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1.
Sleep Med ; 76: 148-154, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID), but the knowledge on the natural course of sleep-wake rhythms and sleep problems in elderly persons with ID is limited. In the current study, objectively measured sleep-wake rhythms and the prevalence and severity of sleep problems of elderly persons with ID was compared to that of healthy elderly persons from a large representative sample from the general population. METHODS: Actigraphy data of 501 elderly persons with ID (age 62.02 ± 8.02 years, 48% female) from the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study was compared to the data of 1734 elderly persons from the general population (age 62.24 ± 9.34 years, 53% female) from the Rotterdam Study. Main outcome variables were Interdaily stability (IS) and Intradaily variablitiy (IV), total sleep time (TST), Waking after sleep onset (WASO), Short sleep (TST<6 h), Night waking (WASO >90 min). RESULTS: Elderly persons with ID had less stable sleep wake rhythms than elderly persons from the general population (IS = 0.70 ± 0.17, vs 0.80 ± 0.10 z = -8.00). Their sleep-wake rhythm was also more fragmented (IV = 0.56 ± 0.26 vs 0.42 ± 0.13 respectively, z = 8.00). Elderly persons with ID slept on average 60.09 min longer than elderly persons from the general population, and lay awake 48.28 min longer after sleep onset. Short sleep in elderly persons with ID was less prevalent (20.7% vs 30.2%) but more severe (TST in Short sleep; 5.13 ± 0.80 h vs 5.39 ± 0.50 h, z = -2.76) then in elderly persons from the general population. Night waking was more prevalent (63.0% vs 17.7%) and more severe in elderly persons with ID (WASO in Night waking; 150.39 ± 54.72 min vs 111.60 ± 17.95 min, z = 7.06). CONCLUSION: The differences in sleep-wake rhythms, prevalence and severity of sleep problems between elderly persons with and without ID are marked and possibly explained by medical, psychiatric conditions and lifestyle in elderly persons with ID. Better understanding of sleep in elderly with ID is needed to improve the quality of sleep in this population and to diminish health problems related to a disruption of sleep.

2.
Environ Res ; : 110446, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the relationship between exposure to air pollution and brain development using magnetic resonance images are emerging. However, most studies have focused only on prenatal exposures, and have included a limited selection of pollutants. Here, we aim to expand the current knowledge by studying pregnancy and childhood exposure to a wide selection of pollutants, and brain morphology in preadolescents. METHODS: We used data from 3,133 preadolescents from a birth cohort from Rotterdam, the Netherlands (enrollment: 2002-2006). Concentrations of nitrogen oxides, coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles, and composition of fine particles were estimated for participant's home addresses in pregnancy and childhood, using land use regression models. Structural brain images were obtained at age 9-12 years. We assessed the relationships of air pollution exposure, with brain volumes, and surface-based morphometric data, adjusting for socioeconomic and life-style characteristics, using single as well as multi-pollutant approach. RESULTS: No associations were observed between air pollution exposures and global volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical grey matter. However, we found associations between higher pregnancy and childhood air pollution exposures with smaller corpus callosum, smaller hippocampus, larger amygdala, smaller nucleus accumbens, and larger cerebellum (e.g. -69.2mm3 hippocampal volume [95%CI -129.1 to -9.3] per 1ng/m3 increase in pregnancy exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Higher pregnancy exposure to air pollution was associated with smaller cortical thickness while higher childhood exposure was associated with predominantly larger cortical surface area. CONCLUSION: Higher pregnancy or childhood exposure to several air pollutants was associated with altered volume of several brain structures, as well as with cortical thickness and surface area. Associations showed some similarity to delayed maturation and effects of early-life stress.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 398, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184255

RESUMO

Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder with a substantial genetic component. However, the extent to which epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the etiology of the disorder is unknown. We performed epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium to identify DNA methylation sites associated with ADHD symptoms at two methylation assessment periods: birth and school age. We examined associations of both DNA methylation in cord blood with repeatedly assessed ADHD symptoms (age 4-15 years) in 2477 children from 5 cohorts and of DNA methylation at school age with concurrent ADHD symptoms (age 7-11 years) in 2374 children from 9 cohorts, with 3 cohorts participating at both timepoints. CpGs identified with nominal significance (p < 0.05) in either of the EWAS were correlated between timepoints (ρ = 0.30), suggesting overlap in associations; however, top signals were very different. At birth, we identified nine CpGs that predicted later ADHD symptoms (p < 1 × 10-7), including ERC2 and CREB5. Peripheral blood DNA methylation at one of these CpGs (cg01271805 in the promoter region of ERC2, which regulates neurotransmitter release) was previously associated with brain methylation. Another (cg25520701) lies within the gene body of CREB5, which previously was associated with neurite outgrowth and an ADHD diagnosis. In contrast, at school age, no CpGs were associated with ADHD with p < 1 × 10-7. In conclusion, we found evidence in this study that DNA methylation at birth is associated with ADHD. Future studies are needed to confirm the utility of methylation variation as biomarker and its involvement in causal pathways.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33118615

RESUMO

The article by Gheorghe, Li, Gallacher & Bauermeister (2020) reports a neuroimaging study of childhood adversity assessed retrospectively in persons aged, on average, 62 years. Severe child maltreatment has repeatedly been related to enduring alterations in brain structure. These studies are typically conducted in high-risk samples, often combining different forms of adversity that co-occur in one adversity score. The authors chose to separately analyse each of three adversity questions that tap into emotional abuse, neglect and physical abuse. In contrast, the brain structural measures are combined to several latent variables. In this commentary, I argue that this analytical strategy, which runs counter to the common practice, is a strength of the study. As such, it provides important evidence of long-term brain developmental consequences of early adversities. The results suggest that memories of emotional abuse, but not other common adversities, are associated with differences in the cerebellum and part of the striatum only.

5.
Thorax ; 75(12): 1074-1081, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maternal psychological distress during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of respiratory morbidity in preschool children, it is unknown whether this association persists into later childhood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between parental psychological distress during pregnancy and lung function and asthma in children of school age. METHODS: This study of 4231 children was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort. Parental psychological distress was assessed by the Brief Symptom Inventory during and 3 years after pregnancy, and in mothers also at 2 and 6 months after pregnancy. At age 10 years, lung function was obtained by spirometry and asthma by questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma was 5.9%. Maternal overall psychological distress during pregnancy was associated with a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (z-score difference -0.10 (95% CI -0.20 to -0.01) per 1-unit increase), maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy with a lower forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and FVC (-0.13 (95% CI -0.24 to -0.01) and -0.13 (95% CI -0.24 to -0.02) when using clinical cut-offs) in their children. All maternal psychological distress measures during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of asthma (range OR: 1.46 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.90) to 1.91 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.91)). Additional adjustment for paternal psychological distress during pregnancy and parental psychological distress after pregnancy did not materially change the associations. Paternal psychological distress during pregnancy was not associated with childhood respiratory morbidity. CONCLUSION: Maternal, but not paternal, psychological distress during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma and partly lower lung function in children. This suggests intrauterine programming for the risk of later-life respiratory disease.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy may adversely affect offspring cognition and behaviour, but few prospective studies investigated this association at multiple points throughout childhood. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that maternal abnormal glucose tolerance is associated with child cognitive and behavioural outcomes in early and mid-childhood. METHODS: We examined the associations of maternal abnormal glucose tolerance at 26-28 weeks of pregnancy with offspring cognitive and behavioural scores in 1421 children in the Project Viva pre-birth cohort. In early (mean 3.3 years) and mid-childhood (mean 7.9 years), we measured child cognition using validated instruments, the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA); we assessed parent- and teacher-rated behavioural outcomes with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function. We used linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, intelligence, age, parity, smoking status, education, and household income at enrolment, in addition to child's sex and age at assessment). RESULTS: Of 1421 mothers, 69 (4.9%) had gestational diabetes mellitus, 43 (3.0%) impaired glucose tolerance, 122 (8.6%) isolated hyperglycaemia, and 1187 (83.5%) normal glucose tolerance. Offspring born to women with gestational diabetes mellitus had lower total WRAVMA scores (-3.09 points; 95% CI -6.12, -0.05) in early childhood compared with offspring of women with normal glucose tolerance. None of the abnormal glucose tolerance categories during pregnancy were associated with any of the cognitive outcomes (verbal, non-verbal, and visual motor scores) or behavioural measures in mid-childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Children born to mothers who had gestational diabetes mellitus had slightly lower scores on one cognitive test in early childhood. We found no evidence to support that maternal abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with cognitive or behavioural development in mid-childhood.

7.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936235

RESUMO

Importance: The association of poor family functioning, a potent stressor, with child behavior is potentially long term and relevant for a person's well-being later in life. Whether changes in brain development underlie the associations with preadolescent behavior and help identify periods of vulnerability is unclear. Objective: To assess the associations of poor family functioning from pregnancy onward with cortical, white matter, and subcortical volumes, and to examine the extent to which, in particular, hippocampal volume mediates the association of prenatal parental environmental exposures with child problem behavior in preadolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study, conducted from April 2002 to January 2006, was embedded in Generation R, a multiethnic population-based cohort from fetal life onward. All pregnant women living in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with an expected delivery date between April 2002 and January 2006 were invited to participate. Of the 8879 pregnant women enrolled during pregnancy, 1266 mothers with no partner data and 490 with missing family functioning data were excluded, as well as 1 sibling of 32 twin pairs. After excluding an additional 657 children with poor imaging data quality or incidental findings, the final sample consisted of 2583 mother-child pairs. Data analysis was performed from March 1, 2019, to June 28, 2019. Exposures: Mother- and father-rated poor family functioning was repeatedly measured by the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device. Main Outcomes and Measures: Our primary hypothesis, formulated after data collection but before analysis, was that poor prenatal family functioning would be associated with smaller hippocampal and amygdala volumes in late childhood. High-resolution structural neuroimaging data of children aged 10 years were collected with a single 3-T magnetic resonance imaging system. Child emotional and behavioral problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Results: Data were available for 2583 children (mean [SD] age, 10.1 [0.6] years; 1315 girls [50.9%]). Data for parents included 2583 mothers (mean [SD] age, 31.1 [4.7] years; 1617 Dutch race/ethnicity [62.6%]) and 1788 fathers (mean [SD] age, 33.5 [5.3] years; 1239 Dutch race/ethnicity [69.3%]). Children exposed to prenatal maternal-reported poor family functioning had smaller hippocampal (B = -0.08; 95% CI, -0.13 to -0.02) and occipital lobe (B = -0.70; 95% CI, -1.19 to -0.21) volumes in preadolescence. There was no evidence for an association of exposure to poor family functioning at mid- or late childhood with brain morphology. Hippocampal volumes partially mediated the association of prenatal maternal-reported poor family functioning with preadolescent problem behavior (B = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.13), even after adjusting for prior child problems at age 1.5 years. Analyses of combined maternal and paternal family functioning ratings showed similar results, but associations were largely driven by maternal family functioning reports. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, prenatal maternal-reported poor family functioning was associated with a smaller hippocampus in preadolescents. This difference in brain structure may underlie behavioral problems and is a possible neurodevelopmental manifestation of the long-term consequences of poor family functioning for the child.

8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955580

RESUMO

Importance: Preterm and postterm births are associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether variation of gestational age within the 37- to 42-week range of term deliveries is associated with neurodevelopment. Objective: To investigate the association of gestational age at birth (GAB) with structural brain morphometry in children aged 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included pregnant women living in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with an expected delivery date between April 1, 2002, and January 31, 2006. The study evaluated 3079 singleton children with GAB ranging from 26.3 to 43.3 weeks and structural neuroimaging at 10 years of age from the Generation R Study, a longitudinal, population-based prospective birth cohort from early pregnancy onward in Rotterdam. Data analysis was performed from March 1, 2019, to February 28, 2020, and at the time of the revision based on reviewer suggestions. Exposures: The GAB was calculated based on ultrasonographic assessment of crown-rump length (<12 weeks 5 days) or biparietal diameter (≥12 weeks 5 days) in dedicated research centers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Brain structure, including global and regional brain volumes and surface-based cortical measures (thickness, surface area, and gyrification), was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: In the 3079 children (1546 [50.2%] female) evaluated at 10 years of age, GAB was linearly associated with global and regional brain volumes. Longer gestational duration was associated with larger brain volumes; for example, every 1-week-longer gestational duration corresponded to an additional 4.5 cm3/wk (95% CI, 2.7-6.3 cm3/wk) larger total brain volume. These associations persisted when the sample was restricted to children born at term (GAB of 37-42 weeks: 4.8 cm3/wk; 95% CI, 1.8-7.7 cm3/wk). No evidence of nonlinear associations between GA and brain morphometry was observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, gestational duration was linearly associated with brain morphometry during childhood, including within the window of term delivery. These findings may have marked clinical importance, particularly given the prevalence of elective cesarean deliveries.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) are common in the general population, but it is unclear whether subclinical OCS symptoms and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are part of a neuroanatomical continuum. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between OCS and subcortical and cortical morphology in a population-based sample of children. METHOD: The study included 2551 participants, aged 9-12 years, from the population-based Generation R study. OCS were measured using the Short Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Screener (SOCS, 7-items caregiver-rated). Structural (3T) MRI scans were processed using FreeSurfer to study the thalamus and other subcortical volumes, intracranial volume, vertex-wise cortical thickness and surface area. We used linear regression models to investigate the association between OCS and brain morphology. Emulating case-control studies from the literature, we compared children scoring above the clinical cut-off of the SOCS ('probable OCD' cases, n = 164) with matched children without symptoms. RESULTS: Children with probable OCD had larger thalami compared to the control group (Cohen's d 0.16, p = 0.044). Vertex-wise analysis showed a positive association between OCS and thickness of the right inferior parietal cortex, which disappeared after adjusting for total behavioral problems. SOCS scores correlated negatively with intracranial volume (B = -2444, p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Children with probable OCD showed thalamus alterations similar to those previously reported in unmedicated children with OCD. OCS showed a stronger association with total intracranial volume than regional brain measures. Longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate similarities and distinctions between neural correlates of subclinical and clinical OCS.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The case fatality rate (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly between countries. We aimed to describe the associations between health indicators and the national CFRs of COVID-19. METHODS: We identified for each country health indicators potentially associated with the national CFRs of COVID-19. We extracted data for 18 variables from international administrative data sources for 34 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We excluded the collinear variables and examined the 16 variables in multivariable analysis. A dynamic web-based model was developed to analyse and display the associations for the CFRs of COVID-19. We followed the Guideline for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). RESULTS: In multivariable analysis, the variables significantly associated with the increased CFRs were percentage of obesity in ages >18 years (ß = 3.26; 95%CI = 1.20, 5.33; p 0.003), tuberculosis incidence (ß = 3.15; 95%CI = 1.09, 5.22; p 0.004), duration (days) since first death due to COVID-19 (ß = 2.89; 95%CI = 0.83, 4.96; p 0.008), and median age (ß = 2.83; 95%CI = 0.76, 4.89; p 0.009). The COVID-19 test rate (ß = -3.54; 95%CI = -5.60, -1.47; p 0.002), hospital bed density (ß = -2.47; 95%CI = -4.54, -0.41; p 0.021), and rural population ratio (ß = -2.19; 95%CI = -4.25, -0.13; p 0.039) decreased the CFR. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic hits population-dense cities. Available hospital beds should be increased. Test capacity should be increased to enable more effective diagnostic tests. Older patients and patients with obesity and their caregivers should be warned about a potentially increased risk.

12.
Environ Res ; 191: 110047, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides associate with impaired neurodevelopment in humans and animal models. However, much uncertainty exists about the brain structural alterations underlying these associations. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal OP pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine repeatedly measured during gestation are associated with brain morphology and white matter microstructure in 518 preadolescents aged 9-12 years. METHOD: Data came from 518 mother-child pairs participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort from Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Maternal urine concentrations were determined for 6 dialkylphosphates (DAPs) including 3 dimethyl (DM) and 3 diethyl (DE) alkyl phosphate metabolites, collected at early, mid, and late pregnancy. At child's age 9-12 years, magnetic resonance imaging was performed to obtain T1-weighted images for brain volumes and surface-based cortical thickness and cortical surface area, and diffusion tensor imaging was used to measure white matter microstructure through fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Linear regression models were fit for the averaged prenatal exposure across pregnancy. RESULTS: DM and DE metabolite concentrations were not associated with brain volumes, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area. However, a 10-fold increase in averaged DM metabolite concentrations across pregnancy was associated with lower FA (B = -1.00, 95%CI = -1.80, -0.20) and higher MD (B = 0.13, 95%CI = 0.04, 0.21). Similar associations were observed for DE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence that OP pesticides may alter normal white matter microstructure in children, which could have consequences for normal neurodevelopment. No associations were observed with structural brain morphology, including brain volumes, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomisation (MR) designs apply instrumental variable techniques using genetic variants to study causal effects. MR is increasingly used to evaluate the role of maternal exposures during pregnancy on offspring health. OBJECTIVES: We review the application of MR to prenatal exposures and describe reporting of methodologic challenges in this area. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Medline Ovid, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Eligible studies met the following criteria: (a) a maternal pregnancy exposure; (b) an outcome assessed in offspring of the pregnancy; and (c) a genetic variant or score proposed as an instrument or proxy for an exposure. SYNTHESIS: We quantified the frequency of reporting of MR conditions stated, techniques used to examine assumption plausibility, and reported limitations. RESULTS: Forty-three eligible studies were identified. When discussing challenges or limitations, the most common issues described were known potential biases in the broader MR literature, including population stratification (n = 29), weak instrument bias (n = 18), and certain types of pleiotropy (n = 30). Of 22 studies presenting point estimates for the effect of exposure, four defined their causal estimand. Twenty-four studies discussed issues unique to prenatal MR, including selection on pregnancy (n = 1) and pleiotropy via postnatal exposure (n = 10) or offspring genotype (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal MR studies frequently discuss issues that affect all MR studies, but rarely discuss problems specific to the prenatal context, including selection on pregnancy and effects of postnatal exposure. Future prenatal MR studies should report and attempt to falsify their assumptions, with particular attention to issues specific to prenatal MR. Further research is needed to evaluate the impacts of biases unique to prenatal MR in practice.

14.
Autism Res ; 2020 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830427

RESUMO

A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the origins of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While a number of studies have described specific environmental factors associating with emerging ASD, studies that compare and contrast multiple environmental factors in the same study are lacking. Thus, the goal of this study was to perform a prospective, data-driven environmental-wide association study of pre- and perinatal factors associated with the later development of autistic symptoms in childhood. The participants included 3891 6-year-old children from a birth cohort with pre- and perinatal data. Autistic symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale in all children. Prior to any analyses, the sample was randomly split into a discovery set (2920) and a test set (921). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed for each of 920 variables, correcting for six of the most common covariates in epidemiological studies. We found 111 different pre- and perinatal factors associated with autistic traits during childhood. In secondary analyses where we controlled for parental psychopathology, 23 variables in the domains of family and interpersonal relationships were associated with the development of autistic symptoms during childhood. In conclusion, a data-driven approach was used to identify a number of pre- and perinatal risk factors associating with higher childhood autistic symptoms. These factors include measures of parental psychopathology and family and interpersonal relationships. These measures could potentially be used for the early identification of those at increased risk to develop ASD. LAY SUMMARY: A combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Each environmental factor may affect the risk of ASD. In a study on 6-year-old children, a number of pre- and perinatal risk factors were identified that are associated with autistic symptoms in childhood. These factors include measures of parental psychopathology and family and interpersonal relationships. These variables could potentially serve as markers to identify those at increased risk to develop ASD or autistic symptoms.

15.
Child Dev ; 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845015

RESUMO

Parental psychopathology can affect child functioning, and vice versa. We examined bidirectional associations between parent and offspring psychopathology in 5,536 children and their parents. We asked three questions: (a) are parent-to-child associations stronger than child-to-parent associations? (b) are mother-to-child associations stronger than father-to-child associations? and (c) do within- and between-person effects contribute to bidirectional associations between parent and offspring psychopathology? Our findings suggest that only within-rater bidirectional associations of parent and offspring psychopathology can be consistently detected, with no difference between mothers and fathers. Child psychopathology was hardly associated with parental psychopathology. No evidence for cross-rater child-to-parent associations was found suggesting that the within-rater child-to-parent associations reflect shared method variance. Moreover, within-person change accounted for a part of the variance observed.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(7): 77009, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposures to phthalates and bisphenols are associated with impaired brain development in animals. However, epidemiological studies investigating the association between prenatal phthalate or bisphenol exposure and cognition have produced mixed findings and mostly had modest sample sizes and measured the exposure during the third trimester. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between pregnancy maternal urinary biomarkers of phthalate or bisphenol exposure and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in children 6 years of age. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 1,282 mother-child pairs participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort in Rotterdam, Netherlands (enrollment 2002-2006). We measured maternal urinary concentrations of 18 phthalate metabolites and 8 bisphenols at <18, 18-25, and >25 wks of gestation. Child nonverbal IQ was measured at 6 years of age using the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised. Linear regression models were fit for each of the three collection phases separately, the three collection phases jointly, and for the averaged prenatal exposure across pregnancy. RESULTS: Higher urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during early pregnancy were associated with lower child nonverbal IQ score [e.g., B per 10-fold increase in summed low-molecular weight phthalates=-1.7 (95% CI: -3.1, -0.3)]. This association remained unchanged when adjusted for mid and late pregnancy exposures. We also observed an inverse association between late pregnancy di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) exposure and nonverbal IQ. Maternal urinary concentrations of bisphenols were not associated with child nonverbal IQ. There was no effect estimate modification by sex. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe that maternal biomarkers of bisphenol exposure are associated with nonverbal IQ. We found that phthalate exposure in early pregnancy and DNOP exposure in late pregnancy are associated with lower nonverbal IQ scores in children. Our results might suggest that particularly early pregnancy is a sensitive window of phthalate exposure, but future studies are needed to replicate our findings. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6047.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668607

RESUMO

This article aims to alert the medical community and public health authorities to accumulating evidence on health benefits from sun exposure, which suggests that insufficient sun exposure is a significant public health problem. Studies in the past decade indicate that insufficient sun exposure may be responsible for 340,000 deaths in the United States and 480,000 deaths in Europe per year, and an increased incidence of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, autism, asthma, type 1 diabetes and myopia. Vitamin D has long been considered the principal mediator of beneficial effects of sun exposure. However, oral vitamin D supplementation has not been convincingly shown to prevent the above conditions; thus, serum 25(OH)D as an indicator of vitamin D status may be a proxy for and not a mediator of beneficial effects of sun exposure. New candidate mechanisms include the release of nitric oxide from the skin and direct effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on peripheral blood cells. Collectively, this evidence indicates it would be wise for people living outside the tropics to ensure they expose their skin sufficiently to the sun. To minimize the harms of excessive sun exposure, great care must be taken to avoid sunburn, and sun exposure during high ambient UVR seasons should be obtained incrementally at not more than 5-30 min a day (depending on skin type and UV index), in season-appropriate clothing and with eyes closed or protected by sunglasses that filter UVR.

18.
Environ Int ; 142: 105808, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) doses, using an improved integrated RF-EMF exposure model, and brain volumes in preadolescents at 9-12 years old. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis in preadolescents aged 9-12 years from the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort set up in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (n = 2592). An integrated exposure model was used to estimate whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses (mJ/kg/day) from different RF-EMF sources including mobile and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) phone calls, other mobile phone uses than calling, tablet use, laptop use, and far-field sources. Whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses were estimated for all RF-EMF sources together (i.e. overall) and for three groups of RF-EMF sources that lead to a different pattern of RF-EMF exposure. Information on brain volumes was extracted from magnetic resonance imaging scans. RESULTS: Estimated overall whole-brain RF-EMF dose was 84.3 mJ/kg/day. The highest overall lobe-specific dose was estimated in the temporal lobe (307.1 mJ/kg/day). Whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses from all RF-EMF sources together, from mobile and DECT phone calls, and from far-field sources were not associated with global, cortical, or subcortical brain volumes. However, a higher whole-brain RF-EMF dose from mobile phone use for internet browsing, e-mailing, and text messaging, tablet use, and laptop use while wirelessly connected to the internet was associated with a smaller caudate volume. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific RF-EMF doses were not related to brain volumes in preadolescents at 9-12 years old. Screen activities with mobile communication devices while wirelessly connected to the internet lead to low RF-EMF dose to the brain and our observed association may thus rather reflect effects of social or individual factors related to these specific uses of mobile communication devices. However, we cannot discard residual confounding, chance finding, or reverse causality. Further studies on mobile communication devices and their potential negative associations with brain development are warranted, regardless whether associations are due to RF-EMF exposure or to other factors related to their use.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e206863, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496567

RESUMO

Importance: Both nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), defined as the direct, deliberate damage of one's body tissue without suicidal intent, and internet addiction among adolescents are public health concerns. However, the possible association of NSSI with internet addiction is not well understood. Objective: To examine the occurrence of internet addiction with NSSI and any sex differences among Chinese adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, cross-sectional, survey study was conducted from February 18 to October 15, 2015, among adolescents aged 11 to 20 years from 343 classes in 45 public high schools across 5 provinces of China. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2018, to March 1, 2019. Exposures: Possible internet addiction and internet addiction. Main Outcomes and Measures: Less-frequent (1-4 times) NSSI and more-frequent (≥5 times) NSSI were surveyed using the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation. Results: A total of 15 623 students (8043 male [51.5%] and 7580 female [48.5%]) aged 11 to 20 years (mean [SD] age, 15.1 [1.8] years) participated. Of these, 4670 participants (29.9%) met the criteria for possible internet addiction and 509 participants (3.3%) met the criteria for internet addiction. A total of 2667 students (17.1%) engaged in less-frequent NSSI, while 1798 students (11.5%) engaged in more-frequent NSSI in the 12 months preceding the survey. Both possible internet addiction and internet addiction were associated with less-frequent or more-frequent NSSI. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.29 (95% CI, 1.17-1.42) for possible internet addiction and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) for internet addiction for less-frequent NSSI; for more-frequent NSSI, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.75 (95% CI, 1.56-1.96) for possible internet addiction and 2.66 (95% CI, 2.10-3.38) for internet addiction. These associations were similarly observed among age groups of 11 to 14, 15 to 17, and 18 to 20 years. No sex disparities were found in the associations of internet addiction with NSSI, except among adolescents aged 11 to 14 years, where the odds ratios for possible internet addiction with less-frequent NSSI were higher in male adolescents (1.53; 95% CI, 1.25-1.88) than female adolescents (1.13; 95% CI, 0.90-1.47). Conclusion and Relevance: Internet addiction appears to be associated with NSSI, and the findings of this study suggest that the association was similar between male adolescents and female adolescents. These data suggest that evaluation of the risk of NSSI for adolescents in association with internet addiction may help health care professionals in developing preventive interventions for NSSI.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/complicações , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Caracteres Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences are common in childhood and an important risk indicator of adverse mental health outcomes. However, little is known about the association of psychotic experiences with functional outcomes in childhood, particularly regarding school performance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether psychotic experiences were prospectively related to school performance in childhood. METHODS: This study was embedded in the population-based Generation R Study (N = 2,362). Psychotic experiences were assessed using self-reports on hallucinations at age 10 years. School performance was assessed using a standardized national school performance test at age 12 years. We considered the total school performance score, as well as language and mathematics subscales. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, maternal nonverbal IQ, nonverbal IQ at age 6 years and co-occurring psychopathology at age 10 years. RESULTS: Psychotic experiences were prospectively associated with poorer school performance scores (B = -0.61, 95% CI [-0.98;-0.25], p = .001), as well as poorer language (Bpercentile rank score  = -2.00, 95% CI [-3.20;-0.79], p = .001) and mathematical ability (Bpercentile rank score  = -1.75, 95% CI [-2.99;-0.51], p = .006). These associations remained after additional adjustment for nonverbal IQ at age 6 years (B = -0.51, 95% CI [-0.86;-0.16], p = .005), and co-occurring internalizing (B = -0.40, 95% CI [-0.77;-0.03], p = .036) and externalizing problems (B = -0.40, 95% CI [-0.75;-0.04], p = .029), but not attention problems (B = -0.10, 95% CI [-0.47;0.26], p = .57). CONCLUSIONS: Children with psychotic experiences had lower school performance scores than their nonaffected peers. The finding was independent of sociodemographic characteristics, intelligence and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems, but not attention problems. This study suggests that psychotic experiences are associated with childhood functional impairments, although the relatively small effects and the role of attention problems warrant further exploration.

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