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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10976-10982, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358194

RESUMO

Advances in gene editing are leading to new medical interventions where patients' own cells are used for stem cell therapies and immunotherapies. One of the key limitations to translating these treatments to the clinic is the need for scalable technologies for engineering cells efficiently and safely. Toward this goal, microfluidic strategies to induce membrane pores and permeability have emerged as promising techniques to deliver biomolecular cargo into cells. As these technologies continue to mature, there is a need to achieve efficient, safe, nontoxic, fast, and economical processing of clinically relevant cell types. We demonstrate an acoustofluidic sonoporation method to deliver plasmids to immortalized and primary human cell types, based on pore formation and permeabilization of cell membranes with acoustic waves. This acoustofluidic-mediated approach achieves fast and efficient intracellular delivery of an enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing plasmid to cells at a scalable throughput of 200,000 cells/min in a single channel. Analyses of intracellular delivery and nuclear membrane rupture revealed mechanisms underlying acoustofluidic delivery and successful gene expression. Our studies show that acoustofluidic technologies are promising platforms for gene delivery and a useful tool for investigating membrane repair.

3.
Horm Metab Res ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365399

RESUMO

Although subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is thought to be a self-limited inflammatory thyroid disease, the recurrence rate of SAT is approximately 10-20%. It is difficult for these patients to stop glucocorticoid treatment, and they are usually bothered with recurrent pain and the side effects of glucocorticoids for more than several months. We describe three cases who were diagnosed with recurrent subacute thyroiditis after a reduction in prednisolone (PSL) dose, either immediately upon the cessation of PSL or shortly thereafter. Their symptoms, including the adverse effects of PSL, severely impacted their quality of life. After a complete assessment, we administered colchicine at 1 mg per day for 1-2 months to control the recurrence of SAT and monitored their routine blood parameters every two weeks. All 3 patients were successfully tapered off of PSL treatment and were free of frequently recurrent SAT. Colchicine may be therapeutic in patients with prednisolone-refractory, recurrent SAT. However, a large-scale, double-blind, controlled, prospective multicenter study is required to provide a solid body of evidence.

4.
Lab Chip ; 20(10): 1729-1739, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292982

RESUMO

Effectively isolating and categorizing large quantities of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) based on different phenotypes is important for most worm research, especially genetics. Here we present an integrated acoustofluidic chip capable of identifying worms of interest based on expression of a fluorescent protein in a continuous flow and then separate them accordingly in a high-throughput manner. Utilizing planar fiber optics as the detection unit, our acoustofluidic device requires no temporary immobilization of worms for interrogation/detection, thereby improving the throughput. Implementing surface acoustic waves (SAW) as the sorting unit, our device provides a contact-free method to move worms of interest to the desired outlet, thus ensuring the biocompatibility for our chip. Our device can sort worms of different developmental stages (L3 and L4 stage worms) at high throughput and accuracy. For example, L3 worms can be processed at a throughput of around 70 worms per min with a sample purity over 99%, which remains over 90% when the throughput is increased to around 115 worms per min. In our acoustofluidic chip, the time period to complete the detection and sorting of one worm is only 50 ms, which outperforms nearly all existing microfluidics-based worm sorting devices and may be further reduced to achieve higher throughput.

5.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319162

RESUMO

Collagen gel is widely used in tissue engineering due to excellent biological properties and swollen three-dimensional network structure. To improve viscoelasticity and thermal stability, collagen gels consisting of fibrils were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and sequentially dehydrated via ethanol or heating (named as EGC or HGC, respectively). For EGC, ethanol replaced free and loosely bound water and then combined with tightly bound water, inducing the increase in hydrogen bonds and molecular interactions. Therefore, the thermal transition temperature (Tt ) and storage modulus (G') obviously increased from 47.3 ± 0.5°C and 0.1 kPa to 92.7 ± 0.8°C and 7.8 kPa, respectively. Unfortunately, the high deformation (γ > 60%) and low recovery percentage (R < 15%) reflected the poor anti-deformation of gels due to the volatility of ethanol. For HGC, the entanglement and rigidity of fibrils increased owing to the contraction of cross-linked fibrils and cohesive action of denatured collagen. As a result, HGC were more resistant to deformation and exhibited more elasticity than native collagen gel, accompanied by the fact that G' and R increased to 28.8 kPa and 90.0% ± 0.7%. Additionally, HGC exhibited higher Tt (121.4 ± 0.5°C) due to lower water content and higher collagen concentration.

6.
ACS Nano ; 14(3): 3159-3169, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119517

RESUMO

Acoustofluidic methods, with advantages including simplicity of device design, biocompatible manipulation, and low power consumption, have been touted as promising tools for point-of-care (POC) testing. Here, we report a cell-phone-based acoustofluidic platform that uses acoustic radiation forces to enrich nanoscale analytes and red and green fluorescence nanoparticles (SiO2@R and G@SiO2) as probes for POC visual testing. Thus, the color signals from the fluorescent probes are enhanced, and colorimetric sensitivity is significantly improved. As a POC demonstration, the acoustofluidic platform is used to detect hemoglobin (Hb) from human blood, resulting in a rapid and straightforward measurement of normal blood Hb levels. Combining an acoustofluidic-based nanoparticle-concentration platform with cell-phone-based colorimetry, our method introduces a potential pathway toward practical POC testing.

7.
Lab Chip ; 20(7): 1281-1289, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154525

RESUMO

Manipulation of microparticles and bio-samples is a critical task in many research and clinical settings. Recently, acoustic based methods have garnered significant attention due to their relatively simple designs, and biocompatible and precise manipulation of small objects. Herein, we introduce a flexural wave based acoustofluidic manipulation platform that utilizes low-frequency (4-6 kHz) commercial buzzers to achieve dynamic particle concentration and translation in an open fluid well. The device has two primary modes of functionality, wherein particles can be concentrated in pressure nodes that are present on the bottom surface of the device, or particles can be trapped and manipulated in streaming vortices within the fluid domain; both of these functions result from flexural mode vibrations that travel from the transducers throughout the device. Throughout our research, we numerically and experimentally explored the wave patterns generated within the device, investigated the particle concentration phenomenon, and utilized a phase difference between the two transducers to achieve precision movement of fluid vortices and the entrapped particle clusters. With its simple, low-cost nature and open fluidic chamber design, this platform can be useful in many biological, biochemical, and biomedical applications, such as tumor spheroid generation and culture, as well as the manipulation of embryos.

8.
Lab Chip ; 20(7): 1298-1308, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195522

RESUMO

Separation of nano/microparticles based on surface acoustic waves (SAWs) has shown great promise for biological, chemical, and medical applications ranging from sample purification to cancer diagnosis. However, the permanent bonding of a microchannel onto relatively expensive piezoelectric substrates and excitation transducers renders the SAW separation devices non-disposable. This limitation not only requires cumbersome cleaning and increased labor and material costs, but also leads to cross-contamination, preventing their implementation in many biological, chemical, and medical applications. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance, disposable acoustofluidic platform for nano/microparticle separation. Leveraging unidirectional interdigital transducers (IDTs), a hybrid channel design with hard/soft materials, and tilted-angle standing SAWs (taSSAWs), our disposable acoustofluidic devices achieve acoustic radiation forces comparable to those generated by existing permanently bonded, non-disposable devices. Our disposable devices can separate not only microparticles but also nanoparticles. Moreover, they can differentiate bacteria from human red blood cells (RBCs) with a purity of up to 96%. Altogether, we developed a unidirectional IDT-based, disposable acoustofluidic platform for micro/nanoparticle separation that can achieve high separation efficiency, versatility, and biocompatibility.

9.
Lab Chip ; 20(7): 1238-1248, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104816

RESUMO

Whether reagents and samples need to be combined to achieve a desired reaction, or precise concentrations of solutions need to be mixed and delivered downstream, thorough mixing remains a critical step in many microfluidics-based biological and chemical assays and analyses. To achieve complete mixing of fluids in microfluidic devices, researchers have utilized novel channel designs or active intervention to facilitate mass transport and exchange of fluids. However, many of these solutions have a major limitation: their design inherently limits their operational throughput; that is, different designs work at specific flow rates, whether that be low or high ranges, but have difficulties outside of their tailored design regimes. In this work, we present an acoustofluidic mixer that is capable of achieving efficient, thorough mixing across a broad range of flow rates (20-2000 µL min-1) using a single device. Our mixer combines active acoustofluidic mixing, which is responsible for mixing fluids at lower flow rates, with passive hydrodynamic mixing, which accounts for mixing fluids at higher flow rates. The mechanism, functionality, and performance of our acoustofluidic device are both numerically and experimentally validated. Additionally, the real-world potential of our device is demonstrated by synthesizing polymeric nanoparticles with comparable sizes over a two-order-of-magnitude wide range of flow rates. This device can be valuable in many biochemical, biological, and biomedical applications. For example, using our platform, one may synthesize nanoparticles/nanomaterials at lower flow rates to first identify optimal synthesis conditions without having to waste significant amounts of reagents, and then increase the flow rate to perform high-throughput synthesis using the optimal conditions, all using the same single device and maintaining performance.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 762, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034148

RESUMO

The valley degree of freedom in crystals offers great potential for manipulating classical waves, however, few studies have investigated valley states with complex wavenumbers, valley states in graded systems, or dispersion tuning for valley states. Here, we present tunable valley phononic crystals (PCs) composed of hybrid channel-cavity cells with three tunable parameters. Our PCs support valley states and Dirac cones with complex wavenumbers. They can be configured to form chirped valley PCs in which edge modes are slowed to zero group velocity states, where the energy at different frequencies accumulates at different designated locations. They enable multiple functionalities, including tuning of dispersion relations for valley states, robust routing of surface acoustic waves, and spatial modulation of group velocities. This work may spark future investigations of topological states with complex wavenumbers in other classical systems, further study of topological states in graded materials, and the development of acoustic devices.

11.
Appl Spectrosc ; 74(4): 391-399, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031012

RESUMO

The aggregation behavior of collagen-based materials plays an important role in their processing because it could affect their physicochemical properties. Based on the intrinsic fluorescence characteristic of tyrosine, fluorescence spectrum technology was used to investigate the aggregation state of the acylated collagen molecules in aqueous solution. The results showed that the aggregate degree of the acylated collagen was higher than that of the native collagen due to the hydrophobic interaction. With the increase of concentrations of the acylated collagen or at NaCl higher than 40 mmol/L, the aggregate degree of the acylated collagen molecules increased. When the pH was close to the isoelectric point of the acylated collagen, the hydrophobic interaction and the hydrogen bond helped to increase the aggregation degree. However, with the increase of temperature (10-70 ℃), the aggregation state of the acylated collagen decreased gradually due to the quenching, the molecular collision, and the broken of hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) showed that the response order was 360 > 305 nm at various acylated collagen and NaCl (>40 mmol/L) concentrations, while the response order was 305 > 360 nm when the pH value was increased from 5.0 to 9.0. Temperature-dependent 2D-COS showed there were four bands that occurred and the response order was listed as follows: 293 > 305 > 360 > 420 nm. In brief, the results might provide an important guide for molding processes of the acylated collagen.

12.
Lab Chip ; 20(5): 987-994, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010910

RESUMO

Acoustic tweezing technologies are gaining significant attention from the scientific communities due to their versatility and biocompatibility. This study presents acoustic tweezers based on circular, slanted-finger interdigital transducers (CSFITs), which can steer the propagation direction of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by tuning the excitation frequency. The CSFITs based acoustic tweezers enable dynamic and reconfigurable manipulation of micro-objects using multi-tone excitation signals. Compared to traditional interdigital transducers that generate and control SAWs along one axis, the CSFITs allow for simultaneously generating and independently controlling SAWs propagating along multiple axes by changing the frequency composition and the phase information in a multi-tone excitation signal. Moreover, the CSFITs based acoustic tweezers can be used for patterning cells/particles in various distributions and translating them along complex paths. We believe that our design is valuable for cellular-scale biological applications, in which on-chip, contactless, biocompatible handling of bioparticles is needed.

13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 9151067, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583050

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Obesity, which is related to increased oxidative stress in various tissues, is a risk factor for male infertility. Metformin is reported to have an antioxidant effect; however, the precise role of metformin in obesity-induced male infertility remains unknown. The current study is aimed at exploring the effects of metformin and characterizing its underlying mechanism in the fertility of obese males. Methods: An obese male mouse model was generated by feeding mice with a high-fat diet; then, the mice were administered metformin in water for 8 weeks. Reproductive ability, metabolic parameters, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed by cohabitation, enzymatic methods, and ELISA, respectively. Damage to the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), which ensures spermatogenesis, was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence with a biotin tracer. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were employed for the assessments of oxidative stress. BTB-related proteins were measured by immunoblotting. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) was assessed by immunofluorescence. Results: High-fat-diet-fed mice presented evident lipid metabolic disturbances, disrupted BTB integrity, and decreased reproductive function. Metformin alleviated the decrease in male fertility, decreased ectopic lipid deposition in the testis, and increased serum FSH levels. A further mechanistic analysis revealed that metformin ameliorated the high-fat-diet-induced injury to the BTB structure and permeability and restored the disordered BTB-related proteins, which might be associated with an improvement in oxidative stress and a recovery of NF-κB activity in Sertoli cells (SCs). Conclusion: Metformin improves obese male fertility by alleviating oxidative stress-induced BTB damage. These findings provide new insights into the effect of metformin on various diseases and suggest future possibilities in the treatment of male infertility.

14.
Lab Chip ; 19(20): 3397-3404, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508644

RESUMO

Contact-free manipulation of small objects (e.g., cells, tissues, and droplets) using acoustic waves eliminates physical contact with structures and undesired surface adsorption. Pioneering acoustic-based, contact-free manipulation techniques (e.g., acoustic levitation) enable programmable manipulation but are limited by evaporation, bulky transducers, and inefficient acoustic coupling in air. Herein, we report an acoustofluidic mechanism for the contactless manipulation of small objects on water. A hollow-square-shaped interdigital transducer (IDT) is fabricated on lithium niobate (LiNbO3), immersed in water and used as a sound source to generate acoustic waves and as a micropump to pump fluid in the ±x and ±y orthogonal directions. As a result, objects which float adjacent to the excited IDT can be pushed unidirectionally (horizontally) in ±x and ±y following the directed acoustic wave propagation. A fluidic processor was developed by patterning IDT units in a 6-by-6 array. We demonstrate contactless, programmable manipulation on water of oil droplets and zebrafish larvae. This acoustofluidic-based manipulation opens avenues for the contactless, programmable processing of materials and small biosamples.

15.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaau6062, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172021

RESUMO

Acoustic tweezers have recently raised great interest across many fields including biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine, as they can perform contactless, label-free, biocompatible, and precise manipulation of particles and cells. Here, we present wave number-spiral acoustic tweezers, which are capable of dynamically reshaping surface acoustic wave (SAW) wavefields to various pressure distributions to facilitate dynamic and programmable particle/cell manipulation. SAWs propagating in multiple directions can be simultaneously and independently controlled by simply modulating the multitone excitation signals. This allows for dynamic reshaping of SAW wavefields to desired distributions, thus achieving programmable particle/cell manipulation. We experimentally demonstrated the multiple functions of wave number-spiral acoustic tweezers, among which are multiconfiguration patterning; parallel merging; pattern translation, transformation, and rotation; and dynamic translation of single microparticles along complex paths. This wave number-spiral design has the potential to revolutionize future acoustic tweezers development and advance many applications, including microscale assembly, bioprinting, and cell-cell interaction research.

16.
Lab Chip ; 19(14): 2404-2414, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240285

RESUMO

Over the past several decades, a litany of acoustofluidic devices have been developed which purport to have significant advantages over traditional benchtop analytical tools. These acoustofluidic devices are frequently labeled as "labs-on-chips"; however, many do an insufficient job of limiting their dependence on the lab. Often, acoustofluidic devices still require skilled operators and complex external equipment. In an effort to address these shortcomings, we developed a low-cost, expandable, and multifunctional system for controlling acoustofluidic devices in the audible to low ultrasonic frequency range (31 Hz to 65 kHz). The system was designed around the readily available Arduino prototyping platform because of its user-friendly coding environment and expansive network of open source material; these factors enabled us to create a system capable of generating high voltage oscillatory signals and controlling microscale flows in acoustofluidic devices. Utilizing the established open source system, we achieved a series of acoustofluidic applications involving the manipulation of fluids and biological objects in a portable fashion. In particular, we used our open source acoustofluidic devices to achieve active rotation of cells and microorganisms, and operation of an acoustofluidic mixing device which has previously shown potential for viscous sample preparation, in a portable fashion. Additionally, using low frequency flexural waves and our portable system, we achieved acoustofluidic separation of particles based on size. It is our hope that the open source platform presented here can pave the way for future acoustofluidic devices to be used at the point-of-care, as well as simplify the operation of these devices to enable resource limited users to leverage the benefits of acoustofluidics in their work.

17.
Adv Funct Mater ; 29(13)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123431

RESUMO

Metasurfaces open up unprecedented potential for wave engineering using subwavelength sheets. However, a severe limitation of current acoustic metasurfaces is their poor reconfigurability to achieve distinct functions on demand. Here a programmable acoustic metasurface that contains an array of tunable subwavelength unit cells to break the limitation and realize versatile two-dimensional wave manipulation functions is reported. Each unit cell of the metasurface is composed of a straight channel and five shunted Helmholtz resonators, whose effective mass can be tuned by a robust fluidic system. The phase and amplitude of acoustic waves transmitting through each unit cell can be modulated dynamically and continuously. Based on such mechanism, the metasurface is able to achieve versatile wave manipulation functions, by engineering the phase and amplitude of transmission waves in the subwavelength scale. Through acoustic field scanning experiments, multiple wave manipulation functions, including steering acoustic waves, engineering acoustic beams, and switching on/off acoustic energy flow by using one design of metasurface are visually demonstrated. This work extends the metasurface research and holds great potential for a wide range of applications including acoustic imaging, communication, levitation, and tweezers.

18.
Lab Chip ; 19(6): 984-992, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768117

RESUMO

Controllable, precise, and stable rotational manipulation of model organisms is valuable in many biomedical, bioengineering, and biophysics applications. We present an acoustofluidic chip capable of rotating Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in both static and continuous flow in a controllable manner. Rotational manipulation was achieved by exposing C. elegans to a surface acoustic wave (SAW) field that generated a vortex distribution inside a microchannel. By selectively activating interdigital transducers, we achieved bidirectional rotation of C. elegans, namely counterclockwise and clockwise, with on-demand switching of rotation direction in a single chip. In addition to continuous rotation, we also rotated C. elegans in a step-wise fashion with a step angle as small as 4° by pulsing the signal duration of SAW from a continuous signal to a pulsed signal down to 1.5 ms. Using this device, we have clearly imaged the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans with pdat-1:GFP expression, as well as the vulval muscles and muscle fibers of the worm with myo-3::GFP fusion protein expression in different orientations and three dimensions. These achievements are difficult to realize through conventional (i.e., non-confocal) microscopy. The SAW manipulations did not detectably affect the health of the model organisms. With its precision, controllability, and simplicity in fabrication and operation, our acoustofluidic devices will be well-suited for model organism studies.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Som , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Imagem Óptica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Rotação
19.
Lab Chip ; 19(6): 941-947, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702741

RESUMO

Microfluidic-based portable devices for stool analysis are important for detecting established biomarkers for gastrointestinal disorders and understanding the relationship between gut microbiota imbalances and various health conditions, ranging from digestive disorders to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the challenge of processing stool samples in microfluidic devices hinders the development of a standalone platform. Here, we present the first microfluidic chip that can liquefy stool samples via acoustic streaming. With an acoustic transducer actively generating strong micro-vortex streaming, stool samples and buffers in microchannel can be homogenized at a flow rate up to 30 µL min-1. After homogenization, an array of 100 µm wide micropillars can further purify stool samples by filtering out large debris. A favorable biocompatibility was also demonstrated for our acoustofluidic-based stool liquefaction chip by examining bacteria morphology and viability. Moreover, stool samples with different consistencies were liquefied. Our acoustofluidic chip offers a miniaturized, robust, and biocompatible solution for stool sample preparation in a microfluidic environment and can be potentially integrated with stool analysis units for designing portable stool diagnostics platforms.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Microfluídica/métodos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Miniaturização , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Transdutores
20.
Gene ; 676: 73-78, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to ascertain the correlation between AKR1B1 polymorphism rs759853 and the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) through a meta-analysis. METHODS: Crude odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the association of AKR1B1 rs759853 polymorphism with DR risk. Stratification analyses were further conducted based on ethnicity, diabetes mellitus (DM) type, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) status, and genotyping method. Heterogeneity was detected by Q test. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to check the robustness of final results. Additionally, Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate underlying publication bias. RESULTS: Our meta-analysis ultimately incorporated 21 eligible publications with 22 independent case-control studies. The overall results demonstrated that AKR1B1 rs759853 polymorphism had no association with DR risk under all genetic models. However, after subgroup analysis by DM type, the rs759853 polymorphism was a protective factor against the DR onset in patients with type 1 DM (TT vs. CC: OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.17-0.67; TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.36-0.68; TT vs. CC + CT: OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83; allele T vs. allele C: OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.44-0.72; CT vs. CC: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.37-0.74). Furthermore, subgroup analysis by genotyping method suggested that rs759853 genotyped using MassARRAY assay was significantly correlated with decreased risk of DR under dominate model (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.52-0.96). CONCLUSION: AKR1B1 polymorphism rs759853 may inhibit the occurrence of DR in patients with type 1 DM.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
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