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1.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118208, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740291

RESUMO

Increasingly, studies suggest benefits of natural environments or greenness on children's health. However, little is known about cumulative exposure or windows of susceptibility to greenness exposure. Using inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models (IPW/MSM), we estimated effects of greenness exposure from birth through adolescence on executive function and behavior. We analyzed data of 908 children from Project Viva enrolled at birth in 1999-2002 and followed up until early adolescence. In mid-childhood (median 7.7 years) and early adolescence (13.1 years), executive function and behavior were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Greenness was measured at birth, early childhood, mid-childhood, and early adolescence, using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. We used inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models to estimate effects of interventions that ensure maximum greenness exposure versus minimum through all intervals; and that ensure maximum greenness only in early childhood (vs. minimum through all intervals). Results of the effects of "maximum (vs. minimum) greenness at all timepoints" did not suggest associations with mid-childhood outcomes. Estimates of "maximum greenness only in early childhood (vs. minimum)" suggested a beneficial association with mid-childhood SDQ (-3.21, 99 %CI: -6.71,0.29 mother-rated; -4.02, 99 %CI: -7.87,-0.17 teacher-rated). No associations were observed with early adolescent outcomes. Our results for "persistent" maximum greenness exposure on behavior, were not conclusive with confidence intervals containing the null. The results for maximum greenness "only in early childhood" may shed light on sensitive periods of greenness exposure for behavior regulation.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Função Executiva , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Estruturais , Probabilidade
2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117008, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to mixtures of nonpersistent chemicals is universal. Most studies examining these chemicals in association with fetal growth have been restricted to single exposure models, ignoring their potentially cumulative impact. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association between prenatal exposure to a mixture of phthalates, bisphenols, and organophosphate (OP) pesticides and fetal measures of head circumference, femur length, and weight. METHODS: Within the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort in Netherlands (n=776), urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites, 3 bisphenols, and 5 dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were measured at <18, 18-25, and >25 weeks of gestation and averaged. Ultrasound measures of head circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were taken at 18-25 and >25 weeks of gestation, and measurements of head circumference, length, and weight were performed at delivery. We estimated the difference in each fetal measurement per quartile increase in all exposures within the mixture with quantile g-computation. RESULTS: The average EFW at 18-25 wk and >25wk was 369 and 1,626g, respectively, and the average birth weight was 3,451g. Higher exposure was associated with smaller fetal and newborn growth parameters in a nonlinear fashion. At 18-25 wk, fetuses in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure (Q2-Q4) had 26g [95% confidence intervals (CI):-38, -13], 35g (95% CI: -55, -15), and 27g (95% CI: -54, 1) lower EFW compared with those in the first quartile (Q1). A similar dose-response pattern was observed at >25wk, but all effect sizes were smaller, and no association was observed comparing Q4 to Q1. At birth, we observed no differences in weight between Q1-Q2 or Q1-Q3. However, fetuses in Q4 had 91g (95% CI: -258, 76) lower birth weight in comparison with those in Q1. Results observed at 18-25 and >25wk were similar for femur length; however, no differences were observed at birth. No associations were observed for head circumference. DISCUSSION: Higher exposure to a mixture of phthalates, bisphenols, and OP pesticides was associated with lower EFW in the midpregnancy period. In late pregnancy, these differences were similar but less pronounced. At birth, the only associations observed appeared when comparing individuals from Q1 and Q4. This finding suggests that even low levels of exposure may be sufficient to influence growth in early pregnancy, whereas higher levels may be necessary to affect birth weight. Joint exposure to nonpersistent chemicals may adversely impact fetal growth, and because these exposures are widespread, this impact could be substantial. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9178.

3.
Environ Res ; : 112291, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of estimated all-day and evening whole-brain radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) doses with sleep disturbances and objective sleep measures in preadolescents. METHODS: We included preadolescents aged 9-12 years from two population-based birth cohorts, the Dutch Generation R Study (n = 974) and the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (n = 868). All-day and evening overall whole-brain RF-EMF doses (mJ/kg/day) were estimated for several RF-EMF sources including mobile and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) phone calls (named phone calls), other mobile phone uses, tablet use, laptop use (named screen activities), and far-field sources. We also estimated all-day and evening whole-brain RF-EMF doses in these three groups separately (i.e. phone calls, screen activities, and far-field). The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children was completed by mothers to assess sleep disturbances. Wrist accelerometers together with sleep diaries were used to measure sleep characteristics objectively for 7 consecutive days. RESULTS: All-day whole-brain RF-EMF doses were not associated with self-reported sleep disturbances and objective sleep measures. Regarding evening doses, preadolescents with high evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls had a shorter total sleep time compared to preadolescents with zero evening whole-brain RF-EMF dose from phone calls [-11.9 min (95%CI -21.2; -2.5)]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the evening as a potentially relevant window of RF-EMF exposure for sleep. However, we cannot exclude that observed associations are due to the activities or reasons motivating the phone calls rather than the RF-EMF exposure itself or due to chance finding.

4.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 52: 101033, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental studies of childhood adversity often define threatening experiences as those involving harm or the threat of harm. Whether effects differ between experiences involving harm ("physical attack") versus the threat of harm alone ("threatened violence") remains underexplored. We hypothesized that while both types of experiences would be associated with smaller preadolescent global and corticolimbic brain volumes, associations with physical attack would be greater. METHODS: Generation R Study researchers (the Netherlands) acquired T1-weighted scans from 2905 preadolescent children, computed brain volumes using FreeSurfer, and asked mothers whether their children ever experienced physical attack (n = 202) or threatened violence (n = 335). Using standardized global (cortical, subcortical, white matter) and corticolimbic (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex) volumes, we fit confounder-adjusted models. RESULTS: Physical attack was associated with smaller global volumes (ßcortical=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.26, -0.02); ßwhite matter= -0.16; 95% CI: - 0.28, - 0.03) and possibly some corticolimbic volumes, e.g., ßamygdala/ICV-adjusted= -0.10 (95% CI: -0.21, 0.01). We found no evidence of associations between threatened violence and smaller volumes in any outcome; instead, such estimates were small, highly uncertain, and positive in direction. CONCLUSIONS: Experiences of physical attack and threatened violence may have quantitively different neurodevelopmental effects. Thus, differences between types of threatening experiences may be neurodevelopmentally salient.

5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 633-646, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use during pregnancy with the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), and low Apgar scores. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and PsycINFO up to June 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Data were sought from studies examining associations of depression, depressive symptoms, or use of antidepressants during pregnancy with gestational age, birth weight, SGA, or Apgar scores. Authors shared the raw data of their studies for incorporation into this individual participant data meta-analysis. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We performed one-stage random-effects meta-analyses to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. The 215 eligible articles resulted in 402,375 women derived from 27 study databases. Increased risks were observed for preterm birth among women with a clinical diagnosis of depression during pregnancy irrespective of antidepressant use (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and among women with depression who did not use antidepressants (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.7-3.0), as well as for low Apgar scores in the former (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7), but not the latter group. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use was associated with preterm birth among women who used antidepressants with or without restriction to women with depressive symptoms or a diagnosis of depression (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5 and OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, respectively), as well as with low Apgar scores among women in the latter group (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8). CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms or a clinical diagnosis of depression during pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and low Apgar scores, even without exposure to antidepressants. However, SSRIs may be independently associated with preterm birth and low Apgar scores. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42016035711.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657965

RESUMO

Higher maternal vitamin D concentration during pregnancy is associated with better child mental health. Negative affectivity, an early-emerging temperamental trait, indicates an increased risk of psychopathology. We investigated if maternal early/mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and neonatal cord blood 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with Negative affectivity in infancy. We studied term-born infants from the vitamin D Intervention in Infants study (VIDI, n = 777, follow-up rate 80%, Finland), and the Generation R Study (n = 1505, follow-up rate 40%, Netherlands). We measured maternal serum 25(OH)D at 6-27 weeks (VIDI) or 18-25 weeks (Generation R) of pregnancy, and cord blood 25(OH)D at birth (both cohorts). Caregivers rated infant Negative affectivity at 11.7 months (VIDI) or 6.5 months (Generation R) using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Using linear regression, we tested associations between 25(OH)D and Negative affectivity adjusted for infant age, sex, season of 25(OH)D measurement, maternal age, education, smoking, and body-mass-index. Per 10 nmol/l increase in maternal early/mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D, infant Negative affectivity decreased by 0.02 standard deviations (95% confidence interval [CI] - 0.06, - 0.004) in VIDI, and 0.03 standard deviations (95% CI - 0.03, - 0.01) in Generation R. Cord blood 25(OH)D was associated with Negative affectivity in Generation R (- 0.03, 95% CI - 0.05, - 0.01), but not VIDI (0.00, 95% CI - 0.02, 0.02). Lower maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were consistently associated with higher infant Negative affectivity, while associations between cord blood 25(OH)D concentrations and Negative affectivity were less clear. Maternal vitamin D status during early- and mid-pregnancy may be linked with early-emerging differences in offspring behavior.

7.
Environ Int ; 158: 106946, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental noise exposure is increasing but limited research has been done on the association with emotional, aggressive, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms in children. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between prenatal and childhood environmental noise exposure and emotional, aggressive, and ADHD-related symptoms in children from two European birth cohorts. METHODS: We included 534 children from the Spanish INMA-Sabadell Project and 7424 from the Dutch Generation R Study. Average 24 h noise exposure at the participants' home address during pregnancy and childhood periods were estimated using EU maps from road traffic noise and total noise (road, aircraft, railway, and industry). Symptom outcomes were assessed using validated questionnaires: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Child Behavioral Checklist, ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition List, and Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised at 4, 7 and 9 years (INMA-Sabadell cohort) and 18 months, 3, 5, and 9 years (Generation R Study). Adjusted linear mixed models of prenatal and repeated childhood noise exposure with repeated symptom outcomes were run separately by cohort and overall estimates were combined with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Average prenatal and childhood road traffic noise exposure levels were 61.3 (SD 6.1) and 61.7 (SD 5.8) for INMA-Sabadell and 54.6 (SD 7.9) and 51.6 (SD 7.1) for Generation R, respectively. Prenatal and childhood road traffic noise exposure were not associated with emotional, aggressive, or ADHD-related symptoms. No heterogeneity was observed between cohorts and results were comparable for total noise exposure. CONCLUSIONS: No association was observed between prenatal or childhood road traffic or total noise exposure and symptom outcomes in children. Future studies should include a more comprehensive noise exposure assessment considering noise sensitivity and noise exposure at different settings such as work for pregnant women and school for children.

8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 109, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433463

RESUMO

While studies suggest potential influences of childhood adversities on obesity development in adulthood, less is known about the short-term association in children. We examined the association between a wide range of life events experienced in the first ten years of life (including maltreatment and milder adversities) and body composition in 5333 ten-year old Dutch children. In structured interviews, mothers retrospectively reported on their children's experience of 24 events. BMI was calculated, and fat mass index and fat free mass index were determined by dual-x-ray absorptiometry scanning. Linear regressions showed that, unadjusted, a higher number of life events was associated with higher BMI and body composition. However, associations attenuated to non-significance after adjustment for covariates. Similar findings were observed for maltreatment and milder life events. Thus, the number of experienced life events was not associated with body composition in middle childhood. Rather, other factors, like socioeconomic conditions, accounted for the relationship between life events and weight development in children.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) operationalize genetic propensity toward a particular mental disorder and hold promise as early predictors of psychopathology, but before a PRS can be used clinically, explanatory power must be increased and the specificity for a psychiatric domain established. To enable early detection, it is crucial to study these psychometric properties in childhood. We examined whether PRSs associate more with general or with specific psychopathology in school-aged children. Additionally, we tested whether psychiatric PRSs can be combined into a multi-PRS score for improved performance. METHODS: We computed 16 PRSs based on GWASs of psychiatric phenotypes, but also neuroticism and cognitive ability, in mostly adult populations. Study participants were 9,247 school-aged children from three population-based cohorts of the DREAM-BIG consortium: ALSPAC (UK), The Generation R Study (Netherlands), and MAVAN (Canada). We associated each PRS with general and specific psychopathology factors, derived from a bifactor model based on self-report and parental, teacher, and observer reports. After fitting each PRS in separate models, we also tested a multi-PRS model, in which all PRSs are entered simultaneously as predictors of the general psychopathology factor. RESULTS: Seven PRSs were associated with the general psychopathology factor after multiple testing adjustment, two with specific externalizing and five with specific internalizing psychopathology. PRSs predicted general psychopathology independently of each other, with the exception of depression and depressive symptom PRSs. Most PRSs associated with a specific psychopathology domain, were also associated with general child psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PRSs based on current GWASs of psychiatric phenotypes tend to be associated with general psychopathology, or both general and specific psychiatric domains, but not with one specific psychopathology domain only. Furthermore, PRSs can be combined to improve predictive ability. PRS users should therefore be conscious of nonspecificity and consider using multiple PRSs simultaneously, when predicting psychiatric disorders.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217835

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and clinically relevant obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the general population are associated with increased thalamic volume. It is unknown whether this enlargement is explained by specific thalamic subregions. The relation between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and volume of thalamic subregions was investigated in a population-based sample of children. METHOD: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms were measured in children (9-12 years of age) from the Generation R Study using the Short Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Screener (SOCS). Thalamic nuclei volumes were extracted from structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans using the ThalamicNuclei pipeline and regrouped into anterior, ventral, intralaminar/medial, lateral, and pulvinar subregions. Volumes were compared between children with symptoms above clinical cutoff (probable OCD cases, SOCS ≥ 6, n = 156) and matched children without symptoms (n = 156). Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the association between continuous SOCS score and subregional volume in the whole sample (N = 2500). RESULTS: Children with probable OCD had larger ventral nuclei compared with children without symptoms (d = 0.25, p = .025, false discovery rate adjusted p = .126). SOCS score showed a negative association with pulvinar volume when accounting for overall thalamic volume (ß = -0.057, p = .009, false discovery rate adjusted p = .09). However, these associations did not survive multiple testing correction. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that individual nuclei groups contribute in varying degrees to overall thalamic volume in children with probable OCD, although this did not survive multiple comparisons correction. Understanding the role of thalamic nuclei and their associated circuits in pediatric OCD could lead toward treatment strategies targeting these circuits.

11.
Epidemiology ; 32(5): 664-671, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being born small for gestational age (SGA, <10th percentile) is a risk factor for worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, this group is a heterogeneous mix of healthy and growth-restricted babies, and not all will experience poor outcomes. We sought to determine whether fetal growth trajectories can distinguish who will have the worst neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood among babies born SGA. METHODS: The present analysis was conducted in Generation R, a population-based cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (N = 5,487). Using group-based trajectory modeling, we identified fetal growth trajectories for weight among babies born SGA. These were based on standard deviation scores of ultrasound measures from mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy in combination with birth weight. We compared child nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at age 6 between SGA babies within each growth trajectory to babies born non-SGA. RESULTS: Among SGA individuals (n = 656), we identified three distinct fetal growth trajectories for weight. Children who were consistently small from mid-pregnancy (n = 64) had the lowest IQ (7 points lower compared to non-SGA babies, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -11.0, -3.5) and slightly more ADHD symptoms. Children from the trajectory that started larger but were smaller at birth showed no differences in outcomes compared to children born non-SGA. CONCLUSIONS: Among SGA children, those who were smaller beginning in mid-pregnancy exhibited the worst neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 6. Fetal growth trajectories may help identify SGA babies who go on to have poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
12.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(4): 228-241, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170065

RESUMO

Low prosocial behavior in childhood has been consistently linked to later psychopathology, with evidence supporting the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on its development. Although neonatal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been found to prospectively associate with a range of psychological traits in childhood, its potential role in prosocial development has yet to be investigated. This study investigated prospective associations between cord blood DNAm at birth and low prosocial behavior within and across four longitudinal birth cohorts from the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium. We examined (a) developmental trajectories of "chronic-low" versus "typical" prosocial behavior across childhood in a case-control design (N = 2,095), and (b) continuous "low prosocial" scores at comparable cross-cohort time-points (N = 2,121). Meta-analyses were performed to examine differentially methylated positions and regions. At the cohort-specific level, three CpGs were found to associate with chronic low prosocial behavior; however, none of these associations was replicated in another cohort. Meta-analysis revealed no epigenome-wide significant CpGs or regions. Overall, we found no evidence for associations between DNAm patterns at birth and low prosocial behavior across childhood. Findings highlight the importance of employing multi-cohort approaches to replicate epigenetic associations and reduce the risk of false positive discoveries.

13.
Brain Connect ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102875

RESUMO

Introduction: Lateralization in brain function has been associated with age and sex in previous work; however, there has been less focus on lateralization of functional networks during development. Aim: We aim to examine laterality in typical development; a clearer understanding of how and to what extent functional brain networks are lateralized in typical development may eventually prove to hold predictive information in psychopathology. Material and Methods: In this study, we examine the lateralization of resting-state networks assessed with a group-independent component analysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from a large cohort consisting of 774 children, ages 6-10 years. This is an extension of our previous work on normal aging in adults, where we now assess whether there are similar patterns in children. Results: Unlike the results from our study of healthy aging in adults, which showed a decrease in laterality with increasing age, in this study we found both decreases and increases in lateralization in multiple networks with development. For example, auditory and sensorimotor regions had greater bilateral connectivity with development, whereas regions including the dorsolateral frontal cortex (Brodmann area left 9 and left 46) showed an increase in left lateralization with development. Conclusion: Our findings support a complex, nonlinear association between laterality and age in school-age children, a time when brain function and structure are developing rapidly. We also found brain networks in which laterality was significantly associated with sex, handedness, and intelligence quotient, but we did not find any significant association with behavioral scores. Impact statement Lateralization in brain function has been associated with age and sex in several previous studies; however, there has been less focus on lateralization of functional networks during development. A clearer understanding of how and to what extent functional brain networks are lateralized in typical development may eventually prove to hold predictive information in psychopathology. In this study, we examine the lateralization of resting-state networks assessed with a group-independent component analysis using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging from a large cohort consisting of 774 children, ages 6-10 years.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137940

RESUMO

Chronic pain and internalizing problems are characterized by concurrent associations but the directionality of this relationship in early childhood remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to investigate the bidirectional effect of chronic pain and internalizing problems and test the persistence of pain over time in a population-based sample of preschoolers. The study was embedded in Generation R, a large population-based cohort. Mothers of 3,996 children assessed their child's experienced pain and internalizing problems at 3 and 6 years. At 3 years, paternal reports were available too. Reports of family functioning, discipline practices and parental psychopathology were also collected. The prevalence of chronic pain was 2.7% (106) and 8.0% (294) at baseline and follow-up, respectively. The presence of internalizing problems at child age 3 years predicted chronic pain at 6 years, for both maternal (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02,1.07, p < 0.001) and paternal (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.00, 1.06, p < 0.05) internalizing problem reports, when adjusted for potential confounding factors. In contrast, chronic pain did not increase the likelihood of internalizing problems. The temporal relationship between chronic pain and internalizing problems appears to follow a largely unidirectional trend in early childhood, with internalizing problems increasing the likelihood of concurrent physical symptoms. Current understanding of the directionality of this relationship, highlights the importance for comprehensive assessment of psychiatric problems contributing to the manifestation of chronic pain.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loneliness is a major risk factor for both psychological disturbance and poor health outcomes in adults. This study aimed to assess whether childhood loneliness is associated with a long-term disruption in mental health that extends into adulthood. METHODS: This study is based on the longitudinal, community-representative Great Smoky Mountains Study of 1420 participants. Participants were assessed with the structured Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment interview up to eight times in childhood (ages 9-16; 6674 observations; 1993-2000) for childhood loneliness, associated psychiatric comorbidities and childhood adversities. Participants were followed up four times in adulthood (ages 19, 21, 25, and 30; 4556 observations of 1334 participants; 1999-2015) with the structured Young Adult Psychiatric Assessment Interview for psychiatric anxiety, depression, and substance use outcomes. RESULTS: Both self and parent-reported childhood loneliness were associated with adult self-reported anxiety and depressive outcomes. The associations remained significant when childhood adversities and psychiatric comorbidities were accounted for. There was no evidence for an association of childhood loneliness with adult substance use disorders. More associations were found between childhood loneliness and adult psychiatric symptoms than with adult diagnostic status. CONCLUSION: Childhood loneliness is associated with anxiety and depressive disorders in young adults, suggesting that loneliness - even in childhood - might have long-term costs in terms of mental health. This study underscores the importance of intervening early to prevent loneliness and its sequelae over time.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(10): 993-1004, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046850

RESUMO

The potential etiological role of early acetaminophen exposure on Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is inconclusive. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of six European population-based birth/child cohorts. A total of 73,881 mother-child pairs were included in the study. Prenatal and postnatal (up to 18 months) acetaminophen exposure was assessed through maternal questionnaires or interviews. ASC and ADHD symptoms were assessed at 4-12 years of age using validated instruments. Children were classified as having borderline/clinical symptoms using recommended cutoffs for each instrument. Hospital diagnoses were also available in one cohort. Analyses were adjusted for child and maternal characteristics along with indications for acetaminophen use. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. The proportion of children having borderline/clinical symptoms ranged between 0.9 and 12.9% for ASC and between 1.2 and 12.2% for ADHD. Results indicated that children prenatally exposed to acetaminophen were 19% and 21% more likely to subsequently have borderline or clinical ASC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.33) and ADHD symptoms (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36) compared to non-exposed children. Boys and girls showed higher odds for ASC and ADHD symptoms after prenatal exposure, though these associations were slightly stronger among boys. Postnatal exposure to acetaminophen was not associated with ASC or ADHD symptoms. These results replicate previous work and support providing clear information to pregnant women and their partners about potential long-term risks of acetaminophen use.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Atenção , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0238667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914742

RESUMO

Aggressive behavior in school is an ongoing concern. The current focus is on specific manifestations such as bullying, but the behavior is broad and heterogenous. Children spend a substantial amount of time in school, but their behaviors in the school setting tend to be less well characterized than at home. Because aggression may index multiple behavioral problems, we used three validated instruments to assess means, correlations and gender differences of teacher-rated aggressive behavior with co-occurring externalizing/internalizing problems and social behavior in 39,936 schoolchildren aged 7-14 from 4 population-based cohorts from Finland, the Netherlands, and the UK. Correlations of aggressive behavior were high with all other externalizing problems (r: 0.47-0.80) and lower with internalizing problems (r: 0.02-0.39). A negative association was observed with prosocial behavior (r: -0.33 to -0.54). Mean levels of aggressive behavior differed significantly by gender. Despite the higher mean levels of aggressive behavior in boys, the correlations were notably similar for boys and girls (e.g., aggressive-hyperactivity correlations: 0.51-0.75 boys, 0.47-0.70 girls) and did not vary greatly with respect to age, instrument or cohort. Thus, teacher-rated aggressive behavior rarely occurs in isolation; boys and girls with problems of aggressive behavior likely require help with other behavioral and emotional problems. Important to note, higher aggressive behavior is not only associated with higher amounts of other externalizing and internalizing problems but also with lower levels of prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Professores Escolares , Comportamento Social , Reino Unido
19.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 46(2): E271-E280, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844482

RESUMO

Background: Neurobiological measures have been associated with delinquent behaviour, but little is known about the predictive power of these measures for criminal recidivism and whether they have incremental value over and above demographic and behavioural measures. This study examined whether selected measures of autonomic functioning, functional neuroimaging and electroencephalography predict overall and serious recidivism in a sample of 127 delinquent young adults. Methods: We assessed demographics; education and intelligence; previous delinquency and drug use; behavioural traits, including aggression and psychopathy; and neurobiological measures, including heart rate, heart rate variability, functional brain activity during an inhibition task and 2 electroencephalographic measures of error-processing. We tested longitudinal associations with recidivism using Cox proportional hazard models and predictive power using C-indexes. Results: Past offences, long-term cannabis use and reactive aggression were strongly associated with recidivism, as were resting heart rate and error-processing. In the predictive model, demographics, past delinquency, drug use and behavioural traits had moderate predictive power for overall and for serious recidivism (C-index over 30 months [fraction of pairs in the data, where the higher observed survival time was correctly predicted]: C30 = 0.68 and 0.75, respectively). Neurobiological measures significantly improved predictive power (C30 = 0.72 for overall recidivism and C30 = 0.80 for serious recidivism). Limitations: Findings cannot be generalized to females, and follow-up was limited to 4 years. Conclusion: Demographic and behavioural characteristics longitudinally predicted recidivism in delinquent male young adults, and neurobiological measures improved the models. This led to good predictive function, particularly for serious recidivism. Importantly, the most feasible measures (autonomic functioning and electroencephalography) proved to be useful neurobiological predictors.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e4284-e4286, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870437
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