Compostos de Selênio , Selênio , Reatores Biológicos , Ácido Selênico , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 307, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436565

RESUMO

Spin liquids are exotic states with no spontaneous symmetry breaking down to zero-temperature because of the highly entangled and fluctuating spins in frustrated systems. Exotic excitations like magnetic monopoles, visons, and photons may emerge from quantum spin ice states, a special kind of spin liquids in pyrochlore lattices. These materials usually are insulators, with an exception of the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7, which was proposed as a metallic spin liquid located at a zero-field quantum critical point. Here we report the ultralow-temperature thermal conductivity measurements on Pr2Ir2O7. The Wiedemann-Franz law is verified at high fields and inferred at zero field, suggesting no breakdown of Landau quasiparticles at the quantum critical point, and the absence of mobile fermionic excitations. This result puts strong constraints on the description of the quantum criticality in Pr2Ir2O7. Unexpectedly, although the specific heats are anisotropic with respect to magnetic field directions, the thermal conductivities display the giant but isotropic response. This indicates that quadrupolar interactions and quantum fluctuations are important, which will help determine the true ground state of this material.

18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(1): 233-246, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654235

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of Bacillus, which serves as an alternative of antibiotics on the intestinal ecosystem of weaned piglets. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomly assigned 120 piglets to three groups: a control group (a basal diet), a probiotics group (a basal diet supplemented with 4 × 109  CFU per gram Bacillus licheniformis-Bacillus subtilis mixture; BLS mix), and an antibiotics group (a basal diet supplemented with 0·04 kg t-1 virginiamycin, 0·2 kg t-1 colistin and 3000 mg kg-1 zinc oxide). All groups had five replicates with eight piglets per replicate. On days 7, 21 and 42 of the trial, intestine tissue and digesta samples were collected to determine intestinal morphology, gut microbiota and bacterial metabolite composition, and the expression of genes related to the gut barrier function and inflammatory status. The results showed that the BLS mix decreased the jejunum crypt depth, while increased the ileum villus height and the jejunum and ileum villus height to crypt depth ratio. The BLS mix increased Simpson's diversity index in the gut microbiota and the relative abundances of o_Bacteroidetes and f_Ruminococcaceae, but decreased the relative abundances of Blautia and Clostridium. Dietary BLS mix supplementation also modified the concentration of several bacterial metabolites compared to the control group. In addition, BLS mix upregulated the expression level of E-cadherin in the colon and pro-inflammatory cytokines and TLR-4 in ileum and colon. Lastly, Spearman's rank-order correlation revealed a potential link between alterations in gut microbiota and health parameters of the weaned piglets. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary BLS mix supplementation modifies the gut ecosystem in weaned piglets. The potential advantages of such modifications in terms of intestinal health are discussed. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Weaning is the most important transition period of piglet growth and development. This study showed that dietary supplementation of a probiotic mixture of Bacillus, an effective alternative of antibiotics, was beneficial in improving the intestinal ecosystem of weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ecossistema , Intestinos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Desmame
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 135: 343-348, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129574

RESUMO

Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an intractable avian cartilage disease in which proximal growth plates of tibia lack blood vessels and contain nonviable cells, and it leads to the inflammatory response. Prostaglandins (PGs) genes have not been studied yet in TD chicken, and they might play role in skeletal metabolism, therefore we planned to explore the role of recombinant glutathione-S-transferase A3 (rGSTA3) protein and PG-related genes. In this study, qRT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis were used to identify the expression patterns of eight PG-related genes in the tibial growth plate of broiler chicken. The results showed that the expression of PG-related genes glutathione-S-transferase A3 (GSTA3), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER) 3, PTGER4, prostaglandin reductase 1 (PTGR1) and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthases (HPGDS) expression were identified and could significantly respond to thiram-induced TD chicken. Interestingly, the expression of rate-limiting enzyme COX-2 and PGE2 were induced after the treatment of rGSTA3 protein. These findings demonstrated that the occurrence of TD is closely related to the inhibition of PGs. Moreover, rGSTA3 protein participated in the recovery of TD by strengthening the expression of PG-related genes.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Glutationa Transferase/farmacologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Tiram/efeitos adversos , Tíbia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tíbia/patologia
20.
Prog Brain Res ; 258: 1-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223033

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation (SD) is common in military personnel engaged in combat operations leading to brain dysfunction. Military personnel during acute or chronic SD often prone to traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicating the possibility of further exacerbating brain pathology. Several lines of evidence suggest that in both TBI and SD alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels decreases in plasma and brain. Thus, a possibility exists that exogenous supplement of α-MSH and/or BDNF induces neuroprotection in SD compounded with TBI. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are very portent in inducing neuroprotection in TBI. We examined the effects of concussive head injury (CHI) in SD on brain pathology. Furthermore, possible neuroprotective effects of α-MSH, MSCs and neurotrophic factors treatment were explored in a rat model of SD and CHI. Rats subjected to 48h SD with CHI exhibited higher leakage of BBB to Evans blue and radioiodine compared to identical SD or CHI alone. Brain pathology was also exacerbated in SD with CHI group as compared to SD or CHI alone together with a significant reduction in α-MSH and BDNF levels in plasma and brain and enhanced level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Exogenous administration of α-MSH (250µg/kg) together with MSCs (1×106) and cerebrolysin (a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments) (5mL/kg) significantly induced neuroprotection in SD with CHI. Interestingly, TiO2 nanowired delivery of α-MSH (100µg), MSCs, and cerebrolysin (2.5mL/kg) induced enhanced neuroprotection with higher levels of α-MSH and BDNF and decreased the TNF-α in SD with CHI. These observations are the first to show that TiO2 nanowired administration of α-MSH, MSCs and cerebrolysin induces superior neuroprotection following SD in CHI, not reported earlier. The clinical significance of our findings in light of the current literature is discussed.

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