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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445549


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases which lacks ideal treatment options. Kaempferol and kaempferide, two natural flavonol compounds isolated from Hippophae rhamnoides L., were reported to exhibit a strong regulatory effect on lipid metabolism, for which the mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of kaempferol and kaempferide on oleic acid (OA)-treated HepG2 cells, a widely used in vitro model of NAFLD. The results indicated an increased accumulation of lipid droplets and triacylglycerol (TG) by OA, which was attenuated by kaempferol and kaempferide (5, 10 and 20 µM). Western blot analysis demonstrated that kaempferol and kaempferide reduced expression of lipogenesis-related proteins, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1). Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding proteins ß (C/EBPß), two adipogenic transcription factors, was also decreased by kaempferol and kaempferide treatment. In addition, western blot analysis also demonstrated that kaempferol and kaempferide reduced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Molecular docking was performed to identify the direct molecular targets of kaempferol and kaempferide, and their binding to SCD-1, a critical regulator in lipid metabolism, was revealed. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that kaempferol and kaempferide could attenuate OA-induced lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells, which might benefit the treatment of NAFLD.

Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oleico/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lipogênese , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110800, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152953


The present study investigated the anti-diabetic effects of Oligostilbenes extracts (Olie) from Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz (I. lactea) and the potential mechanisms, in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Olie are a group of major active extracts from I. lactea that have been used as nutraceutical because of their antioxidant activity. Six-week Olie treatment improved fasting blood glucose levels, as well as blood lipid profiles in HFD/streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-treated mice. Olie treatment upregulated the levels of phosphorylated of AMPK and lipolysis-related proteins, while the hepatic expression of ACC and FAS in diabetic mice was inhibited. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells, Olie (2-15 µg/mL) treatment dose-dependently suppressed the differentiation into mature adipocytes and lowered cellular lipid accumulation. Consistently, Olie reduced expression of adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ß (C/EBPß) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). In addition, mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was improved after Olie treatment. Taken together, our findings indicate that a lipid-lowering effect of Olie in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice and adipogenesis/ lipogenesis suppressing effect in 3T3-L1 cells, via regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins.

Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Iris/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , Estreptozocina
Chem Biodivers ; 17(7): e2000187, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384197


(20S)-Protopanaxadiol ginsenosides Rg3, Rh2 and PPD have been demonstrated for their anticancer activity. However, the underlying mechanism of their antitumor activity remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of these three ginsenosides on cell proliferation and death of human gastric cancer cells (HGC-27 cells). The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy. The results showed that both Rh2 and PPD were more effective than Rg3 in inhibiting HGC-27 cell proliferation and inducing cytoplasmic vacuolation, while no significant changes in apoptosis were observed. Interestingly, cytoplasmic vacuolation and blockade of autophagy flux were observed after treatment with Rh2 and PPD. Rh2 obviously up-regulated the expression of the LC3II and p62. Furthermore, the increase in lysosomal pH and membrane rupture was observed in Rh2-treated and PPD-treated cells. When HGC-27 cells were pretreated with bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of endosomal acidification, cellular vacuolization was increased, and the cell viability was significantly decreased, which indicated that Rh2-induced lysosome-damage accelerated cell death. Furthermore, data derived from mitochondrial analysis showed that excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and dysregulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism were caused by Rh2 and PPD treatment in HGC-27 cells. Taken together, these phenomena indicated that Rh2 and PPD inhibited HCG-27 cells proliferation by inducing mitochondria damage, dysfunction of lysosomes, and blockade of autophagy flux. The number of glycosyl groups at C-3 position could have an important effect on the cytotoxicity of Rg3, Rh2 and PPD.

Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Sapogeninas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sapogeninas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188147


Proanthocyanidins are the major active compounds extracted from Iris lactea Pall. var. Chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz (I. lactea). Proanthocyanidins exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and lowering blood lipids. However, the underlying mechanism of its regulating effect on lipid metabolism in diabetic conditions remains unclear. The present study investigated the effects of I. lactea-derived proanthocyanidins on lipid metabolism in mice of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Results demonstrated a beneficial effect of total proanthocyanidins on dysregulated lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in high-fat-diet/streptozocin (STZ)-induced T2DM. To identify the mechanisms, six flavan-3-ols were isolated from proanthocyanidins of I. lacteal and their effects on adipogenesis and dexamethasone (Dex)-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were determined. In vitro studies showed flavan-3-ols inhibited adipogenesis and restored mitochondrial function after Dex-induced insulin resistance, being suggested by increased mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ATP contents, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial biogenesis, and reduced reactive oxygen species. Among the six flavan-3-ols, procyanidin B3 and procyanidin B1 exhibited the strongest effects. Our study suggests potential of proanthocyanidins as therapeutic target for diabetes.

Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Biflavonoides , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso , Flavonoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonoides/química , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Proantocianidinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 7634362, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967664


Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is a well-known annual plant that is widely distributed worldwide and has possessed obvious hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemia characteristics. In our previous study, three polyphenol stilbenes were separated from fenugreek seeds. Here, we investigated the effect of polyphenol stilbenes on adipogenesis and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Oil Red O staining and triglyceride assays showed that polyphenol stilbenes differently reduced lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of adipocyte-specific proteins. In addition, polyphenol stilbenes improved the uptake of 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) by promoting the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In present studies, it was found that polyphenol stilbenes had the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial membrane potentials suggested that mitochondria play a critical role in insulin resistance and related signaling activation, such as AKT and AMPK. Rhaponticin, one of the stilbenes from fenugreek, had the strongest activity among the three compounds in vitro. Future studies will focus on mitochondrial biogenesis and function.

Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Trigonella/química
Chem Biodivers ; 14(7)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398659


Obesity, a major health problem worldwide, is a complex multifactorial chronic disease that increases the risk for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In this study, we assessed methods to isolate hypaphorine, a potent drug candidate for obesity and insulin resistance. Semi-preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography (semi-preparative RPLC) was established as a method to separate three compounds, adenosine, l-tryptophan, and hypaphorine, from the crude extracts of Caragana korshinskii Kom. Due to its specific chemical structure, the effect of hypaphorine on differentiation and dexamethasone (DXM) induced insulin resistance of 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. The structures of the three compounds were confirmed by UV, 1 H-NMR, and 13 C-NMR analysis and compared with published data. The activity results indicated that hypaphorine prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes by down-regulating hormone-stimulated protein expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), and their downstream targets, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Hypaphorine also alleviated DXM-induced insulin resistance in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes via increasing the phosphorylation level of Akt2, a key protein in the insulin signaling pathway. Taken together, we suggest that the method can be applied to large-scale extraction and large-quantity preparation of hypaphorine for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Caragana/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Indóis/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos